Alexandre De Streel

Alexandre De Streel
University of Namur | FUNDP · Research Center on Information, Law and Society (CRIDS)

PhD
Research on the regulation of the digital economy and AI

About

65
Publications
31,418
Reads
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432
Citations
Introduction
Alexandre de Streel works at the Research Center on Information, Law and Society (CRIDS) which is a member of the Namur Digital Institute (NaDI) at University of Namur, Belgium. He is also a joint-academic director at the Centre on Regulation in Europe (CERRE) in Brussels. Alexandre does research in the regulation of digital industries as well as in technology and law.
Additional affiliations
September 2021 - present
College of Europe
Position
  • Visiting Professor
January 2021 - present
Sciences Po Paris
Position
  • Visiting Professor
January 2016 - February 2022
Centre on Regulation in Europe
Position
  • Academic Director
Education
January 2003 - October 2006

Publications

Publications (65)
Chapter
Full-text available
In an article written for the European Competition Law Conference in 2003, we discussed the treatment of excessive pricing in the European Union, commented upon the case-law, and indicated which exceptional circumstances might in our view justify resorting to excessive pricing actions. We proposed a four-condition test: (1) high and non-transitory...
Chapter
Full-text available
This chapter analyses the role of the European Commission in taking cases of abuse of dominance in the telecommunications sector since its liberalisation in 1998. The argument is that the Commission has played a very active antitrust role, in particular at the beginning of the liberalisation, and that its activism was blessed by the EU Courts. Inde...
Article
Full-text available
This paper reviews the evolution of the Economic and Monetary Union from its inception in 1992 with the Treaty of Maastricht to the most recent reforms adopted in 2013 to respond to the eurocrisis. The paper describes the evolution of the four pillar of economic governance: the surveillance and the correction of fiscal imbalances between the Member...
Article
Full-text available
This paper analyses when EU intervention is needed to achieve this internal market for electronic communications. It sets legal and economic criteria to determine the appropriate scope of the EU intervention. It applies these criteria to several case studies and concludes that sometimes the EU intervention is not always justified (such as regulatio...
Article
Full-text available
The current European regulation for electronic communications has been applicable since 2003 and is currently under a review that should lead to new rules applicable by 2010. This paper aims to assess the implementation of the current regulation and the proposals for reform tabled by the European Commission. It is argued that those proposals go in...
Chapter
In many economic sectors – the digital industries being first and foremost – the market power of dominant firms has been steadily increasing and is rarely challenged by competitors. Existing competition laws and regulations have been unable to make markets more contestable. The book argues that a new competition tool is needed: market investigation...
Article
Full-text available
Deep learning and other black-box models are becoming more and more popular today. Despite their high performance, they may not be accepted ethically or legally because of their lack of explainability. This paper presents the increasing number of legal requirements on machine learning model interpretability and explainability in the context of priv...
Article
Full-text available
The European Commission announced in its Data Strategy (2020) its intentions to propose an enabling legislative framework for the governance of common European data spaces, to review and operationalise data portability, to prioritise standardisation activities and foster data interoperability and to clarify usage rights for co-generated IoT data. T...
Preprint
Full-text available
The requirements on explainability imposed by European laws and their implications for machine learning (ML) models are not always clear. In that perspective, our research analyzes explanation obligations imposed for private and public decision-making, and how they can be implemented by machine learning techniques.
Article
With the growing economic and societal importance of online platforms, the question of their liability for illegal content or products they host becomes more important. Based on an analysis of platforms’ incentives, we address the appropriate liability rule for hosting service providers and derive policy recommendations for an efficient liability r...
Technical Report
Full-text available
Artificial intelligence is a key enabler for autonomous vehicles that potentially provides European citizens with economic, environmental and social benefits. However, a the absence of a relevant European framework around liability, data protection, cybersecurity and protection of users creates costs of non-Europe in terms of economic output and em...
Article
Full-text available
The paper reviews the different legal tools to regulate the personalised pricing and provide some policy recommendations in that regard. Section 1 provides a definition of the personalsied prices and analyses to which extend firms are currently personalising their practices. Section 2 deals with the impacts of personalised pricing on firms’ profits...
Article
Full-text available
Digital services are increasingly important in the economy and in society in general, as they continue to shift from being a specific sector of activities to becoming the basis for the provision of most services. They offer multiple new opportunities from which consumers benefit daily, but they also raise novel questions for consumer protection.
Conference Paper
Full-text available
With the rapid development of the data economy, more and more services (or even goods) are seemingly provided for free because they are not exchanged against monetary prices. However, those services are in general offered in exchange of non-monetary prices such as information (personal or non-personal data, whose value has increased with the develo...
Conference Paper
Full-text available
This paper studies three specific issues around the application of competition policy to big data. The first issue relates to market power assessment and analyses the power given by data control in the big data value chain. The second and third issues relate to abuse of dominance assessment and analyse the use of data to personalise prices and to t...
Article
Full-text available
In this report drawn up for CERRE (a Brussels-based think tank with a focus on network industries), we explore challenges that digital services raise for consumer protection. The report deals with both horizontal consumer protection rules and the sector-specific rules. We make a number of recommendations regarding the smarter disclosure rules and e...
Chapter
Full-text available
This paper focuses on the reformed economic governance applied to the Member States of the euro area. Section II describes the new decision-making process to ensure surveillance and coordination of the national economic policies as well as to sanction the violation of the rules by the Member States. Section III explains how the functioning of the n...
Article
Full-text available
Disruptive innovation, according to business literature, occurs when an innovative product is brought to a market, such as meets the basic requirements of the lower-end of an established value network and also offers added value outside of that value network. That product wins over consumers and progressively takes over the established market, disp...
Chapter
Full-text available
This paper analyses the reforms of the fiscal governance in the Euroopean Union introduced after the euro crisis. The first section is descriptive and gives a brief overview of the new fiscal governance as modified by the six-pack, the TSCG and the two-pack. The second section is critical and analyses the weaknesses of the original fiscal governanc...
Article
Full-text available
This paper analyses the role of the European Commission in taking cases of abuse of dominance in the telecommunications sector since its liberalisation in 1998. The argument is that the Commission has played a very active antitrust role, in particular at the beginning of the liberalisation, and that its activism was blessed by the EU Courts. Indeed...
Article
Full-text available
This paper studies the reform of the main pillars of the EU economic governance following the euro-crisis and the consequences for the fiscal and economic policy in Belgium. The paper describes the surveillance and correction of fiscal imbalances set up by the amended Stability and Growth Pact, the Fiscal Compact and the two-pack. It describes the...
Article
Full-text available
This paper studies the reform of the main pillars of the EU economic governance following the euro-crisis and the consequences for the fiscal and economic policy in Belgium. The paper describes the surveillance and correction of fiscal imbalances set up by the amended Stability and Growth Pact, the Fiscal Compact and the two-pack. It describes the...
Article
Full-text available
This paper analyses the digital internal market and when EU intervention is needed to achieve this internal market. It sets legal and economic criteria to determine the appropriate scope of the EU intervention. It applies these criteria to several case studies and concludes that sometimes the EU intervention is not justified (choice of regulatory r...
Article
Full-text available
Le bilan que l’on peut dresser concernant la libéralisation et le nouveau mode de régulation des industries de réseau en Belgique est assez mitigé. En particulier, les bénéfices issus de la libéralisation tardent à être transférés vers les utilisateurs finaux et le financement des investissements nécessaires aux gains d’efficacité dynamiques n’est...
Chapter
Full-text available
Ce texte introduit les contributions de la commission 3 sur les télécommunications, les services postaux, le secteur de l’électricité (trois industries de réseau), ainsi que les activités bancaires et la distribution. Ces secteurs ont fait l’objet d’une réglementation qui a été ou sera remise en cause par un changement de paradigme régulatoire qui...
Article
The European institutions are currently debating the desirability of imposing restrictions on the way in which internet service providers (ISPs) in the EU can manage their networks and develop their offerings, under the broad heading of 'network neutrality'. In our opinion, so far, the need for new legislation on network neutrality in Europe is unp...
Article
Full-text available
This paper studies the convergence and the remaining divergences of European competition and sector regulation in the electronic communications sector. It shows that (1) antitrust authorities are justified to intervene more intensively in the electronic communications sector than in the other sectors of the economy; (2) the remaining divergences be...
Chapter
Full-text available
Regulatory reform in Europe and the promotion of better regulation and good governance are at the core of the priorities of the successive EU Presidencies . It aims to bring forward the Lisbon Strategy as amended in March 2005 and to progress with the better regulation package proposed by the Commission. This package aims among others at cutting ex...
Chapter
Full-text available
In this paper, we aim to outline some ambiguities of the so-called 2003 regulatory framework for electronic communications. We analyse ambiguities with regard its objectives as well as its institutional design (in particular the role of the European Commission), and try to propose some ways forward to alleviate that its implementation ends up incre...
Article
Full-text available
This paper offers a first assessment of the so-called Significant Market Power regime in the European electronic communications sector nearly two years after its implementation. It details the substantive rules and the institutional design of the regime. It shows that, out of the six governance principles that the regime was deemed to achieve, two...
Chapter
Full-text available
In 1987, the European Commission initiated an ambitious liberalisation program aimed to foster the emergence of a single EU telecommunications market securing the necessary critical mass for a dynamic telecommunications sector and improving the competitiveness of the European economy in an increased globalised world . Thus the industry went under a...
Article
Full-text available
A new regulatory framework for electronic communications (fixed and mobile telephony, Internet, cable TV, …) is due to be applicable in the Member States of the European Union in July 2003. One of the main important aspects of the framework is the regulation of the operators enjoying significant market power, which has now been aligned on competiti...
Article
Full-text available
A new regulatory framework for electronic communications (fixed and mobile telephony, Internet, cable TV, …) is due to be applicable in the Member States of the European Union in July 2003. This framework is composed of several Directives whose one – the Universal Service Directive – regulates the retail markets and the relationships between operat...
Article
Full-text available
The regulation of electronic communications has been recently reformed in Europe. One striking feature of the review was to base most of the economic regulation – the so-called significant market power regime – on antitrust principles. In particular, the regulated markets have to be defined according to competition law methodologies. This paper des...
Article
Ce texte a pour objectif de comparer la structure d es dépenses publiques d'un point de vue régional (territorial) et d'un point de vue communautaire (l inguistique) : d'une part nous comparons les dépens es (tant régionales que communautaires) qui sont effec tuées sur le territoire des Régions flamande, wallonne et bruxelloise ; d'autre part, nous...
Article
This paper addresses the manner in which electronic communications markets are selected for the main part of economic regulation applicable in the EU. It shows that the new 2003 regulatory framework is innovative with regard to its substantive as well as its institutional approaches. On substance, the generic selection criterion is now based on the...

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