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## Publications

Publications (61)

The possible connection between the electromagnetic zero-point field (ZPF)
and the inertia reaction force was first pointed out by Haisch, Rueda, and
Puthoff (Phys. Rev. A, 49, 678, 1994), and then by Rueda and Haisch following a
totally different and more satisfactory approach (Found. Phys., 28, 1057, 1998;
Phys. Letters A, 240, 115, 1998; Annalen...

The work-in-progress on the conjectured origin of the inertia reaction force (Newton's Second Law) in quantum vacuum fields is discussed and reviewed. It is first pointed out that the inertia reaction force is not a fundamental effect at the particle level, but an emergent macroscopic phenomenon that appears in large condensed aggregates. A brief s...

We review concepts that provide an experimental framework for exploring the possibility and limitations of accessing energy from the space vacuum environment. Quantum electrodynamics
(QED) and stochastic electrodynamics (SED) are the theoretical approaches guiding this experimental investigation. This investigation explores the question of whether...

In previous work it has been shown that the electromagnetic quantum vacuum, or electromagnetic zero-point field, makes a contribution to the inertial reaction force on an accelerated object. We show that the result for inertial mass can be extended to passive gravitational mass. As a consequence the weak equivalence principle, which equates inertia...

In previous work it has been shown that the electromagnetic quantum vacuum, or electromagnetic zero‐point field, makes a contribution to the inertial reaction force on an accelerated object. We show that the result for inertial mass can be extended to passive gravitational mass. As a consequence the weak equivalence principle, which equates inertia...

It has previously been shown that there is a connection between the vacuum electromagnetic field, or zero-point electromagnetic field, and the phenomenon of inertia. A general expression was then derived for the vacuum electromagnetic contribution to the inertial mass of an object. Similar contributions are to be expected from the other vacuum fiel...

By means of a covariant approach we show that there must be a contribution to the inertial mass and to the inertial reaction
force on an accelerated massive object by the zero-point electromagnetic field. This development does not require any detailed
model of the accelerated object other than the knowledge that it interacts electromagnetically. It...

A possible connection between the electromagnetic quantum vacuum and inertia was first published by Haisch, Rueda and Puthoff (1994). If correct, this would imply that mass may be an electromagnetic phenomenon and thus in principle subject to modification, with possible technological implications for propulsion. A multiyear NASA-funded study at the...

It has been shown [1,2] that the electromagnetic quantum vacuum makes a contribution to the inertial mass, $m_i$, in the sense that at least part of the inertial force of opposition to acceleration, or inertia reaction force, springs from the electromagnetic quantum vacuum. As experienced in a Rindler constant acceleration frame the electromagnetic...

Why does {\bf F} equal m{\bf a} in Newton's equation of motion? How does a gravitational field produce a force? Why are inertial mass and gravitational mass the same? It appears that all three of these seemingly axiomatic foundational questions have an answer involving an identical physical process: interaction between the electromagnetic quantum v...

A clear and succinct covariant approach shows that, in principle, there must be a contribution to the inertia reaction force on an accelerated object by the surrounding vacuum electromagnetic field in which the object is embedded, No details of the vacuum to object electromagnetic interaction need to be specified other than the fact that the object...

Michel has attempted to dismiss the concept of a vacuum electromagnetic zero-point field (ZPF) as a "computational trick". He criticizes the work of several researchers, and specically the Rueda, Haisch, & Cole proposal that, "the ZPF may have something to do with cosmic voids" and their reference to "various other publications suggesting still oth...

Even when the Higgs particle is finally detected, it will continue to be a legitimate question to ask whether the inertia of matter as a reaction force opposing acceleration is an intrinsic or extrinsic property of matter. General relativity specifies which geodesic path a free particle will follow, but geometrodynamics has no mechanism for generat...

We analyze the proposal that gravity may originate from a van der Waals type of residual force between particles due to the vacuum electromagnetic zero-point field. Starting from the Casimir-Polder integral, we show that the proposed approach can be analyzed directly, without recourse to approximations previously made. We conclude that this approac...

Even when the Higgs particle is finally detected, it will continue to be a legitimate question to ask whether the inertia of matter as a reaction force opposing acceleration is an intrinsic or extrinsic property of matter. General relativity specifies which geodesic path a free particle will follow, but geometrodynamics has no mechanism for generat...

Getting to another star in a human lifetime right now seems impossible,
but intriguing physics offers us some fantastic possibilities to
consider.

It has been proposed that the scattering of electromagnetic zero-point radiation by accelerating objects results in a reaction force that may account, at least in part, for inertia [1, 2, 3]. This arises because of asymmetries in the electromagnetic zero-point field (ZPF) or electromagnetic quantum vacuum as perceived from an accelerating reference...

: The possibility of an extrinsic origin for inertial reaction forces has recently seen increased attention in the physical literature. Among theories of extrinsic inertia, the two considered by the current work are (1) the hypothesis that inertia is a result of gravitational interactions, and (2) the hypothesis that inertial reaction forces arise...

The possibility of an extrinsic origin for inertial reaction forces has recently seen increased attention in the physical literature. Among theories of extrinsic inertia, the two considered by the current work are (1) the hypothesis that inertia is a result of gravitational interactions, and (2) the hypothesis that inertial reaction forces arise fr...

How can we reach another star in a timely fashion? Extrapolating our best current technology into the future is like trying to somehow soup-up Magellan's sailing ship to circumnavigate the globe in ninety minutes.

While still an admittedly remote possibility, the concept of an interstellar mission has become a legitimate topic for scientific discussion as evidenced by several recent NASA activities and programs. One approach is to extrapolate present-day technologies by orders of magnitude; the other is to find new regimes in physics and to search for possib...

A brief overview is presented of the basis of the electromagnetic zero-point field in quantum physics and its representation in stochastic electrodynamics. Two approaches have led to the proposal that the inertia of matter may be explained as an electromagnetic reaction force. The first is based on the modeling of quarks and electrons as Planck osc...

For over twenty years the possibility that the electromagnetic zero point field (ZPF) may actively accelerate electromagnetically interacting particles in regions of extremely low particle density (as those extant in intergalactic space (IGS) with n < 1 particle/m^3 has been studied and analyzed. This energizing phenomenon has been one of the few c...

We report on the progress of a NASA-funded study being carried out at the Lockheed Martin Advanced Technology Center in Palo Alto and the California State University in Long Beach to investigate the proposed link between the zero-point field of the quantum vacuum and inertia. It is well known that an accelerating observer will experience a bath of...

This NASA Breakthrough Propulsion Physics Workshop seeks to explore concepts that could someday enable interstellar travel. The effective superluminal motion proposed by Alcubierre (1994) to be a possibility owing to theoretically allowed space-time metric distortions within general relativity has since been shown by Pfenning and Ford (1997) to be...

Preliminary analysis of the momentum flux (or of the Poynting vector) of the classical electromagnetic version of the quantum vacuum consisting of zero-point radiation impinging on accelerated objects as viewed by an inertial observer suggests that the resistance to acceleration attributed to inertia may be a force of opposition originating in the...

A NASA-funded research effort has been underway at the Lockheed Martin Advanced Technology Center in Palo Alto and at California State University in Long Beach to develop and test a recently published theory that Newton's equation of motion can be derived from Maxwell's equations of electrodynamics as applied to the zero-point field (ZPF) of the qu...

We present an approach to the origin of inertia involving the electromagnetic component of the quantum vacuum and propose this as an alternative to Mach's principle. Preliminary analysis of the momentum flux of the classical zero-point radiation impinging on accelerated objects as viewed by an inertial observer suggests that the resistance to accel...

It was proposed by Haisch, Rueda and Puthoff that the inertia of matter could be interpreted at least in part as a reaction force originating in interactions between the electromagnetic zero-point field (ZPF) and the elementary charged constituents (quarks and electrons) of matter. Within the limited context of that analysis, it appeared that Newto...

The basis of most modern technology is the manipulation of electromagnetic phenomena. Haisch, Rueda and Puthoff (1994a) published a controversial but substantive formulation of a concept proposing an expla-nation of inertia of matter as an electromagnetic phenomenon originating in the zero-point field (ZPF) of the quantum vacuum. This suggests that...

Preliminary analysis of the momentum flux (or of the Poynting vector) of the classical electromagnetic version of the quantum vacuum consisting of zero-point radiation impinging on accelerated objects as viewed by an inertial observer suggests that the resistance to acceleration attributed to inertia may be a force of opposition originating in the...

Previous studies of the physics of a classical electromagnetic zero-point field (ZPF) have implicated it as a possible basis for a number of quantum phenomena. Recent work implies that the ZPF may play an even more significant role as the source of inertia and gravitation of matter. Furthermore, this close link between electromagnetism and inertia...

For centuries, scientists had little idea why linebackers, bowling balls, and fast-moving locomotives have such a distaste for slowing down. Then, in 1994, a trio of physicists pinned the blame for inertia on the quantum shenanigans in ``empty'' space. Could their theory also explain large-scale structure in the universe?

We show that a secular acceleration mechanism for charged particles
(originating out of the Einstein-Hopf model) which has been predicted to
exist in quantum and in semiclassical theories once electromagnetic
zero-point field (ZPF) radiation is taken into account appears to have
the correct properties in an astrophysical environment to contribute t...

Under the hypothesis that ordinary matter is ultimately made of subelementary constitutive primary charged entities or partons'' bound in the manner of traditional elementary Planck oscillators (a time-honored classical technique), it is shown that a heretofore uninvestigated Lorentz force (specifically, the magnetic component of the Lorentz force)...

A previously derived Brownian behavior (paper I) induced by the zero-point field is assumed to hold for a more realistic model. The statistical description of the particle in our model leads naturally to a probabilistic fluid-like description suitable for providing simple intuitive explanations for some well-publicized puzzles of classical stochast...

If ordinary views on particle structure are introduced in a simple classical particle model in replacement of the point particles of standard use in stochastic electrodynamics, it can be shown that an internalZitterbewegung induced by the zero-point field background gives rise to a Brownian movement for the whole particle with a diffusion constant...

A rigorous detailed review of the concepts and calculations behind the acceleration of particles by the electromagnetic zero-point field is presented. The acceleration is enhanced in regions of great size and low particle density. Astrophysical scenarios are suggested and discussed and cosmological possibilities are briefly outlined. It is shown th...

A simple idealized model shows that a zero-point-field-induced expansion of low density regions takes place in an extermely thin, fully ionized, neutral electron-proton gas that is immersed in the vacuum electromagnetic field.

Further discussions and detailed calculations on the problem of the spontaneous, acceleration of free electromagnetically inter-acting particles by the zero-point field in the light of a quantum version of the Einstein-Hopf model are presented. It, is shown that acceleration occurs if the zero-point field is represented in a time-symmetric fashion...

It is shown that if the electromagnetic zero-point field (ZPF) of quantum electrodynamics (QED) is taken in the realistic sense, at least within the nonrelativistic approximation of QED, free unconfined electromagnetically interacting particles increase their translational kinetic energies when exclusively submitted to the action of the ZPF. This p...

After deriving a general expression for the drag force on an anharmonic oscillator with quartic potential moving through random electromagnetic radiation, we specialize for the thermal and for the zero-point field (ZPF) radiation cases. It is explicitly shown that, as should be physically expected because of ZPF Lorentz invariance, the drag force c...

The intergalactic space (IGS) has ideal conditions to test the weak but cumulative action that the electromagnetic (EM) zero-point field (ZPF) of ordinary quantum theory (QT), if conceived as a real field, may have on EM interacting particles. Recent results (classical stochastic and quantum) indicate that if the EM ZPF of ordinary QT is conceptual...

According to the current general ideas on the zitterbewegung and if we assume the existence of a universal classical electromagnetic zeropoint field (CEMZPF) in the manner of stochastic electrodynamics (SED), it can be shown that the recently predicted growing trend of the translational kinetic energy for monopolar classical particles immersed in t...

This article presents a general analysis of some aspects of the interaction of classical particles with the classical electromagnetic zero-point field (cemzpf). The analysis provides a possible observational test for stochastic electrodynamics (SED). A convergence form factor derived semiclassically supports the narrow linewidth and related approxi...

If the electromagnetic zero-point field of ordinary quantum theory is
considered as a real field that may act on particles in the usual way
that random fields act in classical electrodynamics, it is possible to
show that electromagnetically interacting particles perform a random
walk in velocity space to ever-increasing translational kinetic
energi...

Aspects of the classical model of Einstein and Hopf are analysed in particular by estimating the error done when the term (1/c)p×B|
0τ is dismissed in the calculations. It is rigorously shown that neglecting this term from the expression for the impulse Δ is admissible in most practical circumstances. The implications of this assertion for random e...

It is proposed that an agent responsible for the acceleration of cosmic-ray particles, and in particular for the acceleration of cosmic-ray protons, is the zero-point universal background radiation. This proposition is based first on a classical model for polarizable particles interacting with a random electromagnetic field, due to Einstein and Hop...

Quantum properties of EM radiation are deduced in a straightforward manner with the aid of familiar classical arguments and the postulate establishing the existence of fundamental fluctuations of temperature-invariant EM fields of fixed energy. The zero-point radiation is introduced via a Hamiltonian distribution of cavity modes according to Koloko...

The local aspect of the thermalization of thermal radiation due to the interaction of thermal radiation with matter is explored. It is shown that for absorption and emission interactions some well-known phenomenological statements of irreversible thermophysics are indeed relevant. For scattering interactions the entirely different picture that emer...

The thermodynamic fluctuations of hot bodies emitting thermal radiation generate corresponding fluctuations in the emitted intensity. A simple derivation using standard fluctuation-dissipation arguments shows that such fluctuations manifest themselves in the time correlations of the emitted radiation intensity. An experiment is proposed to detect t...

Photoautotrophs are almost the exclusive providers of chemical free energy to the Earth biosphere. Their importance in coadjuvating the evolutionary development of higher forms of life in other planets is briefly discussed from this point of view. A simple analysis based on the nonequilibrium thermodynamics of thermal radiation fields is performed....

Thermodynamic entropy production and the increase of the number of degrees of freedom are studied, for a beam of thermal radiation, after scattering from a perfectly reflecting rough surface of the gaussian type.

It is shown that for an isolated system near equilibrium involving the quenching of luminescence inside a perfectly reflecting cavity, successive time derivatives of the system entropy alternate in sign. The system consists of two‐level atoms or molecules weakly coupled by absorption and emission to a radiation field in a narrow band and strongly c...

This NASA Breakthrough Propulsion Physics Workshop seeks to explore concepts that could someday enable interstellar travel. The efiective superluminal motion proposed by Alcubierre (1994) to be a possibility owing to theoretically allowed space-time metric distortions within general relativity has since been shown by Pfenning and Ford (1997) to be...