Alfonso Di Costanzo

Alfonso Di Costanzo
Università degli Studi del Molise | Università del Molise · Department of Health Sciences (S.Pe.S.)

About

103
Publications
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Introduction

Publications

Publications (103)
Article
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Background Parkinson’s Disease (PD) is the second most frequent degenerative disorder, the risk of which increases with age. A preclinical PD diagnostic test does not exist. We identify PD blood metabolites and metabolic pathways significantly correlated with age to develop personalized age-dependent PD blood biomarkers. Results We found 33 metabo...
Article
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Lipidomics is strategic in the discovery of biomarkers of neurodegenerative diseases (NDDs). The skin surface lipidome bears the potential to provide biomarker candidates in the detection of pathological processes occurring in distal organs. We investigated the sebum composition to search diagnostic and, possibly, prognostic, biomarkers of Alzheime...
Article
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Background Alzheimer's disease (AD) is one of the most common causes of dementia in old people. Neuronal deficits such as loss of memory, language and problem-solving are severely compromised in affected patients. The molecular features of AD are Aβ deposits in plaques or in oligomeric structures and neurofibrillary tau tangles in brain. However, t...
Article
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Background: Alzheimer’s disease (AD) is a devastating neurodegenerative disease without guidelines for early diagnosis or personalized treatment. Previous studies have highlighted a crucial role of increasing phosphorylation levels of the amyloid precursor protein (APP) Tyr682 residue in predicting neuronal deficits in AD patients. However, the lac...
Article
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Alzheimer’s disease is a neurodegenerative disorder whose pathological mechanisms, despite recent advances, are not fully understood. However, the deposition of beta amyloid -peptide and neuroinflammation, which is probably aggravated by dysbiotic microbiota, seem to play a key role. Anti-Gal are the most abundant xenoreactive natural antibodies. T...
Article
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Parkinson’s disease (PD) patients lead a sedentary lifestyle, being unable or unwilling to exercise conventionally, due to physical and mental limitations. The aim of this study was to assess the acute effects of a single session of whole-body electromyostimulation (WB-EMS) on the physical performances and serum levels of the neurotrophic factors i...
Article
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Lippia citriodora is a plant traditionally used for its anti-inflammatory, antioxidant and antispasmodic effects, as well as for additional biological activities proven in cell culture, animal studies and a small number of human clinical trials. The plant has also shown a marked improvement in blood lipid profile in some animal species. In the pres...
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It is still debated whether non-specific preclinical symptoms of Alzheimer's disease (AD) can have diagnostic relevance. We followed the evolution from cognitively normal to AD by NMR-based metabolomics of blood sera. Multivariate statistical analysis of the NMR profiles yielded models that discriminated subjective memory decline (SMD), mild cognit...
Article
Sialic acid-binding immunoglobulin-type lectins, which are predominantly expressed in immune cells, represent a family of immunomodulatory receptors with inhibitory and activating signals, in both healthy and disease states. Genetic factors are important in all forms of dementia, especially in early onset dementia. CD33 was recently recognized as a...
Chapter
46-year-old patient with right frontal-insular glioblastoma multiforme treated with subtotal excision and combined radiation therapy–chemotherapy and subsequent second-level adjuvant chemotherapy.3T multimodal MR follow-up performed with morphologic imaging, diffusion, perfusion, and spectroscopy preoperatively and at 6, 9, and 12 months after surg...
Chapter
46-year-old patient with left frontal-opercular anaplastic astrocytoma and subsequent anaplastic transformation treated with surgery and partial excision and combined radiation therapy–chemotherapy and subsequent adjuvant second-level chemotherapy.3T multimodal MR follow-up performed with morphologic sequences, diffusion, and perfusion imaging and...
Chapter
45-year-old patient with left frontal-insular glioblastoma multiforme treated with subtotal resection and combined radiation therapy–chemotherapy.3T multimodal MR follow-up performed with morphologic imaging, diffusion, perfusion, and spectroscopy preoperatively and at 6 and 12 months after surgery and combined radiation therapy–chemotherapy. 45-ye...
Article
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Background Several observational studies have shown that exercise reduces the risk of cognitive decline; however, evidences from long-term, well-conducted, randomized controlled trials are scanty. The principal aim of this study is to verify whether a long-term program of multimodal supervised exercise improves the cognitive function and/or reduces...
Article
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Background Although the mechanisms underlying AD neurodegeneration are not fully understood, it is now recognised that inflammation could play a crucial role in the initiation and progression of AD neurodegeneration. A neuro-inflammatory network, based on the anomalous activation of microglial cells, includes the production of a number of inflammat...
Article
Alzheimer's disease (AD) is a progressive, multifactorial neurodegenerative disorder that is the main cause of dementia. To date, there are no definitive diagnostic tests that can predict or assess onset and progression of the disease. Blood biomarkers for AD are being sought for many years but their identification remains a challenging task. In th...
Article
Full-text available
Background/Aims Abnormalities in the plasma amino acid profile have been reported in Alzheimer disease (AD), but no data exist for the prodromal phase characterized by subjective memory complaint (SMC). It was our aim to understand if serum amino acid levels change along the continuum from normal to AD, and to identify possible diagnostic biomarker...
Article
This study aimed to evaluate the effects of different types of exercise on memory performance and memory complaint after 12-week intervention. Eighty community-dwelling volunteers, aged 66.96 ± 11.73 years, were randomly divided into four groups: resistance, cardiovascular, postural and control groups (20 participants for each group). All participa...
Chapter
Magnetic resonance spectroscopy (MRS) is a non-invasive technique that can be used to measure the concentrations of different low-molecular-weight chemicals. The technique is based on the same physical principles as magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), i.e. the detection of energy exchanges between external magnetic fields and specific nuclei within a...
Article
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This study aimed to determine the serum levels of free L-carnitine, acetyl-L-carnitine and 34 acyl-L-carnitine in healthy subjects and in patients with or at risk of Alzheimer's disease. Twenty-nine patients with probable Alzheimer's disease, 18 with mild cognitive impairment of the amnestic type, 24 with subjective memory complaint and 46 healthy...
Data
Analytical variability (CV%) of free L-carnitine and acyl-carnitines estimated on three different concentrations (μmol/L) of quality controls. (PDF)
Data
Score plots of PCA (panel A) and PLS-DA (panel B) analyzes. PCA (panel A) of first three components shows a separation between AD (red triangle) and HS (light blue diamond). PLS-DA (panel B), a supervised classification method, maximizes the separation among the four groups of subjects. (PDF)
Data
Prediction accuracy (panel A) and permutation test (panel B). The panel A shows the prediction accuracy based on R2 and Q2 of the model (panel A). The best number of components (n = 3) to explain the results has been determined on the optimal value of Q2. The panel B shows the significance of permutation test based on thousand permuted class assign...
Article
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Element profiling is an interesting approach for understanding neurodegenerative processes, considering that compelling evidences show that element toxicity might play a crucial role in the onset and progression of Alzheimer’s disease (AD). Aim of this study was to profile 22 serum elements in subjects with or at risk of AD. Thirtyfour patients wit...
Article
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Aim The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of high-intensity aerobic training (AT) and high-intensity aerobic training combined with resistance training (ie, combined training [CT]) on cognitive function in patients with COPD. Methods Twenty-eight Caucasian male patients (68.35±9.64 years; mean ± SD) with COPD were recruited and rand...
Article
BACKGROUND: A decrease of physical activity is common in older adults and contributes to their cognitive decline. The aim of this study was to verify if cognitive performance in older adults may benefit from an active life-style. For this purpose, we investigated the relationships between the Physical Activity Scale for the Elderly (PASE) scores an...
Article
This study aimed to evaluate the effects of different types of exercise on cognition. Eighty participants, 32 males and 48 females, aged 66.96±11.73, volunteered for this study. The participants were randomly divided into the four following groups: Resistance Group (RG; n=20), involved in high intensity strength training; Cardiovascular Group (CVG;...
Article
Full-text available
Adiponectin (Acrp30) is an adipocyte-secreted hormone with pleiotropic metabolic effects, whose reduced levels were related to development and progression of several malignancies. We looked at the presence of Acrp30 receptors in human glioblastomas (GBM), hypothesizing a role for Acrp30 also in this untreatable cancer. Here we demonstrate that huma...
Article
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The discrimination between recurrent glioma and radiation injury is often a challenge on conventional magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). We verified whether adding and combining proton MR spectroscopic imaging ((1)H-MRSI), diffusion-weighted imaging (DWI) and perfusion-weighted imaging (PWI) information at 3 Tesla facilitate such discrimination. Twe...
Article
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Virchow-Robin spaces are lesions often seen in the brain parenchyma but their etiopathogenesis remains unsettled. Giant Virchow-Robin spaces placed in the midbrain are extremely rare. We describe three patients with a diagnosis of giant Virchow-Robin spaces in the midbrain, and their clinical and radiologic findings. We reviewed the literature in t...
Article
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Background: Physical activity and occupational exposures appeared to play a relevant role in pathogenesis of amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS), a neurodegenerative disease of unknown origin. Materials and methods: We aimed to make an overview of the clinical characteristics and lifestyle (occupation and sport) of a population of 395 patients w...
Article
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The introduction of DNA microarrays and DNA sequencing technologies in medical genetics and diagnostics has been a challenge that has significantly transformed medical practice and patient management. Because of the great advancements in molecular genetics and the development of simple laboratory technology to identify the mutations in the causativ...
Chapter
45-year-old patient with left frontal-insular glioblastoma multiforme treated with subtotal resection and combined radiation therapy-chemotherapy 3T multimodal MR follow-up performed with morphologic imaging, diffusion, perfusion and spectroscopy preoperatively and at 6 and 12 months after surgery and combined radiation therapy-chemotherapy
Chapter
46-year-old patient with right frontal-insular glioblastoma multiforme treated with subtotal excision and combined radiation therapy-chemotherapy and subsequent second-level adjuvant chemotherapy 3T multimodal MR follow-up performed with morphologic imaging, diffusion, perfusion and spectroscopy preoperatively and at 6, 9 and 12 months after surger...
Chapter
46-year-old patient with left frontal-opercular anaplastic astrocytoma and subsequent anaplastic transformation treated with surgery and partial excision and combined radiation therapy-chemotherapy and subsequent adjuvant second-level chemotherapy 3 T multimodal MR follow-up performed with morphologic sequences, diffusion and perfusion imaging and...
Article
Full-text available
The hormone adiponectin exerts beneficial pleiotropic effects on biological and metabolic processes. Although a well-recognized insulin sensitizer, its characteristic has yet to be clearly defined. Myotonic dystrophy type 1 (DM1) is a rare genetic disorder that features muscle wasting and metabolic comorbidity, and patients have an increased risk o...
Article
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ABSTRACT: Alzheimer's disease is a progressive and neurodegenerative disorder which involves multiple molecular mechanisms. Intense research during the last years has accumulated a large body of data and the search for sensitive and specific biomarkers has undergone a rapid evolution. However, the diagnosis remains problematic and the current tests...
Article
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The default-mode network (DMN) has been increasingly recognized as relevant to cognitive status. To explore DMN changes in patients with relapsing-remitting (RR) multiple sclerosis (MS) and to relate these to the cognitive status. Eighteen cognitively impaired (CI) and eighteen cognitively preserved (CP) RRMS patients and eighteen healthy controls...
Article
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A 65-year-old woman underwent MRI for a mild cognitive impairment (MCI) at Mini-Mental State Examination (MMSE). MRI showed hippocampal sulcus remnants bilaterally, although they were larger on the right, and left hippocampal atrophy with increased left fimbriosubicular distance (right side: 1.2 mm; left side: 2.0 mm). The meaning of these findings...
Article
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Intramedullary metastases are rare, accounting for 0.9-5% of spinal metastases. Radiation myelopathy is considered one of the most distressing complications of radiotherapy. In both cases symptoms are aspecific, and there are no characteristic neuroradiologic findings. We describe a case of single intramedullary metastasis from lung microcytoma in...
Article
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The objective of this study was to evaluate the potential role of newly developed, advanced magnetic resonance (MR) imaging techniques (spectroscopy, diffusion and perfusion imaging) in diagnosing brain gliomas, with special reference to histological typing and grading, treatment planning and posttreatment follow-up. Conventional MR imaging enables...
Article
To investigate in a large cohort of patients with multiple sclerosis (MS), lesion load and atrophy evolution, and the relationship between clinical and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) correlates of disease progression. Two hundred and sixty-seven patients with MS were studied at baseline and two years later using the same MRI protocol. Abnormal wh...
Article
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This study aimed to evaluate the usefulness of proton MR spectroscopic imaging ((1)H-MRSI) at 3 T in differentiating high- from low-grade gliomas, and tumour from necrosis, oedema or normal tissue. Forty-four patients with brain gliomas and four with meningiomas were retrospectively reviewed. The normalised metabolites choline (nCho), N-acetylaspar...
Article
The congenital form of myotonic dystrophy type 1 (CDM1) has an almost exclusively maternal transmission and is characterized by mental retardation and by moderate/severe ventriculomegaly and white matter hyperintensities on brain magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). We report a 20-year-old case of CDM1 with paternal inheritance showing mental retardat...
Article
This study aimed to determine whether white matter lesions, previously described as a frequent feature in myotonic dystrophy type 1 (DM1), aggregate within DM1 families or are sporadic findings, and to explore the relationship between these lesions and clinical or genetic features. Brain MRI of 60 DM1 patients belonging to 22 families were evaluate...
Article
This study was performed to clarify the role of perfusion-weighted imaging (PWI) at 3 Tesla in the characterisation of haemodynamic heterogeneity within gliomas and surrounding tissues and in the differentiation of high-grade from low-grade gliomas. We examined 36 patients with histologically verified gliomas (25 with high-grade and 11 with low-gra...
Article
Fatigue is a major problem in multiple sclerosis (MS), and its association with MRI features is debated. To study the correlation between fatigue and lesion load, white matter (WM), and grey matter (GM), in MS patients independent of disability. We studied 222 relapsing remitting MS patients with low disability (scores <or=2 at the Kurtzke Expanded...
Article
Full-text available
Proton magnetic resonance spectroscopy ((1)H-MRS) provides specific metabolic information not otherwise observable by any other imaging method. (1)H-MRS of the brain at 3 T is a new tool in the modern neuroradiological armamentarium whose main advantages, with respect to the well-established and technologically advanced 1.5-T (1)H-MRS, include a hi...
Article
The aim of this paper is to illustrate the technical, methodological and diagnostic features of functional imaging (comprising spectroscopy, diffusion, perfusion and cortical activation techniques) and its principal neuroradiological applications on the basis of the experience gained by the authors in the 5 years since the installation of a high-fi...
Article
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Recent advances in magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) have allowed the evaluation of metabolic, diffusion and hemodynamic features of malignant gliomas. The aim of this study was to evaluate whether such information provided useful, complementary information to conventional MRI for improving the evaluation of glioblastoma extent. Ten patients with gl...
Article
This follow-up study assessed the 2-year clinical and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) outcomes of patients with multiple sclerosis (MS) originally enrolled in an MRI study conducted at eight centres in south Italy (the South Italy Mobile MRI Project). Of the 597 MS patients recruited at baseline, 391 returned for the follow-up study. Of these, 363...
Article
Full-text available
Contrast-enhanced MR imaging is the method of choice for routine assessment of brain tumors, but it has limited sensitivity and specificity. We verified if the addition of metabolic, diffusion and hemodynamic information improved the definition of glioma extent and grade. Thirty-one patients with cerebral gliomas (21 high- and 10 low-grade) underwe...
Chapter
The utilization of high-field MR systems for clinical spectroscopy studies involves a variety of improvements and advantages which anable the use of new and advanced acquisition techniques that raise the diagnostic accuracy of MR spectroscopy above the desired threshold. At the same time, the higher field strength can also carry disadvantages and l...
Article
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Combining metabolic, diffusion and haemodynamic information from 1H-MRSI, DWI and PWI with morphological information from conventional MRI undoubtedly improves the assessment of intracranial tumours, increasing the capability to discriminate between different tissues. Furthermore, using high-field MR can allow shorter imaging times for a given reso...
Article
To measure white matter (WM) and gray matter (GM) atrophy and lesion load in a large population of patients with multiple sclerosis (MS) using a fully automated, operator-independent, multiparametric segmentation method. The study population consisted of 597 patients with MS and 104 control subjects. The MRI parameters were abnormal WM fraction (AW...
Article
Cerebral gliomas are the most common primary brain neoplasms in adults and represent one of the leading causes of cancer-related death in the general population. Prognosis and decisions on management depend on the histological type and grade of the lesion 1.2. Histopathological analysis is the "gold standard" in formulating the diagnosis of type an...
Article
Perfusion weighted imaging (PWI) displays microvascular haemodynamics. Blood flow in the cerebral vascular network can be measured by quantitation of haemodynamic parameters like flow or volume of blood in circulation.
Article
Proton MR spectroscopy (MRS) consists in the in vivo study of some of the steps involved in brain metabolism. Proton MRS displays low molecular weight brain metabolites in the form of spectra whose shape basically depends on metabolite concentration (more than 0.1-1 mM) which varies in different pathological conditions. Proton MRS is an adjunct to...
Article
Proton magnetic resonance spectroscopy (1H-MRS) of the brain reveals specific biochemical information about cerebral metabolites, which may support clinical diagnoses and enhance the understanding of neurological disorders. The advantages of performing 1H-MRS at higher field strengths include better signal to noise ratio (SNR) and increased spectra...