Alexis Casner

Alexis Casner
Atomic Energy and Alternative Energies Commission | CEA · CELIA

Agregation Physique, PhD, HdR

About

136
Publications
10,843
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1,723
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January 2017 - January 2022
Atomic Energy and Alternative Energies Commission
Position
  • Research Director

Publications

Publications (136)
Article
In this paper, we present the effects of a radiative shock (RS) on the morphology of jet-like objects subjected to hydrodynamic instabilities. To this end, we used an experimental platform developed to create RSs on high energy laser facilities such as LULI2000 and GEKKO XII. Here, we employed modulated targets to initiate Richtmyer–Meshkov and Ray...
Article
Full-text available
Interferometry is one of the most sensitive and successful diagnostic methods for plasmas. However, owing to the design of most common interferometric systems, the wavelengths of operation, and therefore the range of densities and temperatures that can be probed, are severely limited. Talbot-Lau Interferometry offers the possibility of extending in...
Preprint
Full-text available
The potential benefits of the use of magnetic fields in Inertial Confinement Fusion (ICF) experiments have been investigated for several years, and exploring them has given rise to new experimental platforms such as the Magnetized Liner Inertial Fusion (MagLIF) approach at the Z-machine, or its laser-driven equivalent at the OMEGA 60 laser. Impleme...
Article
In conventional gases and plasmas, it is known that heat fluxes are proportional to temperature gradients, with collisions between particles mediating energy flow from hotter to colder regions and the coefficient of thermal conduction given by Spitzer's theory. However, this theory breaks down in magnetized, turbulent, weakly collisional plasmas, a...
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We experimentally study the late-time, highly nonlinear regime of the Rayleigh-Taylor instability in a decelerating phase. A series of laser-driven experiments is performed on the LULI2000 laser, in which the initial Atwood number is varied by adjusting the decelerating medium density. The high-power laser is used in a direct drive configuration to...
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We report a laser-plasma experiment that was carried out at the LMJ-PETAL facility and realized the first magnetized, turbulent, supersonic (Ma_{turb}≈2.5) plasma with a large magnetic Reynolds number (Rm≈45) in the laboratory. Initial seed magnetic fields were amplified, but only moderately so, and did not become dynamically significant. A notable...
Article
We report on planar target experiments conducted on the OMEGA-EP laser facility performed in the context of the shock ignition (SI) approach to inertial confinement fusion. The experiment aimed at characterizing the propagation of strong shock in matter and the generation of hot electrons (HEs), with laser parameters relevant to SI (1-ns UV laser b...
Article
Laser experiments are becoming established as tools for astronomical research that complement observations and theoretical modeling. Localized strong magnetic fields have been observed at a shock front of supernova explosions. Experimental confirmation and identification of the physical mechanism for this observation are of great importance in unde...
Preprint
Full-text available
Laser experiments are becoming established as a new tool for astronomical research that complements observations and theoretical modeling. Localized strong magnetic fields have been observed at a shock front of supernova explosions. Experimental confirmation and identification of the physical mechanism for this observation are of great importance i...
Article
We use a subignition scale laser, the 30 kJ Omega, and a novel shallow-cone target to study laser-plasma interactions at the ablation-plasma density scale lengths and laser intensities anticipated for direct drive shock-ignition implosions at National Ignition Facility scale. Our results show that, under these conditions, the dominant instability i...
Article
Talbot-Lau x-ray interferometry has been implemented to map electron density gradients in High Energy Density Physics (HEDP) experiments. X-ray backlighter targets have been evaluated for Talbot-Lau X-ray Deflectometry (TXD). Cu foils, wires, and sphere targets have been irradiated by 10–150 J, 8–30 ps laser pulses, while two pulsed-power generator...
Preprint
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Galaxy clusters are filled with hot, diffuse X-ray emitting plasma, with a stochastically tangled magnetic field whose energy is close to equipartition with the energy of the turbulent motions \cite{zweibel1997, Vacca}. In the cluster cores, the temperatures remain anomalously high compared to what might be expected considering that the radiative c...
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Turbulence is ubiquitous in the universe and in fluid dynamics. It influences a wide range of high energy density systems, from inertial confinement fusion to astrophysical-object evolution. Understanding this phenomenon is crucial, however, due to limitations in experimental and numerical methods in plasma systems, a complete description of the tu...
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Blast-wave-driven hydrodynamic instabilities are studied in the presence of a background B-field through experiments and simulations in the high-energy-density (HED) physics regime. In experiments conducted at the Laboratoire pour l’utilisation des lasers intenses (LULI), a laser-driven shock-tube platform was used to generate a hydrodynamically un...
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An x-ray radiography technique based upon phase contrast imaging using a lithium fluoride detector has been demonstrated for goals of high energy density physics experiments. Based on the simulation of propagation an x-ray free-electron laser beam through a test-object, the visibility of phase-contrast image depending on an object-detector distance...
Article
Since the seminal paper of Nuckolls triggering the quest of inertial confinement fusion (ICF) with lasers, hydrodynamic instabilities have been recognized as one of the principal hurdles towards ignition. This remains true nowadays for both main approaches (indirect drive and direct drive), despite the advent of MJ scale lasers with tremendous tech...
Article
We report on the optimization of a BremsStrahlung Cannon (BSC) design for the investigation of laser-driven fast electron populations in a shock ignition relevant experimental campaign at the Laser Megajoule-PETawatt Aquitaine Laser facility. In this regime with laser intensities of 10¹⁵ W/cm²–10¹⁶ W/cm², fast electrons with energies ≤100 keV are e...
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Electromagnetic pulses (EMP) present a serious threat for operation of high-power, high-energy laser facilities. Here, we present an efficient strategy for EMP mitigation with a resistive and inductive holder, which is supported by extended numerical simulations and validated in dedicated experiments at the kilojoule/picosecond (kJ/ps) Petawatt Aqu...
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Talbot-Lau x-ray interferometry is a grating-based phase-contrast technique, which enables measurement of refractive index changes in matter with micrometric spatial resolution. The technique has been established using a variety of hard x-ray sources, including synchrotron, free-electron lasers, and x-ray tubes, and could be used in the optical ran...
Preprint
Full-text available
We report a laser-plasma experiment that was carried out at the LMJ-PETAL facility and realized the first magnetized, turbulent, supersonic plasma with a large magnetic Reynolds number ($\mathrm{Rm} \approx 45$) in the laboratory. Initial seed magnetic fields were amplified, but only moderately so, and did not become dynamically significant. A nota...
Article
An experiment was performed at the National Ignition Facility investigating the ablative Rayleigh-Taylor instability’s dependence on initial conditions in the highly nonlinear stage. The detailed post-processing of the radiographic images which includes backlighter reconstruction, Wiener deconvolution of the raw data, and the calculation of a conve...
Article
A target design for mitigating the Rayleigh-Taylor instability is proposed for use in high energy density and direct-drive inertial confinement fusion experiments. In this scheme, a thin gold membrane is offset from the main target by several-hundred microns. A strong picket on the drive beams is incident upon this membrane to produce x rays which...
Article
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In the Shock Ignition scheme, the spike pulse intensity is well above the threshold of parametric instabilities, which produce a considerable amount of hot electrons that could be beneficial or detrimental to the ignition. To study their impact, an experiment has been carried out on the LMJ-PETAL facility with a goal to generate a strong shock insi...
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Laser imprinting possesses a potential danger for low-adiabat and high-convergence implosions in direct-drive inertial confinement fusion (ICF). Within certain direct-drive ICF schemes, a laser picket (prepulse) is used to condition the target to increase the interaction efficiency with the main pulse. Whereas initially the target is in a solid sta...
Article
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We describe a platform developed on the LULI2000 laser facility to investigate the evolution of Rayleigh-Taylor instability (RTI) in scaled conditions relevant to young supernova remnants (SNRs) up to 200 years. An RT unstable interface is imaged with a short-pulse laser-driven (PICO2000) x-ray source, providing an unprecedented simultaneous high s...
Article
We report on a novel planar direct-drive platform for hydrodynamics experiments on the National Ignition Facility (NIF). Its commissioning has been performed as part of the NIF Discovery Science Program. This platform enables the use of a 30 ns drive at an average intensity of 200 TW/cm², creating a planar shock and ablation front over a 2 mm radiu...
Article
Rayleigh-Taylor instability (RTI) occurs whenever fluids of different densities are accelerated against the density gradient, as is the case for the target ablator in ICF implosions. The advent of megajoule class lasers, like the National Ignition Facility (NIF) or Laser Mégajoule, offers novel opportunities to study turbulent mixing flows in high...
Article
Full-text available
High resolution X-ray imaging is crucial for many high energy density physics (HEDP) experiments. Recently developed techniques to improve resolution have, however, come at the cost of a decreased field of view. In this paper, an innovative experimental detector for X-ray imaging in the context of HEDP experiments with high spatial resolution, as w...
Article
Talbot-Lau x-ray interferometers can map electron density gradients in High Energy Density (HED) samples. In the deflectometer configuration, it can provide refraction, attenuation, elemental composition, and scatter information from a single image. X-ray backlighters in Talbot-Lau deflectometry must meet specific requirements regarding source size...
Article
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In this paper, we present a model characterizing the interaction of a radiative shock (RS) with a solid material, as described in a recent paper (Koenig et al. , Phys. Plasmas, 24 , 082707 (2017)), the new model is then related to recent experiments performed on the GEKKO XII laser facility. The RS generated in a xenon gas cell propagates towards a...
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We present new diagnostics for use in optical laser pump - X-ray Free Electron Laser (XFEL) probe experiments to monitor dimensions, intensity profile and focusability of the XFEL beam and to control initial quality and homogeneity of targets to be driven by optical laser pulse. By developing X-ray imaging, based on the use of an LiF crystal detect...
Article
In the shock-ignition scheme for inertial confinement fusion, hot electrons resulting from laser–plasma instabilities can play a major role during the late stage of the implosion. This article presents the results of an experiment performed on OMEGA in the so-called “40 + 20 configuration.” Using a recent calibration of the time-resolved hard x-ray...
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Magnetic fields are ubiquitous in the Universe. Extragalactic disks, halos and clusters have consistently been shown, via diffuse radio-synchrotron emission and Faraday rotation measurements, to exhibit magnetic field strengths ranging from a few nG to tens of $\mu$G. The energy density of these fields is typically comparable to the energy density...
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The physics of compressible turbulence in high energy density (HED) plasmas is an unchartered experimental area. Simulations of compressible and radiative flows relevant for astrophysics rely mainly on subscale parameters. Therefore, we plan to perform turbulent hydrodynamics experiments in HED plasmas (TurboHEDP) in order to improve our understand...
Article
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Experiments were performed with CH, Be, C, and SiO2 ablators interacting with high-intensity UV laser radiation (5 × 10¹⁵ W/cm², λ = 351 nm) to determine the optimum material for hot-electron production and strong-shock generation. Significantly more hot electrons are produced in CH (up to ∼13% instantaneous conversion efficiency), while the amount...
Article
Experiments were performed to investigate the ablative Richtmyer-Meshkov (RM) instability in plastic (CH2) foils. The two-dimensional (2-D) perturbations were created by laser imprinting using a special phase plate with a 2-D single mode, ∼70 μm wavelength sinusoidal intensity pattern on the plastic foil. The growth of imprinted perturbations was m...
Article
The advent of high-power lasers facilities such as the National Ignition Facility (NIF) and the laser megajoule provide unique platforms to study the physics of turbulent mixing flows in high energy density plasmas. We report here on the commissioning of a novel planar direct-drive platform on the NIF, which allows the acceleration of targets durin...
Article
The universe is permeated by magnetic fields, with strengths ranging from a femtogauss in the voids between the filaments of galaxy clusters to several teragauss in black holes and neutron stars. The standard model behind cosmological magnetic fields is the nonlinear amplification of seed fields via turbulent dynamo to the values observed. We have...
Article
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Two x-ray spectrometers have been built for x-ray spectroscopy of laser-produced plasmas on OMEGA at the Laboratory for Laser Energetics (LLE) by Commissariat l’Energie Atomique et aux énergies alternatives (CEA). The accessible photon energy range is from 1.5 to 20 keV. The first spectrometer, called X-ray CEA Crystal Spectrometer with a Charge-In...
Article
Full-text available
Under the Discovery Science program, the longer pulses and higher laser energies provided by the National Ignition Facility (NIF) have been harnessed to study, first time in indirect-drive, the highly nonlinear stage of the Rayleigh-Taylor Instability (RTI) at the ablation front. A planar plastic package with pre-imposed two-dimensional broadband m...
Article
Reducing the detrimental effect of the Rayleigh-Taylor (RT) instability on the target performance is a critical challenge. In this purpose, the use of targets coated with low density foams is a promising approach to reduce the laser imprint. This article presents results of ablative RT instability growth measurements, performed on the OMEGA laser f...
Article
The Laser Megajoule (LMJ) facility located at CEA/CESTA started to operate in the early 2014 with two quadruplets (20 kJ at 351 nm) focused on target for the first experimental campaign. We present here the first set of gated x-ray imaging (GXI) diagnostics implemented on LMJ since mid-2014. This set consists of two imaging diagnostics with spatial...
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The CEA/DAM ICF experimental program is currently conducted on LIL and Omega with the goal of improving our simulation tool, the FCI2 code. In this effort, we focus on typical ICF observables: hohlraum radiation drive history, capsule core shape and neutron emission history, hydrodynamic instability growth. In addition to integrated experiment, spe...
Article
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Gas-filled rugby-shaped hohlraums have demonstrated high performances compared to a classical similar diameter cylinder hohlraum with a nearly 40% increase of x-ray drive, 10% higher measured peak drive temperature, and an increase in neutron production. Experimental comparisons have been done between rugby, cylinder, and elliptical hohlraums. The...
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Indirect-drive implosions experiments were conducted on the Omega Laser Facility to test the performance of uniformly doped plastic ablators for Inertial Confinement Fusion. The first convergent ablation measurements in gas-filled rugby hohlraums are reported. Ignition relevant limb velocities in the range from 150 to 300 μm.ns-1 have been reached...
Article
We investigate on the National Ignition Facility the ablative Rayleigh-Taylor instability in the transition from weakly nonlinear to highly nonlinear regimes. A planar plastic package with preimposed two-dimensional broadband modulations is accelerated for up to 12 ns by the x-ray drive of a gas-filled Au radiation cavity with a radiative temperatu...
Article
Full-text available
Recent experiments on the Laboratory for Laser Energetics’ OMEGA laser have been carried out to produce strong shocks in solid spherical targets with direct laser illumination. The shocks are launched at pressures of several hundred Mbars and reach Gbar upon convergence. The results are relevant to the validation of the shock-ignition scheme and to...
Article
Academic tests in physical regimes not encountered in Inertial Confinement Fusion will help to build a better understanding of hydrodynamic instabilities and constitute the scientifically grounded validation complementary to fully integrated experiments. Under the National Ignition Facility (NIF) Discovery Science program, recent indirect drive exp...
Article
Full-text available
Academic tests in physical regimes not encountered in Inertial Confinement Fusion will help to build a better understanding of hydrodynamic instabilities and constitute the scientifically grounded validation complementary to fully integrated experiments. Under the National Ignition Facility (NIF) Discovery Science program, recent indirect drive exp...
Article
Full-text available
For over fifteen years astronomers at the University of Maryland and theorists and experimentalists at LLNL have investigated the origin and dynamics of the famous Pillars of the Eagle Nebula, and similar parsec-scale structures at the boundaries of HII regions in molecular hydrogen clouds. Eagle Nebula was selected as one of the National Ignition...
Article
This Letter presents the first experimental demonstration of the capability to launch shocks of severalhundred Mbar in spherical targets—a milestone for shock ignition [R. Betti et al., Phys. Rev. Lett. 98, 155001 (2007)]. Using the temporal delay between the launching of the strong shock at the outer surface of the spherical target and the time wh...
Article
The advent of high-power lasers facilities such as the National Ignition Facility (NIF), and Laser Megajoule (LMJ) in the near future opens a new era in the field of High Energy Density Laboratory Astrophysics. The LMJ, keystone of the French Simulation Program, is under construction at CEA/CESTA and will deliver 1.5 MJ with 176 beamlines. The firs...
Article
Understanding and mitigating hydrodynamic instabilities and the fuel mix are the key elements for achieving ignition in Inertial Confinement Fusion. Cryogenic indirect-drive implosions on the National Ignition Facility have evidenced that the ablative Rayleigh-Taylor Instability (RTI) is a driver of the hot spot mix. This motivates the switch to a...
Article
The paper presents theoretical analysis and experimental results concerning the major physical issues in the shock-ignition approach. These are the following: generation of a high amplitude shock in the imploding target, laser–plasma interaction physics under the conditions of high laser intensities needed for high amplitude shock excitation, symme...
Article
We report on laser-driven, strong-shock generation and hot-electron production in planar targets in the presence of a pre-plasma at shock-ignition (SI) relevant laser and pre-plasma conditions. 2-D simulations reproduce the shock dynamics well, indicating ablator shocks of up to 75 Mbar have been generated. We observe hot-electron temperatures of �...
Article
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In preparation of the first ignition attempts on the Laser Mégajoule (LMJ), an experimental program is being pursued on OMEGA to investigate LMJ-relevant hohlraums. First, radiation temperature levels close to 300 eV were recently achieved in reduced-scale hohlraums with modest backscatter losses. Regarding the baseline target design for fusion exp...
Article
Full-text available
Shock-ignition experiments with peak laser intensities of similar to 8 x 10(15) W/cm(2) were performed. D-2-filled plastic shells were compressed on a low adiabat by 40 of the 60 OMEGA beams. The remaining 20 beams were delayed and tightly focused onto the imploding shell to generate a strong shock. Up to 35% backscattering of laser energy was meas...
Article
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We use the LIL (Ligne d'Intégration Laser) facility to study the coalescence of two planar shocks in an indirectly-driven planar sample of polystyrene. This experiment represents the preliminary stage of the future shock-timing campaign for the Laser Megajoule (LMJ). The main objectives are to validate the experimental concept and to test the numer...
Article
The first experiments on the National Ignition Facility (NIF) in the US started and will be followed by the Laser MégaJoule (LMJ) in France. Such facilities will provide unique tools for inertial confinement fusion (ICF) physics & for basic science. A petawatt short pulse laser (ps) is being added to the ns pulse beams of the LMJ. This is PETAL (PE...