Alexandros Maziotis

Alexandros Maziotis
Fondazione Eni Enrico Mattei | FEEM · Sustainable Development and Climate Change

About

102
Publications
9,537
Reads
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809
Citations
Additional affiliations
January 2012 - December 2013
Fondazione Eni Enrico Mattei
Position
  • Researcher
Description
  • Research and coordination for the EU FP7 project EPI-WATER (Evaluating Economic Policy Instruments for Sustainable Water Management in Europe)
Education
January 2006 - December 2009
Aston University
Field of study
  • Economics

Publications

Publications (102)
Article
Full-text available
The path to a sustainable management of the urban water cycle requires the assessment of both operational and quality-adjusted efficiency in a unified manner. This can be done by the use of non-radial Data Envelopment Analysis models. This study used Range Adjusted Measure models to evaluate the operational, quality-adjusted, and operational & qual...
Article
Water leakages and unplanned water supply interruptions are relevant variables in the provision of drinking water since they directly impact customers and the economic and environmental performance of water companies. For the first time, in this study, we estimated specific efficiency scores for these two quality-of-service variables using the mult...
Article
Full-text available
Getting a good understanding regarding the economic and environmental performance of water utilities is of great importance to achieve the goal of an efficient and sustainable industry. In this study, we apply the range adjusted measure (RAM) data envelopment analysis (DEA) model to evaluate the integrated (production and environmental) efficiency...
Article
Reducing greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions and energy costs has been one of the main challenges faced by the water sector. This study provides a quantification of energy costs and GHG emissions efficiency of a sample of the English and the Welsh water companies over the period of 2013-2018. In doing so, the multi-directional data envelopment analysis...
Article
Access to safe, reliable and affordable drinking water is a human right that should be achieved without neglecting Sustainable Development Goal 13 of the United Nations related to climate action. The production of drinking water involves using a non-negligible amount of energy, leading to relevant economic costs and greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions....
Article
The measurement of efficiency of water utilities is a valuable tool for water regulators and managers to provide services in a sustainable way. Understanding the sources of inefficiency could support business decision making process. In this study we employ the most recent advanced panel data stochastic frontier models to estimate the level of over...
Article
Improper municipal solid waste (MSW) management leads to contamination of water, soil and air with negative impacts on human health. Moreover, not dealing with residual waste has huge implications for meeting circular economy targets. Understanding how much it costs could lead to a better quality of service and boost environmental sustainability. T...
Article
This study applies a two-stage network structure model to evaluate water service providers cost and operational performance embracing service quality variables. An empirical analysis of the Chilean water and wastewater industries over the 2010–2018 period is presented. Moreover, in the second stage of analysis, we analyzed the impact of a set of ex...
Article
Full-text available
Performance assessments of water utilities are essential to protect the interests of citizens, because utilities operate under natural monopolies and their costs are recovered from customers through water tariffs. In this study, a four-error component model was applied to estimate cost efficiency (CE), persistent efficiency (PE) and transient effic...
Article
Evaluating and benchmarking the energy efficiency of drinking water treatment plants (DWTPs) is essential to improve the environmental and economic performance of these facilities. However, robust and reliable methods should be used to compute energy efficiency scores to avoid biased conclusions. In this study, the stochastic non-parametric envelop...
Article
Full-text available
Moving to a more sustainable and low-carbon footprint urban water cycle is essential in the light of climate change. In this paper, we estimate the implicit cost of reducing greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions for several English and Welsh water companies from 2013 to 2019. Using econometric techniques, we compute the shadow prices of direct and indirec...
Article
Full-text available
Several methodological approaches have been applied to evaluate the performance of water companies for regulatory purposes. Performance assessment involving a long-time period is relevant to consider the heterogeneity of the water companies as many changes might have occurred across years. In this study, we applied three different parametric models...
Article
Wastewater treatment is an energy-intensive process and therefore, improving the energy efficiency of wastewater treatment plants (WWTPs) is relevant from an economic and environmental perspective. Water companies managing WWTPs operate under monopolistic conditions and thus, benchmarking their performance using robust methods is fundamental for re...
Article
Full-text available
This paper researches the existence of economies of scale and scope in the Chilean water and sewerage industry using a translog cost function approach over the period 2010–2017. It also provides estimates of productivity growth and its determinants, technical change and scale effect. The results suggest that on average, the water industry operates...
Article
The measurement of efficiency of water utilities has been traditionally carried out using econometric methods or linear programming techniques. Alternatively, in this study a data mining non-parametric method is used, such as an artificial neural network (ANN) approach, to predict the efficiency of several water companies in England and Wales. The...
Article
Purpose The purpose of this paper is to estimate and compare the efficiency of several water utilities using three frontier techniques. Moreover, this study estimates the impact of several qualities of service variables on water utilities’ performance. Design/methodology/approach The paper utilizes three frontier techniques such as data envelopmen...
Article
Full-text available
The water production system is a complex network and policy makers can get a better insight into how the system operates if they know how efficient each sub-process is. In this study, and for the first time, we employ a two-stage network Data Envelopment Analysis model to evaluate the eco-efficiency of water services in England and Wales, integrati...
Article
This study examines the efficiency and productivity of the Chilean water and sewerage industry over the period 2010–2017 using a stochastic cost frontier model. This methodological approach allowed us to evaluate the impact of water companies´ ownership on their productivity. This is very relevant for the Chilean water and sewerage industry which i...
Article
Full-text available
The water industry plays an important role in reducing greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions and therefore, moving to a low-carbon urban water cycle is of great importance. However, traditional performance assessment of water companies ignores GHG emissions. To overcome this limitation and to compare productivity change estimations of water companies excl...
Article
Full-text available
The water industry encompasses a wide variety of water companies operating with different production technologies. This study evaluated and compared changes to the productivity of several fully private water companies (FPWCs) and concessionary water companies (CWCs). Specifically, the cost Malmquist productivity index was estimated by integrating i...
Article
Many regulators employ frontier techniques to measure the performance of regulated monopolistic companies. This study estimates the cost efficiency of the water sector using the stochastic non-parametric envelopment of data (StoNED) method which brings together the qualities of both data envelopment analysis (DEA) and stochastic frontier analysis (...
Article
Moving to a low-carbon urban water cycle is a relevant challenge for the water industry. To realise this objective, the first step is to evaluate the carbon performance of water companies. This study proposed and applied a parametric methodology to measure the carbon efficiency and total factor carbon productivity of water companies. This methodolo...
Article
Full-text available
Water leakage in the urban water cycle involves relevant economic, social, and environmental negative impacts. Thus, reducing water leakage is a key challenge for both water regulators and water companies. This study estimated the evolution (2007–2015) of the marginal cost of improving the quality of service in terms of water leakage in the Chilean...
Article
Full-text available
Assessing the productivity change of water companies provides relevant information for both water regulators and companies’ managers. Past research has illustrated that different indicators and indexes have been applied although not all of them are equally reliable. Thus, this study evaluates the total factor productivity (TFP) change and its drive...
Article
Full-text available
The assessment of performance of water companies is essential for their regulation. In doing so, several variables and models can be employed. This study evaluates and compares the performance of a sample of English and Welsh water companies from the operational, environmental and eco-efficiency perspectives by applying the non-radial data envelopm...
Article
The water and sewerage industry in England and Wales had undergone several reforms since its privatization. To evaluate to what extent they had impacted on the performance of water companies, an input distance function and its derived cost share equations was estimated. This allowed measuring technical efficiency, economies of scale and cost comple...
Article
Full-text available
The management of municipal solid waste sector is crucial for a sustainable circular economy. Waste utilities are expected to provide high quality solid waste services at an affordable price. The efficient management of solid waste requires its assessment from an economic and environmental perspective, i.e., eco-efficiency assessment. Although the...
Article
Reducing greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions involves effort from different sectors of the economy, including the water and sewerage industry. This study estimates the marginal cost of curtailing GHG emissions in the water and sewerage industry using stochastic frontier analysis techniques for a sample of ten English and Welsh water and sewerage compani...
Article
Full-text available
Evaluating the performance and analyzing the cost drivers of water utilities is of great interest for water regulators and water sector managers. This study uses a quadratic cost function to investigate the existence of economies of scale and scope in the Chilean water and sewerage industry over the period 2010–2017. We also estimate and decompose...
Article
In regulated industries, such as the water industry, it is of great significance to estimate productivity change as it helps policy makers to evaluate the effectiveness of regulatory regime and industry performance. In this paper, and for the first time, a translog input distance function was used to estimate and decompose productivity change into...
Article
Full-text available
Analyzing costs and greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions could be of great importance for the water utilities to supply water services in a healthy and sustainable manner. In this study, we measured the eco-efficiency of several water utilities in England and Wales by incorporating GHG as an undesirable output. For the first time, we evaluated the eco-ef...
Article
The assessment of the productivity change of water utilities provides essential information to sector managers and regulators. This study uses the Luenberger-Hicks-Moorsteen Productivity Indicator (LHMPI) to evaluate productivity change as it can be further decomposed into three components namely technical change (TC), technical efficiency change (...
Article
Water companies are expected to deliver high-quality water services to their customers that include, among others, continuity of water supply. Unplanned water supply interruptions (UWSI) indicate a cost for the water companies and a deterioration in the quality of service for the customers. Thus, it is essential to quantify the cost of reducing UWS...
Article
Reducing greenhouse gas emissions is a major challenge faced by cities seeking to improve their environmental sustainability. Doing so requires a good understanding of the costs associated with lowering emissions and factors that may influence this cost. This study estimated the marginal abatement cost of reducing both direct and indirect CO2 emiss...
Article
Full-text available
Regulated water industries need to improve their technical efficiency and allocate their resources efficiently. This is the case of the water industry in England and Wales which was privatized in 1989, and the method of price cap regulation was implemented. This study uses an input distance function system approach to estimate the technical efficie...
Article
Understanding what drives changes in regulated water companies' costs is of great relevance to water regulators. This study decomposes and estimates the change in total costs for a sample of ten water and sewerage companies in England and Wales from 1993 to 2016. The results demonstrate that companies' total costs increased over time due to increas...
Article
Conventional performance assessments of water companies ignore the external costs due to water supply outages. To overcome this gap, we evaluate the impact of external costs of unplanned supply interruptions on the efficiency of water companies. Two efficiency metrics, internal technical efficiency (ITE), and total technical efficiency (TTE), were...
Article
The assessment of water companies’ efficiency, productivity and quality of service is part of the process to set water tariffs and therefore, is relevant for regulators and customers. However, the water industry involves several heterogeneous water companies. Following a pioneering approach, this study estimates productivity change and its drivers...
Article
In this article we investigate the relationship between productivity and profitability, and their drivers: changes in outputs, output and input prices, technical change, technical efficiency change, and scale and mark-up effects. We apply profit decomposition to the water and sewerage companies in England and Wales in 1991–2016. We find that over t...
Article
Evaluating changes in profit, price and productivity over time can be of great importance for regulated water industries. We investigate the drivers of profit, price (capital, labour and other inputs) and productivity change (cost efficiency change, technical change and scale effect) and the recipients of productivity change (consumers, the busines...
Article
Full-text available
Frontier efficiency methods have been recurrently used in the water sector to assess the performance of water utilities. These methods are also used for yardstick regulation, with greater efficiency being sought by creating competition between the utilities, which can have an impact on decision-making processes, such as tariff setting. This study a...
Article
Full-text available
In monopoly services that provide drinking water, it is of paramount importance to evaluate the total factor productivity (TFP) change of water companies. Most of the previous studies have computed the Malmquist productivity index (MPI) by applying non-parametric methods. By contrast, following a pioneering approach, in this study, we estimated the...
Article
Evaluating the technological and operational characteristics of the water and sewerage industry is interesting for researchers and policy makers. In this study an input distance function was applied to evaluate the technical efficiency, synergies between water and sewerage services, economies of scale and input substitutability for a sample of full...
Article
Water companies are responsible for supplying water to customers 24 h per day. However, due to extreme natural events and/or anthropogenic actions, water companies suffer from unplanned water supply interruptions, which directly impact customers and incur expenses by the companies. In this study, for the first time, we estimated the shadow price (o...
Article
Estimating productivity change and its determinants is of great importance when measuring the performance of a firm. A true random effect cost model was employed to measure the cost efficiency of water companies in England and Wales from 1993 to 2016. Subsequently, total factor productivity change was estimated and decomposed into cost-efficiency c...
Article
In this study, a normalized quadratic cost function was employed to estimate total factor productivity for the water sector in England and Wales over the period 1993–2016. Productivity was then decomposed into technical change and scale effect. Technical change is further broken down into pure technical change, non-neutral technical change, and eff...
Article
Full-text available
Evaluating the performance of water companies is of great importance for both water utilities and water regulators. This paper explores comparative levels of technical efficiencies and technology gap ratios with the metafrontier concept by estimating an input distance function using stochastic frontier techniques. The metafrontier framework is empl...
Article
Full-text available
An important aspect of the regulatory process is the performance comparison of regulated firms. This exists in regulated industries where tariffs are determined through a benchmarking process such as the English and Welsh water industry. A double-bootstrap data envelopment analysis (DEA) approach was applied to overcome the uncertainty in efficienc...
Article
Several benchmarking techniques have been developed to assess and decompose the productivity growth of the industries. This paper reports the estimation of productivity change and its drivers for 23 water and sewerage companies in Chile during the period between 2007 and 2015, by applying the stochastic frontier approach (SFA) and data envelopment...
Article
Given a changing and uncertain future climate with increasedwater scarcity, one of the main challenges of water companies is to reduce leakage in the water distribution system. To deal withthis challenge, water regulators should introduce efficient economic incentives. In this study, shadow prices of water leakage for 23 Chilean water companies ove...
Article
Full-text available
In regulated industries it is important to identify appropriate performance benchmarks to incentivize companies’ performance. This study applies a stochastic metafrontier approach to estimate the cost efficiency of the English and Welsh Water and Sewerage companies (WaSCs) and Water only companies (WoCs) over the period 1998–2009. The results indic...
Article
The assessment of profit, productivity, and price change over time is valuable for regulators and companies when setting tariffs. This paper innovates by comparing profit, price, and productivity changes for English and Welsh water services between water and sewerage companies (WaSCs) and water-only companies (WoCs) over the period of 2001–2009. Th...
Article
Improving the cost efficiency and quality of service across time corresponds to two important targets for regulated water companies. Following a pioneering approach, we have evaluated the influence of a set of exogenous and quality of service variables on the English and Welsh water companies’ costs over the period of 1996–2009. A true-fixed effect...
Article
Full-text available
The water industry presents several structures in different countries and also within countries. Hence, several studies have been conducted to evaluate the presence of economies of scope and scale in the water industry leading to inconclusive results. The lack of a common methodology has been identified as an important factor contributing to diverg...
Article
The privatization of the water industry has aroused interest in comparing the performance of public vs. private water companies. However, little research has been conducted to compare the performances of full private (FPWCs) and concessionary water companies (CWCs). This study estimates and compares the productivity growth and its drivers (efficien...
Article
Estimating the presence of economies of scale and scope is essential to support restructuring policies aimed at increasing the efficiency of the water industry. This paper demonstrates the usefulness and advantages of using a flexible technology to estimate economies of scale and scope in the water industry. The empirical application focuses on the...
Article
The assessment of productivity change and its drivers across water companies and over time is a powerful tool for both regulators and companies when setting water tariffs. Water and sewerage companies (WaSCs) and water only companies (WoCs) provide different services. Hence, their productivity change cannot directly be evaluated jointly. In this pa...
Article
Full-text available
The assessment of productivity change over time and its drivers is of great significance for water companies and regulators when setting urban water tariffs. This issue is even more relevant in privatized water industries, such as those in England and Wales, where the price-cap regulation is adopted. In this paper, an input-distance function is use...
Article
Full-text available
The assessment of productivity change across companies and over time is of great importance for water utilities managers and regulators. In this paper, for the first time, we apply the Färe-Primont productivity index (FPI) to evaluate the productivity change for the 10 water and sewerage companies (WaSCs) and 12 water only companies (WoCs) in Engla...
Article
Full-text available
Assessing productivity change over time and identifying its determinants is a valuable tool for water regulators when setting water tariffs. However, in a price cap regulatory framework such as in England and Wales policy makers should give attention to quality of service issues. Previous studies that assessed the productivity change of the English...
Article
The evaluation of the economic efficiency of regulatory schemes is essential for regulators and utilities. In this study it is analysed for the first time the welfare costs of non-marginal cost pricing in the water supply in England and Wales, by computing the deadweight loss of the water only companies (WoCs) that existed over the period of 1993–2...
Article
Privately owned water utilities typically operate under a regulated monopoly regime. Price-cap regulation has been introduced as a means to enhance efficiency and innovation. The main objective of this paper is to propose a methodology for measuring productivity change across companies and over time when the sample size is limited. An empirical app...
Chapter
This final chapter presents the overall balance of collection of cases presented in the whole book. In line with the structure of the book, rather than assessing the EPIs themselves, this analysis focuses on their potential and actual contribution to the goals of water policy as the main criterion to discuss the screening, design and implementation...
Chapter
This first chapter sets the scene for the work presented in this book. Based on a review of the literature, the chapter introduces a definition of economic policy instruments (EPIs) and a classification of broad categories of EPIs relevant for water policy that will be used to present the following parts of the book (prices, trading and other instr...
Article
This paper investigates the role of service quality to customers in the efficiency assessment of water companies in England and Wales. To achieve this, data envelopment analysis techniques are employed to compute the technical efficiency of the water companies following two approaches: (i) traditional assessment based on quantity variables (without...
Article
The assessment of relative efficiency of water companies is essential for managers and authorities. This is evident in the UK water sector where there are companies with different services such as water and sewerage companies (WaSCs) and water-only companies (WoCs). Therefore, it is a critical limitation to estimate a common production frontier for...
Article
The new EU strategy on adaptation to climate change suggests flexible and participatory approaches. Face-to-face contact, although it involves time-consuming procedures with a limited audience, has often been considered the most effective participatory approach. In recent years, however, there has been an increase in the visibility of different cit...
Article
Full-text available
There is an increasing call for agricultural water management to adapt to climate change, yet efforts in this direction often consider only the policy dimension, or planned adaptation perspective. However, it is crucial to include an assessment of farmers’ autonomous adaptation into the design and evaluation of rural policy measures. Amongst others...
Chapter
Over the last decades, Cooperative Agreements (CAs) (voluntary, payments for ecosystem services (PES) schemes etc.) have been introduced as supplements to existing command and control regulations, i.e. as part of policy mix, for promoting higher water and environmental efficiency levels than mandated by law. This chapter illustrates the effectivene...
Conference Paper
Full-text available
Designing effective urban water demand management strategies at the household level does require a deep understanding of the determinants of users’ consumption. Low resolution data on residential water consumption, as traditionally metered, can only be used to model consumers’ behavior at an aggregate level whereas end uses breakdown and the motiva...
Conference Paper
Full-text available
Designing effective urban water demand management strategies at the household level does require a deep understanding of the determinants of users’ consumption. Low resolution data on residential water consumption, as traditionally metered, can only be used to model consumers’ behavior at an aggregate level whereas end uses breakdown and the motiva...
Article
Full-text available
The assessment of the profit change over time and its drivers is essential to analyse firms’ financial performance. This paper investigates profit change and its components for the 10 English and Welsh water and sewerage water companies over the period 1991–2008 and three regulatory sub-periods. Profit changes and their drivers are computed followi...