Alfred Boss

Alfred Boss
Kiel Institute for the World Economy | IFW · Forecasting Center

Dr.

About

321
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810
Citations
Citations since 2017
0 Research Items
17 Citations
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20172018201920202021202220230123456
20172018201920202021202220230123456
Introduction

Publications

Publications (321)
Article
In der Aprilausgabe 2014 veröffentlichte der Wirtschaftsdienst einen Aufsatz mit dem Titel „Neuordnung der Besteuerungskompetenzen bei der Einkommensteuer“. Die Autoren des vorliegenden Beitrags setzen sich kritisch damit auseinander, im Anschluss erläutern Gisela Färber, Carsten Kühl und Denis Alt ihren Standpunkt in einer Erwiderung.
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Die Steuerbelastung privater Haushalte ist auch nach der Bundestagswahl 2013 ein wichtiges Thema der wirtschaftspolitischen Diskussion in Deutschland. Die Autoren untersuchen, wie sich die Einkommensteuerbelastung im Laufe der Jahrzehnte entwickelt hat.
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Die konjunkturelle Erholung ist in Deutschland mittlerweile so weit fortgeschritten, dass die gesamtwirtschaftlichen Produktionskapazitäten in diesem Jahr wieder normal ausgelastet sind. Im kommenden Jahr nimmt die Kapazitätsauslastung weiter zu, auch wenn das Tempo der Expansion etwas nachlassen wird. In der ersten Hälfte des laufenden Jahres erwa...
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Zusammenfassung Die Schuldenkrise der Euro-Länder hat schlaglichtartig die erheblichen finanzpolitischen Unterschiede zwischen den Mitgliedstaaten verdeutlicht. Viele der damit verbundenen Konflikte und Probleme wären möglicherweise zu entschärfen, wenn die EU mehr Kompetenzen im fiskalischen Bereich erhielte. Dies wird von den Ökonomen aus verschi...
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Tax expenditures are granted for a variety of purposes in Germany. The paper presents data on the extent and the structure of the tax expenditures in the period 2005 to 2012. Tax expenditures will be reduced somewhat in the period 2005–2012. They should be cut further in order to increase economic welfare
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In diesem Kapitel werden wir uns mit den Grundlagen des volkswirtschaftlichen Rechnungswesens und damit im Wesentlichen mit der Volkswirtschaftlichen Gesamtrechnung VGR beschäftigen. Wie im Abschn. 8.3 zur Kreislaufanalyse schon erwähnt, handelt es sich bei der VGR um die statistische Ex-post Analyse einer abgeschlossenen Wirtschaftsperiode einer V...
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Die Weltwirtschaft hat sich rascher erholt als erwartet. Vor allem die Konjunktur in den Entwicklungs- und Schwellenländern hat im Winterhalbjahr 2009/2010 eine hohe Dynamik entfaltet, aber auch in den Industrieländern nahm die Produktion überraschend deutlich zu. Allerdings deutet sich an, dass die Konjunktur in den Schwellenländern im weiteren Ve...
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Weltkonjunktur schwächt sich ab: Die Weltwirtschaft ist nach der Phase des „Bounce Back“ von der Großen Rezession in eine Phase moderater Expansion eingetreten, die voraussichtlich bis weit in das kommende Jahr hinein anhalten wird. Mehr und mehr machen sich Bremsfaktoren bemerkbar, die einer weiteren raschen weltwirtschaftlichen Expansion entgegen...
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Der Anspruch war hoch: Nach dem Prinzip des „Förderns und Forderns“ sollten die Hartz-Gesetze (1. bis 4. Gesetz für moderne Dienstleistungen am Arbeitsmarkt) den entscheidenden Beitrag zum Abbau der auf nie gekannte Höhen gestiegenen Arbeitslosigkeit in Deutschland leisten. Anfang 2005 wurden fast 5,3 Millionen Arbeitslose gezählt, die offizielle A...
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Seit vielen Jahren werden im Institut für Weltwirtschaft die Subventionen in Deutschland erfasst. Als Subventionen werden Steuervergünstigungen und Finanzhilfen, die die Allokation der Ressourcen verzerren, definiert. Der vorliegende Kieler Subventionsbericht betrifft die Subventionen und deren Struktur in den Jahren 2000 bis 2009 bzw. 2010. Er sch...
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This paper shows that increases in the minimum wage rate can have ambiguous effects on the working hours and welfare of employed workers in competitive labor markets. The reason is that employers may not comply with the minimum wage legislation and instead pay a lower subminimum wage rate. If workers are risk neutral, we prove that working hours an...
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Tax expenditures are granted for a variety of purposes in Germany. The paper presents data on the extent and the structure of the tax expenditures in the period 2003 to 2010. Tax expenditures were reduced somewhat in the period 2003–2006. However, they increased again thereafter
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Nach dem massiven Einbruch im Herbst 2008 schrumpfte die Weltproduktion im ersten Quartal 2009 nochmals sehr kräftig. Sowohl in den Industrieländern als auch in den meisten Schwellenländern setzte sich die Talfahrt in ungebremstem Tempo fort. Inzwischen deutet jedoch vieles darauf hin, dass sich die Weltkonjunktur im Sommerhalbjahr 2009 fängt. Alle...
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This paper describes the practical implementation of hiring vouchers in Germany. According to our proposal, employers receive vouchers for hiring long-term unemployed, low-ability workers. Thereby labor costs are reduced for a limited period of time. The size of the vouchers increases with the duration of unemployment as well as with the qualificat...
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"This paper describes the practical implementation of hiring vouchers in Germany. According to our proposal, employers receive vouchers for hiring long-term unemployed, low-ability workers. Thereby labor costs are reduced for a limited period of time. The size of the vouchers increases with the duration of unemployment as well as with the qualifica...
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Die Weltkonjunktur ist zum Ende des vergangenen Jahres deutlich stärker eingebrochen als von uns erwartet. Die Rezession in Deutschland wird erheblich tiefer ausfallen als im Dezember angenommen. Wir revidieren unsere Prognose für den Rückgang des realen Bruttoinlandsprodukts im Jahr 2009 von 2,7 auf 3,7 Prozent. Eine Stabilisierung der Produktion...
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In recent years, a lot of rules concerning government expenditures as well as tax revenues were changed in Germany. Government expenditures in relation to GDP were reduced, income tax rates were lowered and the budget deficit declined. The structure of government expenditures changed in favor of productive expenditures, tax expenditures were reduce...
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The income tax rate structure introduced in 2007 was changed in 2009. The income tax rates will be lowered in 2010, too. The effects on the wage income tax revenues and on the incentives to work are analyzed. It turns out that bracket creep will remain a problem in Germany.
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Many have questioned the empirical relevance of the Calvo-Yun model. This paper adds a term structure to three widely studied macroeconomic models (Calvo-Yun, hybrid and Svensson). We back out from observations on the yield curve the underlying macroeconomic model that most closely matches the level, slope and curvature of the yield curve. With eac...
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Die Konjunktur in Deutschland hat sich stabilisiert. Die Produktion im zweiten Quartal 2009 verlief �berraschend positiv. Im dritten Quartal d�rfte sie deutlich angezogen haben. Alles in allem revidieren wir unsere Prognose f�r das Jahr 2009 nach oben. Wir rechnen nun mit einem R�ckgang des realen Bruttoinlandsprodukts um 4,9 Prozent (Prognose vom...
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Die Konjunktur in Deutschland hat sich stabilisiert. Die Produktion im zweiten Quartal 2009 verlief �berraschend positiv. Im dritten Quartal d�rfte sie deutlich angezogen haben. Alles in allem revidieren wir unsere Prognose f�r das Jahr 2009 nach oben. Wir rechnen nun mit einem R�ckgang des realen Bruttoinlandsprodukts um 4,9 Prozent (Prognose vom...
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Full-text available
This paper shows that increases in the minimum wage rate can have ambiguous effects on the working hours and welfare of employed workers in competitive labor markets. The reason is that employers may not comply with the minimum wage legislation and instead pay a lower subminimum wage rate. If workers are risk neutral, we prove that working hours an...
Article
The income tax rate structure introduced in 2007 was changed in 2009. The income tax rates will be lowered in 2010, too. The effects on the wage income tax revenues and on the incentives to work are analyzed. It turns out that “bracket creep” will remain a problem in Germany
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Full-text available
The gross wage income distributions for different groups of taxpayers in 2004 are used to derive wage income distributions for 2007–2013. By applying the rules of income taxation, wage income tax revenues are deduced. Given the tax rate structure introduced in 2007, the average tax rates and the marginal tax rates will increase. However, the income...
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We present a proposal for reforming unemployment assistance in Germany through the introduction of unemployment accounts (UAs). Instead of paying taxes that finance the unemployment assistance, employed people make ongoing contributions to their UAs and can make withdrawals from these accounts during periods of unemployment. The aim of this policy...
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Tax expenditures are granted for a variety of purposes in Germany. They were significantly reduced in December 2003. After the general election in 2005, additional reductions of the tax expenditures were decided upon; however, new measures were introduced, too. The paper presents data on the extent and the structure of the tax expenditures in the p...
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The structure of income taxation in Germany implies that the marginal and the average tax rates will rise significantly in the next years - even if the increase of nominal incomes is modest. The elasticity of the wage income tax revenues with respect to gross wages amounts to about 1.86, assuming that wages on average rise by 2 percent per year; su...
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Due to labor market reforms in Germany some years ago, the incentives to work changed. The paper analyzes the effects on the reservation wages for specific groups. It is assumed that reservation wages are determined by the replacement rates implied by the system of unemployment benefits and by the rules of means-tested social assistance. In additio...
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Die weltwirtschaftliche Expansion hat sich zum Jahresende 2007 unter dem Eindruck der Immobilienkrise in den Vereinigten Staaten und der dadurch ausgelösten Turbulenzen an den internationalen Finanzmärkten merklich verlangsamt. Die Finanzkrise wird die Realwirtschaft in den Industrieländern noch geraume Zeit belasten, vor allem dadurch, dass die Fi...
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Die Subventionen in Deutschland sind seit Jahrzehnten Gegenstand intensiver wirtschaftspolitischer Auseinandersetzungen. Der vorliegende Beitrag informiert über das Ausmaß der Subventionen im Zeitraum 2000 bis 2007. Zu den Subventionen werden neben den Steuervergünstigungen die Finanzhilfen gezählt, die der Bund, die Länder, die Gemeinden, die Euro...
Article
Full-text available
This paper shows that increases in the minimum wage rate can have ambiguous effects on the working hours and welfare of employed workers in competitive labor markets. The reason is that employers may not comply with the minimum wage legislation and instead pay a lower subminimum wage rate. If workers are risk neutral, we prove that working hours an...
Article
Full-text available
This paper shows that increases in the minimum wage rate can have ambiguous effects on the working hours and welfare of employed workers in competitive labor markets. The reason is that employers may not comply with the minimum wage legislation and instead pay a lower subminimum wage rate. If workers are risk neutral, we prove that working hours an...
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Full-text available
Die Finanzlage der Bundesagentur für Arbeit hat sich in den vergangenen drei Jahren stark verbessert. Daraufhin hat der Bundestag im November 2007 den Beitragssatz zur Arbeitslosenversicherung auf 3,3% gesenkt und die Bezugsdauer von Arbeitslosengeld für ältere Arbeitnehmer verlängert. Welche Folgen haben diese Beschlüsse für den Haushalt der Bunde...
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Robuste weltwirtschaftliche Expansion. Konjunktur im Euroraum außerhalb Deutschlands bleibt aufwärts gerichtet. Aufschwung in Deutschland setzt sich nur wenig verlangsamt fort. Zum Entwurf eines Unternehmensteuerreformgesetzes 2008. Lohnanstieg und Konjunktur in Deutschland 2004-2008. --
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Das Wachstum des Produktionspotentials in Deutschland dürfte sich seit dem Jahr 2004 um rund einen halben Prozentpunkt beschleunigt haben. Maßgeblich hierfür ist ein Anstieg des Arbeitsvolumens infolge von Arbeitsmarktreformen, geringerer Steuer- und Abgabenbelastung sowie höherem internationalen Wettbewerbsdruck. In den kommenden Jahren dürfte das...
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Full-text available
This paper shows that increases in the minimum wage rate can have ambiguous effects on the working hours and welfare of employed workers in competitive labor markets. The reason is that employers may not comply with the minimum wage legislation and instead pay a lower subminimum wage rate. If workers are risk neutral, we prove that working hours an...
Article
Full-text available
The structure of income taxation in Germany implies that the marginal and the average tax rates will rise in the course of the coming years—even if the increase of nominal incomes is modest. The elasticity of the wage income tax revenues with respect to gross wages amounts to about 1.9, assuming that average wages rise by 1.5 percent per year; such...
Article
Full-text available
In recent years, a lot of rules concerning government expenditures as well as tax revenues were changed in Germany. Government expenditures in relation to GDP were reduced, income tax rates were lowered and the budget deficit declined. The structure of government expenditures changed in favor of productive expenditures, tax expenditures were reduce...
Article
The aim of this paper is to analyse the role of unobserved heterogeneity in structural discrete choice models of labour supply for the evaluation of tax-reforms. Within this framework, unobserved heterogeneity has been estimated either parametrically or nonparametrically through random co- efficient models. Nevertheless, the estimation of such mode...
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This paper describes the practical implementation of hiring vouchers in Germany (Kiel Working Paper 1302 "Comparing the Effectiveness of Employment Subsidies" by Alessio Brown, Christian Merkl and Dennis Snower). According to our proposal employers receive vouchers for hiring longterm unemployed, low-ability workers. Thereby, labour costs are reduc...
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The financial status of the unemployment insurance system in Germany has improved markedly since 2005. Some reform measures and the upswing of the economy are the most important reasons for the favorable development. It is hotly debated how to use the surplus of the Federal Labor Agency. Additional transfers to the unemployed and a small reduction...
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Full-text available
Tax expenditures are granted for a variety of purposes in Germany. They were significantly reduced in December 2003. After the general election in 2005, additional reductions of the tax expenditures were decided upon; however, new measures were introduced, too. The paper presents data on the extent and the structure of the tax expenditures in the p...
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Wage subsidies and public transfers for the unemployed as a means for increasing employment have been intensively discussed in Germany. The paper explains which models have already been applied. In addition, it describes some recent reform proposals and analyzes what economic policy might be capable of doing. It is concluded that new models of wage...
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Subsidization policy is intensively discussed in Germany. The paper demonstrates the extent of subsidization in Germany. Subsidies are defined as the sum of tax expenditures and those government expenditures which distort the structure of the economy; financial aid is granted to different branches or regions by the EU, the federal government, the s...
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Die Weltproduktion ist 2007 mit einer Rate von voraussichtlich 5,1 nochmals sehr kräftig gestiegen. Gegen Jahresende hat sich das Konjunkturklima jedoch deutlich eingetrübt, vor allem infolge der Immobilienkrise in den USA. Die Krise an den Finanzmärkten ist noch nicht ausgestanden und wird die konjunkturelle Entwicklung vor allem in den Industriel...
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Full-text available
Die Subventionen in Deutschland sind Gegenstand intensiver wirtschaftspolitischer Auseinandersetzungen. Der vorliegende Beitrag informiert über das Ausmaß der Subventionen. Zu den Subventionen werden neben den Steuervergünstigungen die Finanzhilfen gezählt, die der Bund, die Länder, die Gemeinden, die Europäische Union und die Bundesagentur für Arb...
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Full-text available
The incentives to work are analyzed for several groups of the labor force. The effects of the "Hartz IV reform" (effective from 2005 onwards) on the incentives to work receive particular attention. It turns out that the marginal (explicit and implicit) tax rates for most groups of the labor force remain high. It is concluded that employment probabl...
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Based on a description of the German system of taxes and transfers, the incentives to work are analyzed for several groups of the labor force. The effects of the “Hartz IV” reform (effective from 2005 onwards) on the incentives receive particular attention. It turns out that the marginal (explicit and implicit) tax rates for most groups of the labo...
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Nachfolgend soll auf empirischer Basis geprüft werden, welchen Gruppen von ALG IIBeziehern aufgrund eines zu geringen Lohnabstands ? das ist der Abstand zwischen einem möglichen Erwerbseinkommen und dem gezahlten Transfereinkommen ? die notwendigen Anreize fehlen, eine reguläre Beschäftigung anzustreben. Zu diesem Zweck werden für charakteristische...
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It is often feared that tax competition might lead to a “race to the bottom”. The consequence of a decline of tax rates on capital income would be shrinking capital income tax revenues and difficulties for national governments to perform their usual tasks. The paper analyzes what happened to tax revenues in a lot of OECD countries. It turns out tha...
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Tax expenditures are granted for a variety of purposes in Germany. They will be reduced by measures decided upon in December 2003. The paper addresses the problems arising when tax expenditures are to be defined and measured. The extent and the structure of the tax expenditures in the period 2004–2008 are estimated. Given the present state of legis...
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Despite several income tax rate reductions in Germany, tax reform measures are proposed by several parties and by specific research groups. The intention is to lower marginal income tax rates substantially and at the same time to reduce or even to abolish tax expenditures. The major proposals are discussed and evaluated by means of efficiency crite...
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Tax reform in Germany is proposed by political parties as well as by specific research groups. The gross wage income distributions for different groups of taxpayers are used to find out the consequences of introducing alternative rules of taxation for the wage income tax revenues. The results are supplemented to gain an impression of the overall co...
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Full-text available
Subsidization policy is intensively discussed in Germany. Subsidies comprise by definition tax expenditures and those government expenditures which distort the structure of the economy; financial aid is granted to different branches by the EU, the federal government, the states (Länder) and the local authorities. The extent and the structure of the...
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Full-text available
The gross wage income distributions for different groups of taxpayers in 1998 are used to derive wage income distributions for 2001–2006. By applying alternative rules of taxation, revenues according to different tax rate structures are deduced. Introducing new tax rates in 2004 resp. in 2005 will reduce the average tax rates and – though somewhat...
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It is often proposed that capital income tax rates be harmonized. Otherwise, a “race to the bottom” will occur and lead to governments not being able to perform their usual tasks. However, the development of corporate income tax revenues in relation to GDP does not indicate that a race to the bottom has actually taken place. If tax competition were...
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Angesichts der geringen Zunahme des realen Bruttoinlandsprodukts in den Jahren 2001 und 2002 wird untersucht, ob die Erwartung, das Produktionspotential Deutschlands werde in den nächsten Jahren um 1,5 bis 2 Prozent wachsen, aufrechterhalten werden kann. Insbesondere wird dar­gestellt, wie sich die Arbeits- und Investitionsanreize in den vergangene...
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Das reale Bruttoinlandsprodukt nahm in den neunziger Jahren in Deutschland je Jahr um etwa einen halben Prozentpunkt weniger zu als in den übrigen Ländern der Europäischen Währungsunion im Durchschnitt. Ein Teil der „Wachstumslücke“ kann durch Unterschiede der Staatsausgaben in Relation zum Bruttoinlandsprodukt bzw. durch eine unterschiedliche En...