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Alexandre C. Martensen

Alexandre C. Martensen
Federal University of São Carlos, Buri, SP, Brazil · CCN

PhD
Professor Adjunto C I, Federal University of São Carlos, Nature Science Centre, Buri, Brazil

About

54
Publications
49,643
Reads
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3,875
Citations
Citations since 2017
32 Research Items
2065 Citations
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20172018201920202021202220230100200300400
Additional affiliations
July 2018 - present
Federal University of São Carlos, Buri, SP, Brazil
Position
  • Professor (Assistant)
July 2018 - present
Universidade Federal de São Carlos
Position
  • Professor (Assistant)
Description
  • Undergrad Biological Science: Geoprocessing, landscape ecology, restoration ecology, environmental legislation Undergrad Environmental Engineering: Environmental monitoring Undergrad Agronomy: Environmental legislation, environmental restoration
February 2017 - July 2018
Instituto Nacional de Pesquisas da Amazônia
Position
  • PostDoc Position
Education
September 2012 - January 2017
University of Toronto
Field of study
  • Ecology and Evolutionary Biology
January 2005 - June 2008
University of Sao Paulo, Department of Ecology
Field of study
  • Ecology
January 1997 - December 2001
University of São Paulo
Field of study
  • Biological Science

Publications

Publications (54)
Article
Full-text available
It is known that large fragment sizes and high connectivity levels are key components for maintaining species in fragments; however, their relative effects are poorly understood, especially in tropical areas. In order to test these effects, we built models for explaining understory birds occurrence in a fragmented Atlantic Rain Forest landscape wit...
Article
Full-text available
Theoretical and empirical studies demonstrate that the total amount of forest and the size and connectivity of fragments have nonlinear effects on species survival. We tested how habitat amount and configuration affect understory bird species richness and abundance. We used mist nets (almost 34,000 net hours) to sample birds in 53 Atlantic Forest f...
Article
Full-text available
Ecological set-asides are a promising strategy for conserving biodiversity in human-modified landscapes; however, landowner participation is often precluded by financial constraints. We assessed the ecological benefits and economic costs of paying landowners to set aside private land for restoration. Benefits were calculated from data on nearly 25,...
Article
Full-text available
Tropical forests have an important role in the global carbon cycle, as they store a large amount of carbon (C). Tropical forest deforestation has been identified as a major source of CO2 emissions, though biomass loss due to fragmentation – by creating forest edges – has been largely overlooked as an additional CO2 source. Here, through the combina...
Article
Full-text available
Landscape heterogeneity and habitat connectivity affect species movements, playing an important role in determining the likelihood of species persistence. However, landscape connectivity is usually evaluated using static snap-shots, which do not account for the sequential interactions among habitat patches through time. 2.We developed a network-bas...
Article
Full-text available
The genus Phrynomedusa Miranda-Ribeiro, 1923 comprises rare and little known phyllomedusid species from southern Atlantic Forest, Brazil. Phrynomedusa appendiculata (Lutz, 1925) is known from three localities since its description and considered a "lost species" because it was last sighted 51 years ago. This pervasive lack of knowledge raised a sig...
Chapter
Full-text available
Em 1994, Peter Kareiva editorou um importante número especial da revista Ecology, cuja alusão presente no título "Space: the final frontier for ecological theory", reflete claramente a importância que as questões espaciais haviam ganho dentro da Ecologia. Especialmente para a conservação biológica, já era evidente que um dos fatores que mais influe...
Chapter
Full-text available
With a wide distribution across eastern South America, the Brazilian Atlantic Forest is a mosaic of lowland and montane vegetation types, such as evergreen forest, semideciduous and deciduous forest, mixed forest (e.g., Araucaria), mangroves, and restingas. It has long been recognized as having one of the most diversified biotas on the planet, with...
Chapter
Full-text available
A Ecologia de Paisagens possui duas diferentes origens. A sua origem mais antiga se deu na Europa, especialmente com base nos trabalhos de Carl Troll (1950), com grande influência da geografia, particularmente da geografia humana, e dos ramos da geografia vinculados ao planejamento regional e ocupação territorial. Mais recentemente, um segundo nasc...
Article
Full-text available
Biodiversity loss is currently one of the most important societal concerns worldwide, and it is caused mainly by habitat loss and fragmentation, biological invasion, and climate change (Vitousek et al. 1996, Newbold et al. 2015, Bellard et al. 2016). Introduced species can have positive effects on human well‐being, especially when used for liveliho...
Article
Full-text available
Biological invasion is one of the main threats to native biodiversity. For a species to become invasive it must be voluntarily or involuntarily introduced by humans into a non-native habitat. Mammals were among first taxa to be introduced worldwide for game, meat and labor, yet the number of species introduced in the Neotropics remains unknown. In...
Preprint
Full-text available
Nesse texto, nosso objetivo foi o de demonstrar que municípios podem e devem desenvolver ações locais com vistas a garantir a Segurança Alimentar e Nutricional (SAN) de seus munícipes em tempo de pandemia. O processo de descentralização do pacto federativo incentivado pela Constituição Federal de 1988 e o aprendizado institucional derivado da imple...
Article
Full-text available
Climate change can affect the habitat resources available to species by changing habitat quantity, suitability and spatial configuration, which largely determine population persistence in the landscape. In this context, dispersal is a central process for species to track their niche. Assessments of the amount of reachable habitat (ARH) using static...
Chapter
Full-text available
A restauração ecológica deve assumir a difícil responsabilidade de restabelecer os processos ecológicos necessários ao estabelecimento de florestas viáveis, para que estas prestem os serviços almejados, sejam esses serviços, ambientais, de conservação de biodiversidade, ou de fornecimento de produtos florestais, salvaguardando, assim, os interesses...
Article
Habitat destruction is the single greatest anthropogenic threat to biodiversity. Decades of research on this issue have led to the accumulation of hundreds of data sets comparing species assemblages in larger, intact, habitats to smaller, more fragmented, habitats. Despite this, little synthesis or consensus has been achieved, primarily because of...
Article
Full-text available
Xenarthrans—anteaters, sloths, and armadillos—have essential functions for ecosystem maintenance, such as insect control and nutrient cycling, playing key roles as ecosystem engineers. Because of habitat loss and fragmentation, hunting pressure, and conflicts with domestic dogs, these species have been threatened locally, regionally, or even across...
Article
Full-text available
Xenarthrans—anteaters, sloths, and armadillos—have essential functions for ecosystem maintenance, such as insect control and nutrient cycling, playing key roles as ecosystem engineers. Because of habitat loss and fragmentation, hunting pressure, and conflicts with domestic dogs, these species have been threatened locally, regionally, or even across...
Article
Full-text available
The complexity of climate change impacts on ecological processes necessitates flexible and adaptive conservation strategies that cross traditional disciplines. Current strategies involving protected areas are predominantly fixed in space, and may on their own be inadequate under climate change. Here, we propose a novel approach to climate adaptatio...
Article
Full-text available
Habitat fragmentation results in landscape configuration, which affects the species that inhabit it. As a consequence, natural habitat is replaced by different anthropogenic plantation types (e.g. pasture, agriculture, forestry plantations and urban areas). Anthropogenic plantations are important for biodiversity maintenance because some species or...
Article
Full-text available
South America holds 30% of the world's avifauna, with the Atlantic Forest representing one of the richest region of the Neotropics. Here we compiled a dataset on Brazilian Atlantic Forest bird occurrence (150,423) and abundance samples (N=832 bird species; 33,119) using multiple methods, including qualitative surveys, mist-nets, point counts, and l...
Article
Full-text available
Our understanding of mammal ecology has always been hindered by the difficulties of observing species in closed tropical forests. Camera trapping has become a major advance for monitoring terrestrial mammals in biodiversity rich ecosystems. Here we compiled one of the largest datasets of inventories of terrestrial mammal communities for the Neotrop...
Article
Full-text available
Finney claims that we did not include transaction costs while assessing the economic costs of a set-aside program in Brazil and that accounting for them could potentially render large payments for environmental services (PES) projects unfeasible. We agree with the need for a better understanding of transaction costs but provide evidence that they d...
Article
Full-text available
Buckley and Pegas claim that it would be politically difficult to reallocate agricultural subsidies to conservation. In our Report, we compare the economic costs of a strategy in which land is set aside for restoration to what is currently spent on agricultural subsidies. We do not suggest that
Article
Full-text available
The effectiveness of ecological restoration actions toward biodiversity conservation depends on both local and landscape constraints. Extensive information on local constraints is already available, but few studies consider the landscape context when planning restoration actions. We propose a multiscale framework based on the landscape attributes o...
Chapter
Full-text available
Mapeamentos para a conservação Mata Atlântica: em busca de uma estratégia espacial integradora para orientar ações aplicadas - Série Biodiversidade 49.
Article
Full-text available
Selecting sites for ecological restoration is an imperative, although challenging task. We developed a spatially explicit model to support site design and prioritization towards ecological restoration. We considered seven distinct and flexible templates, two based on legislation requirements and five on landscape spatial parameters, such as corrido...
Technical Report
Full-text available
Estudos, mapas e memorial descritivo da área proposta para a criação do Parque Estadual Nascentes o Paranapanema, nos municípios de Ribeirão Grande e Capão Bonito.
Chapter
Full-text available
The Neotropical Atlantic Forest is one of the world’s top biodiversity hotspot. Originally, the forest extended over 1.5 million km2 along the South American Atlantic coast, covering tropical and subtropical climates across highly heterogeneous relief conditions, which led to outstanding levels of endemism and species richness. Unfortunately, the A...
Article
Full-text available
D esde 1934 o Brasil tem legislação es­ pecífica que rege a exploração de seus recursos naturais. O atual Código Florestal data de 15 de setembro de 1965 e preserva recursos naturais, bens de interesse comum a todos os brasi­ leiros, como expresso em seu artigo 1°, estabelecendo regras de ocupação do território nacional de forma a manter tais recur...
Article
1. The use of indicators to identify areas of conservation importance has been challenged on several grounds, but nonetheless retains appeal as no more parsimonious approach exists. Among the many variants, two indicator strategies stand out: the use of indicator species and the use of metrics of landscape structure. While the first has been thorou...
Article
Full-text available
The neotropical Atlantic Forest supports one of the highest degrees of species richness and rates of endemism on the planet, but has also undergone a huge forest loss. However, there exists no broad-scale information about the spatial distribution of its remnants that could guide conservation actions, especially when systematic biodiversity data ar...
Article
Full-text available
Time-lagged responses of biological variables to landscape modifications are widely recognized, but rarely considered in ecological studies. In order to test for the existence of time-lags in the response of trees, small mammals, birds and frogs to changes in fragment area and connectivity, we studied a fragmented and highly dynamic landscape in th...
Article
Full-text available
RESUMO Por lidar com unidades complexas e muitas vezes espacialmente extensas, a Ecologia de Paisagens utiliza usualmente representações abstratas e simplificadas das paisagens reais, i.e. modelos. Este artigo faz uma análise de alguns destes modelos e apresenta três estudos de caso, onde diferentes modelos são utilizados para: i) entender os efeit...
Article
Full-text available
In the last five years, the Morro Grande Forest Reserve (MGFR) has been systematically surveyed for different taxonomic groups. More than 13.000 individuals from 673 species of trees, nonvolant small mammals, birds, reptiles, anurans and orb-weaver spiders were sampled. The comparative analysis of the results reveals consistent biodiversity pattern...
Article
Full-text available
A total of 198 bird species was recorded in the Morro Grande Forest Reserve. The survey was conducted between 2001 and 2003 using qualitative and quantitative (mist-nets and point counts) methods. The number of species recorded with the quantitative methods was lower if compared with the total number of species registered in the reserve, with 98 sp...

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Projects

Projects (5)
Project
Possivelmente os efeitos das mudanças climáticas seja o maior desafio que a humanidade tenha se deparado. Nas próximas décadas cada região enfrentará oscilações do clima que colocarão em risco a oferta de diversos serviços ecossistêmicos que são essenciais para a sobrevivência humana. Neste contexto este estudo objetiva avaliar a capacidade de regulação da oferta dos serviços ecossistêmicos através do manejo das paisagens, considerando variações extremas do clima. Para tanto investigaremos como paisagens com diferentes composições e configurações provêm importantes serviços ecossistêmicos de regulação: disponibilidade hídrica, acúmulo de carbono e dispersão de sementes. Essa análise será feita dentro do contexto do Continuum Cantareira que agrega Unidades de Conservação de Uso Sustentável e de Proteção Integral permitindo avaliar o papel dessas Unidades na provisão desses recursos. Utilizando novas tecnologias de amostragens, que permitem a coleta de grande quantidade de informação simultaneamente, de forma precisa e com alta resolução temporal, em conjunto com a modelagem da dinâmica espaço-temporal para simular prováveis cenários futuros, verificaremos como a resiliência na oferta desses serviços varia em paisagens multifuncionais. Esses resultados são fundamentais para o planejamento de ações de adaptação a essas mudanças globais, a fim de mantermos paisagens que garantam a segurança hídrica e a produtividade no meio rural, assim como a conservação da biodiversidade e o funcionamento adequado dos ecossistemas.
Project
The historical decline of Atlantic Forest area in Brazil has now transitioned into a modest forest increase. The underlined voluntary nature of reforestation activities by landscape actors poses a large challenge to reforestation policy goals, since the vast agricultural areas in the state of Sao Paulo have a strong restorative effect on land rent prices. This makes reforestation highly expensive and as a result, mainly marginal land and degraded pasture land are restored. This will not always generate the desire effects in terms of biodiversity conservation and the provision of other ecosystem services. In the context of a landscape approach, governance of ecosystem services requires the creation of shared rules among landscape actors that should lead to fair and sustainable use of ecosystem services. Rules can include incentives, but the relations between services and their perceived (economic) values may not scale linearly, jeopardizing the marginal benefits payment systems might achieve. Payments may also cause conflicts among actors and can lead to leakage effects. To improve the effectiveness of restoration strategies, the enabling policy environments for payments of ecosystem services need to be improved and will be studied in detail. With increasing reforestation, the ecosystem processes and services may not be fully restored. Services are likely to be heterogeneously distributed in both space and time. Very often, spatial-temporal trade-offs are found among the various services provided by forests. To date, empirical evidence on the temporal and spatial distribution of ecosystem services delivered by reforestation and their trade-offs is largely unavailable, but new frameworks to study forest dynamics have been developed on which we will build further. We will adequately measure and model ecosystem services distributions to support landscape governance. The project will therefore address the socio-ecological systems that drive forest change and the spatial distribution of ecosystem services in the landscape. The enabling policy environments will be assessed to develop proper incentives for forest restoration and provision of ES.
Project
Food systems with high levels of environmental and social sustainability can be found in various parts of the globe. Different intents try to eliminate or make these systems invisible. This research project follows the reverse direction. We seek to identify, investigate, and understand processes that promote the territorial expansion of these systems, interested in knowing the limits and potential of these processes. Thus, this project brings together different research that studies the role of different social actors (e.g., State, social movements, consumers, academy, markets) in scaling more sustainable food systems. Sistemas agroalimentares com elevado nível de sustentabilidade ambiental e social podem ser encontrados nas mais diversas partes do globo. Diferentes interesses tentam eliminar e/ou invisibilizar estes sistemas. Este projeto de pesquisa segue na direção inversa. Buscamos identificar, pesquisar e compreender processos que promovem a expansão territorial desses sistemas, interessados em conhecer os limites e potencialidades destes processos. Assim, este projeto congrega diferentes pesquisas que estudam o papel de diferentes atores sociais (e.g. Estado, movimentos sociais, consumidores, agroindústrias, academia, mercados) na territorialização de sistemas agroalimentares mais sustentáveis.