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Alfred Zimmermann

Alfred Zimmermann
Reutlingen University - Herman Hollerith Center · Faculty of Informatics

Prof. Dr. rer. nat. (PhD)
Director of Research and Doctoral Programs; Professor: Digital Enterprise Architecture

About

153
Publications
76,453
Reads
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1,165
Citations
Introduction
Alfred Zimmermann is a Professor of Computer Science in the specialty Digital Enterprise Architecture at Reutlingen University and the Herman Hollerith Center Boeblingen, Germany. His research is focused on digital transformation and digital enterprise architecture with decision analytics in close relationship with digital strategy and governance, software architecture and engineering, artificial intelligence, data analytics, Internet of Things, services computing, and cloud computing.

Publications

Publications (153)
Preprint
The euphoria around microservices has decreased over the years, but the trend of modernizing legacy systems to this novel architectural style is unbroken to date. A variety of approaches have been proposed in academia and industry, aiming to structure and automate the often long-lasting and cost-intensive migration journey. However, our research sh...
Chapter
Enterprises and societies currently face crucial challenges, while Society 5.0 can contribute to a supersmart society, especially for manufacturing and healthcare, and Industry 4.0 becomes important in the global manufacturing industry. Smart energy digital platforms are architected to manage energy supply efficiently. Furthermore, the above digita...
Chapter
An autonomous vehicle is a robotic vehicle with decision and action capability capable of performing assigned tasks without or with minimal human intervention. Autonomous cars have been in development for many years. The Society of Automotive Engineers (SAE International) published in 2014 a classification in five levels of driving automation, with...
Chapter
Full-text available
The current advancement of Artificial Intelligence (AI) combined with other digitalization efforts significantly impacts service ecosystems. Artificial intelligence has a substantial impact on new opportunities for the co-creation of value and the development of intelligent service ecosystems. Motivated by experiences and observations from digitali...
Article
Full-text available
Context: Microservices as a lightweight and decentralized architectural style with fine-grained services promise several beneficial characteristics for sustainable long-term software evolution. Success stories from early adopters like Netflix, Amazon, or Spotify have demonstrated that it is possible to achieve a high degree of flexibility and evolv...
Chapter
Platforms and their surrounding ecosystems are becoming increasingly important components of many companies' strategies. Artificial Intelligence, in particular, has created new opportunities to create and develop ecosystems around the platform. However, there is not yet a methodology to systematically develop these new opportunities for enterprise...
Chapter
The digitization of factories will be a significant issue for the 2020s. New scenarios are emerging to increase the efficiency of production lines inside the factory, based on a new generation of robots’ collaborative functions. Manufacturers are moving towards data-driven ecosystems by leveraging product lifecycle data from connected goods. Energy...
Chapter
Rotating machinery occupies a predominant place in many industrial applications. However, rotating machines are often encountered with severe vibration problems. The measurement of these machines’ vibrations signal is of particular importance since it plays a crucial role in predictive maintenance. When the vibrations are too high, they often cause...
Chapter
Full-text available
Autonomous navigation is one of the main areas of research in mobile robots and intelligent connected vehicles. In this context, we are interested in presenting a general view on robotics, the progress of research, and advanced methods related to this field to improve autonomous robots’ localization. We seek to evaluate algorithms and techniques th...
Chapter
Enterprises and societies currently face crucial challenges, while Industry 4.0 becomes important in the global manufacturing industry all the more. Industry 4.0 offers a range of opportunities for companies to increase the flexibility and efficiency of production processes. The development of new business models can be promoted with digital platfo...
Article
Enterprise architecture (EA) is useful for promoting digital transformation in global companies and information societies. In this paper, the authors investigated and analyzed the process for digital transformation in global companies, together with related work in using and applying an enterprise architecture framework for the digital era named th...
Article
Full-text available
Enterprise architecture (EA) is useful for effectively structuring digital platforms with digital transformation in information societies. Moreover, digital platforms in the healthcare industry accelerate and increase the efficiency of drug discovery and development processes. However, there is the lack of knowledge concerning relationships between...
Chapter
The digital transformation is today’s dominant business transformation having a strong influence on how digital services and products are designed in a service-dominant way. A popular underlying theory of value creation and economic exchange that is known as the service-dominant (S-D) logic can be connected to many successful digital business model...
Chapter
This chapter presents an introduction to the emerging trends for architecting the digital transformation having a strong focus on digital products, intelligent services, and related systems together with methods, models and architectures. The primary aim of this book is to highlight some of the most recent research results in the field. We are prov...
Chapter
Enterprises are currently transforming their strategy, processes, and their information systems to extend their degree of digitalization. The potential of the Internet and related digital technologies, like Internet of Things, services computing, cloud computing, artificial intelligence, big data with analytics, mobile systems, collaboration networ...
Book
This book highlights new trends and challenges in intelligent systems, which play an important part in the digital transformation of many areas of science and practice. It includes papers offering a deeper understanding of the human-centred perspective on artificial intelligence, of intelligent value co-creation, ethics, value-oriented digital mode...
Book
This chapter presents an introduction to the emerging trends for architecting the digital transformation having a strong focus on digital products, intelligent services, and related systems together with methods, models and architectures. The primary aim of this book is to highlight some of the most recent research results in the field. We are prov...
Book
The digital transformation is today’s dominant business transformation having a strong influence on how digital services and products are designed in a service-dominant way. A popular underlying theory of value creation and economic exchange that is known as the service-dominant (S-D) logic can be connected to many successful digital business model...
Book
Enterprises are currently transforming their strategy, processes, and their information systems to extend their degree of digitalization. The potential of the Internet and related digital technologies, like Internet of Things, services computing, cloud computing, artificial intelligence, big data with analytics, mobile systems, collaboration networ...
Chapter
A new class of information system architecture, decision-oriented service systems, is spreading more and more. Decision-oriented service systems provide services that support decisions in business processes and products based on the capabilities of cloud-computing environments. To pave the way for the creation of design methods of business processe...
Book
This book highlights new trends and challenges in intelligent systems, which play an essential part in the digital transformation of many areas of science and practice. It includes papers offering a deeper understanding of the human-centred perspective on artificial intelligence, of intelligent value co-creation, ethics, value-oriented digital mode...
Chapter
A new class of information system architecture, decision-oriented service systems, is spreading more and more. Decision-oriented service systems provide services that support decisions in business processes and products based on the capabilities of cloud-computing environments. To pave the way for the creation of design methods of business processe...
Article
Full-text available
Since the arrival of the internet and affordable access to technologies, digital technologies have occupied a growing place in industries, propelling us towards a 4th industrial revolution: Industry 4.0. In today’s era of digital upheaval, enterprises are increasingly undergoing transformations that are leading to their digitalization. The traditio...
Chapter
While there are several theoretical comparisons of Object Orientation (OO) and Service Orientation (SO), little empirical research on the maintainability of the two paradigms exists. To provide support for a generalizable comparison, we conducted a study with four related parts. Two functionally equivalent systems (one OO and one SO version) were a...
Chapter
To enable software professionals to design and evolve long-living Service-Based Systems (SBSs) in sustainable fashion, we are developing a continuous assurance method to identify and remediate potential evolvability-related issues. With the rational of broad applicability within service-based architectural styles, we focus on the commonalities of S...
Conference Paper
Full-text available
While many maintainability metrics have been explicitly designed for service-based systems, tool-supported approaches to automatically collect these metrics are lacking. Especially in the context of microservices, decentralization and technological heterogeneity may pose challenges for static analysis. We therefore propose the modular and extensibl...
Preprint
Full-text available
While many maintainability metrics have been explicitly designed for service-based systems, tool-supported approaches to automatically collect these metrics are lacking. Especially in the context of microservices, decentralization and technological heterogeneity may pose challenges for static analysis. We therefore propose the modular and extensibl...
Chapter
Today, many companies are adapting their strategy, business models, products, services as well as business processes and information systems in order to expand their digitalization level through intelligent systems and services. The paper raises an important question: What are cognitive co-creation mechanisms for extending digital services and arch...
Chapter
Full-text available
The advent of chatbots in customer service solutions received increasing attention by research and practice throughout the last years. However, the relevant dimensions and features for service quality and service performance for chatbots remain quite unclear. Therefore, this research develops and tests a conceptual model for customer service qualit...
Chapter
Intelligent systems and services are the strategic targets of many current digitalization efforts and part of massive digital transformations based on digital technologies with artificial intelligence. Digital platform architectures and ecosystems provide an essential base for intelligent digital systems. The paper raises an important question: Whi...
Conference Paper
Full-text available
Scenario-based analysis is a comprehensive technique to evaluate software quality and can provide more detailed insights than e.g. maintainability metrics. Since such methods typically require significant manual effort, we designed a lightweight scenario-based evolvability evaluation method. To increase efficiency and to limit assumptions, the meth...
Article
Predictive maintenance has the potential to improve the reliability of production and service provisioning. However, there is little knowledge about the proper implementation of predictive maintenance in research and practice. Therefore, we conducted a multi-case study and investigated underlying conditions and technological aspects for implementin...
Conference Paper
Full-text available
To ensure sustainable software maintenance and evolution, a diverse set of activities and concepts like metrics, change impact analysis, or antipattern detection can be used. Special maintainability assurance techniques have been proposed for service- and microservice-based systems, but it is difficult to get a comprehensive overview of this public...
Book
Internet of Things (IoT) provides a strong platform for computer users to connect objects, devices, and people to the Internet for exchanging or sharing of information with each other. IoT is growing rapidly and is expected to adapt to disciplines such as manufacturing, agriculture, healthcare, and robotics. Furthermore, the new concept of IoT is p...
Article
Full-text available
The new concept of Industry 4.0 has been developed: it includes both Internet of Things (IoT) structure and the local networks that are still needed to carry out real-time tasks. Genetic algorithms are successfully used for decoding some classes of error correcting codes, and offer very good performances when solving large optimization problems. Th...
Article
Full-text available
Automatic fault detection using machine learning has become an exciting and promising area of research. This because it accurate and timely way to manage and classify with minimal human effort. In the computer vision community, deep-learning methods have become the most suitable approaches for this task. Anodes are large carbon blocks that are used...
Article
Full-text available
Artificial Intelligence-based Assistants AIAs are spreading quickly both in homes and offices. They already have left their original habitats of "intelligent speakers" providing easy access to music collections. The initiated a multitude of new devices and are already populating devices such as TV sets. Characteristic for the intelligent digital as...
Conference Paper
Full-text available
While several service-based maintainability metrics have been proposed in the scientific literature, reliable approaches to automatically collect these metrics are lacking. Since static analysis is complicated for decentralized and technologically diverse microservice-based systems, we propose a dynamic approach to calculate such metrics from runti...
Chapter
Full-text available
While several service-based maintainability metrics have been proposed in the scientific literature, reliable approaches to automatically collect these metrics are lacking. Since static analysis is complicated for decentralized and technologically diverse microservice-based systems, we propose a dynamic approach to calculate such metrics from runti...
Conference Paper
Full-text available
To remain competitive in a fast changing environment , many companies started to migrate their legacy applications towards a Microservices architecture. Such extensive migration processes require careful planning and consideration of implications and challenges likewise. In this regard, hands-on experiences from industry practice are still rare. To...
Conference Paper
Full-text available
While Microservices promise several beneficial characteristics for sustainable long-term software evolution, little empirical research covers what concrete activities industry applies for the evolvability assurance of Microservices and how technical debt is handled in such systems. Since insights into the current state of practice are very importan...
Article
Full-text available
Background: Design patterns are supposed to improve various quality attributes of software systems. However, there is controversial quantitative evidence of this impact. Especially for younger paradigms such as service- and Microservice-based systems, there is a lack of empirical studies. Objective: In this study, we focused on the effect of four s...
Article
Full-text available
Enterprise Governance, Risk and Compliance (GRC) systems are key to managing risks threatening modern enterprises from many different angles. Key constituent to GRC systems is the definition of Controls that are implemented on the different layers of an Enterprise Architecture (EA). Controls become part of a “Concern” of the EA, which allows to use...
Chapter
Presently, many companies are transforming their strategy and product base, as well as their culture, processes and information systems to become more digital or to approach for a digital leadership. In the last years new business opportunities appeared using the potential of the Internet and related digital technologies, like Internet of Things, s...
Preprint
While Microservices promise several beneficial characteristics for sustainable long-term software evolution, little empirical research covers what concrete activities industry applies for the evolvability assurance of Microservices and how technical debt is handled in such systems. Since insights into the current state of practice are very importan...
Preprint
To remain competitive in a fast changing environment, many companies started to migrate their legacy applications towards a Microservices architecture. Such extensive migration processes require careful planning and consideration of implications and challenges likewise. In this regard, hands-on experiences from industry practice are still rare. To...
Article
Full-text available
Software evolvability is an important quality attribute, yet one difficult to grasp. A certain base level of it is allegedly provided by Service-and Microservice-Based Systems, but many software professionals lack systematic understanding of the reasons and preconditions for this. We address this issue via the proxy of architectural modifiability t...
Conference Paper
Full-text available
Microservices are a topic driven mainly by practitioners and academia is only starting to investigate them. Hence, there is no clear picture of the usage of Microservices in practice. In this paper, we contribute a qualitative study with insights into industry adoption and implementation of Microservices. Contrary to existing quantitative studies,...
Conference Paper
Full-text available
While the concepts of object-oriented antipatterns and code smells are prevalent in scientific literature and have been popularized by tools like SonarQube, the research field for service-based antipatterns and bad smells is not as cohesive and organized. The description of these antipatterns is distributed across several publications with no holis...
Conference Paper
Full-text available
While Microservices initially were a topic mainly driven by practitioners, they currently are heavily researched in academia. In this paper, we contribute a qualitative study with the goal to provide insights into industry adoption and implementation of Microservices. During 17 in-depth interviews with software professionals from 10 companies we an...
Chapter
Enterprises are presently transforming their strategy, culture, processes, and their information systems to become more digital. The digital transformation deeply disrupts existing enterprises and economies. Digitization fosters the development of IT systems with many rather small and distributed structures, like Internet of Things or mobile system...
Chapter
Revenue management information systems are very important in the hospitality sector. Revenue decisions can be better prepared based on different information from different information systems and decision strategies. There is a lack of research about the usage of such systems in small and medium-sized hotels and architectural configurations. Our pa...
Chapter
While the recently emerged Microservices architectural style is widely discussed in literature, it is difficult to find clear guidance on the process of refactoring legacy applications. The importance of the topic is underpinned by high costs and effort of a refactoring process which has several other implications, e.g. overall processes (DevOps) a...
Article
Full-text available
New business opportunities appeared using the potential of the Internet and related digital technologies, like the Internet of Things, services computing, artificial intelligence, cloud, edge, and fog computing, social networks, big data with analytics, mobile systems, collaboration networks, and cyber-physical systems. Companies are transforming t...
Conference Paper
Full-text available
Enterprise Governance, Risk and Compliance (GRC) systems are key to managing risks threatening modern enterprises from many different angles. Key constituent to GRC systems is the definition of Controls that are implemented on the different layers of an Enterprise Architecture (EA). As part of the compliance aspect of GRC, the effectiveness of thes...
Conference Paper
Full-text available
While there are several theoretical comparisons of Object Orientation (OO) and Service Orientation (SO), little empirical research on the maintainability of the two paradigms exists. To provide support for a generalizable comparison, we conducted a study with four related parts. Two functionally equivalent systems (one OO and one SO version) were a...
Preprint
While the recently emerged Microservices architectural style is widely discussed in literature, it is difficult to find clear guidance on the process of refactoring legacy applications. The importance of the topic is underpinned by high costs and effort of a refactoring process which has several other implications, e.g. overall processes (DevOps) a...