Alexandra Neukum

Alexandra Neukum
University of Wuerzburg | JMU · Department of Psychology

About

98
Publications
38,102
Reads
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1,516
Citations
Citations since 2017
50 Research Items
1372 Citations
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2017201820192020202120222023050100150200250
2017201820192020202120222023050100150200250
2017201820192020202120222023050100150200250

Publications

Publications (98)
Article
Augmented reality (AR) technology could establish direct relationships between displayed information and objects in the real driving environment, e.g. by highlighting relevant objects in the traffic environment. However, it is unclear how these potential benefits of augmentation affect drivers’ distraction from the driving task and their level of w...
Article
Full-text available
Vehicles equipped with so-called partially automated driving functions are becoming more and more common nowadays. The special feature of this automation level is that the driver is relieved of the execution of the lateral and longitudinal driving task, although they must still monitor the driving environment and the automated system. The method pr...
Conference Paper
Full-text available
The presented simulator study compared two different driver-in-the-loop strategies on driver's eye glances and intervention behavior at system limits in partial automated driving with a control condition without any strategy: A state-dependent strategy achieved by a driver monitoring system and a situation-dependent strategy by using a monitoring r...
Article
Full-text available
The presented method describes a standardized test procedure for the evaluation of takeover performance of drivers during automated driving. It was primarily developed to be used for evaluating Level 3 systems (conditional automated driving). It should be applied in a driving simulator environment during the development phase of a system. The metho...
Conference Paper
The presented simulator study investigated the effectiveness, user experience and usability of an innovative driver monitoring system (DMS) for partially automated driving, called "Jeannie". This virtual assistant provided continuous visual emotional feedback dependent on drivers' monitoring behaviour and issued warnings and speech outputs in respo...
Article
Full-text available
The introduction of automated-driving functions provides passengers with the opportunity to engage in non-driving related tasks during the ride. However, this benefit might be compromised by an increased incidence of motion sickness. Therefore, we investigated the effectiveness of active seat belt retractions as a countermeasure against motion sick...
Article
Relevant riding information such as speed or navigation instructions are typically displayed in head down dashboards on Powered Two-Wheelers. Data glasses provide information directly in the field of view and could, therefore, reduce glances away from the roadway ahead to focus on the dashboard. This study aimed to examine whether providing informa...
Technical Report
Full-text available
Human Factors Fragestellungen sind ein wachsendes Forschungsfeld im Kontext des automatisierten Fahrens. Trotz der großen Anzahl an neu veröffentlichten Studien zu verschiedenen Themengebieten fällt auf, dass die meisten Studien kein standardisiertes Vorgehen beispielsweise bei der Untersuchung von Übernahmesituationen verwenden, was die Vergleichb...
Article
The paper compares and evaluates three different HMIs (Human Machine Interface) for an ADAS (Advanced Driver Assistance System) supporting cooperative interactions between drivers while merging and turning left. In road traffic, cooperation means that drivers (cooperation partners) coordinate their driving behaviour in a way that they facilitate ea...
Book
Full-text available
While driving simulators are a commonly used tool for a wide range of safety-relevant research topics in the passenger car sector, motorcycle riding simulators are currently less prevalent. In order to get an overview of possible applications of motorcycle simulators, a validation methodology for driving simulators was developed within the scope of...
Book
The aim of the project FE 82.0710/2018 "Corner Fear", which is being carried out by the Department of Automotive Engineering (FZD) of the Technical University of Darmstadt (TU-DA), the Würzburg Institute of Transportation Sciences GmbH (WIVW) and Auto Mobil Forschung Dresden GmbH (AMFD), is to ana-lyse the leaning positions of motorcyclists in ever...
Technical Report
Full-text available
The report presents two standardized methodological approaches for evaluating the efficiency and safety of human-machine interaction in the use of partially automated driving functions. For this purpose, test criteria were defined to assess the fulfilment of the necessary requirements for conveying adequate system knowledge, adequate system and sit...
Article
Full-text available
The user's perspective on highly automated driving systems is mostly studied during first contact/single usage. However, with repeated usage, acceptance and usage of automated driving systems might change. For advanced driving assistance systems, change with growing system usage is studied as behavioural adaptation. This concept of behavioural adap...
Conference Paper
The choice of an appropriate research environment is a fundamental issue for research on advanced driver assistance system controllability which precedes questions regarding the criticality of test scenarios and the deduction of pass-fail-criteria. The methodological trade-off between research on test tracks and driving simulation cannot be resolve...
Article
To support the coordination of road users in situations like merging or turning left, an advanced driver assistance system for cooperative driving could be helpful whether driving manually or automated. This simulator study investigated the behavior of drivers being confronted with system failures. In two test situations with system failures (loss...
Conference Paper
Full-text available
Severe motorcycle accidents in cornering situations and without the influence of other road users are conspicuously frequent in the statistics. From reconstructions of these accidents it is known that the maximum possible lean angle potential was not exploited. As part of the BASt research project "Corner-Fear" (project FE 82.0710/2018), it is ther...
Conference Paper
Previous research on external Human-Machine Interfaces (eHMI) has primarily focused on interactions between automated vehicles and pedestrians. So far, little attention has been paid to the cyclist as vulnerable interaction partner. Compared to pedestrians, interactions with cyclists are usually much more dynamic and might, therefore, lead to diffe...
Article
Ambiguous situations in traffic often require communication and cooperation between road users. In order to resolve these situations and increase cooperative driving behavior in situations of merging or turning left, manual drivers could be assisted by an advanced driver assistance system (ADAS) for cooperative driving. This simulator study investi...
Chapter
We examined the necessity for plausibilization of test scenarios within usability studies for AV HMIs in driving simulator studies. One group of drivers experienced system-initiated transitions without any obvious reason, the other with plausible reasons (e.g. fog for L3 → L2 transition, broken-down vehicle for L3 TOR). The results showed that reac...
Chapter
To ensure safe interactions between automated vehicles and non-automated road users in mixed traffic environments, recent studies have focused on external human-machine interfaces (eHMI) as a communication interface of automated vehicles. Most studies focused on the research question which kind of eHMI can support this interaction. However, the fun...
Article
Full-text available
Within a workshop on evaluation methods for automated vehicles (AVs) at the Driving Assessment 2019 symposium in Santa Fe; New Mexico, a heuristic evaluation methodology that aims at supporting the development of human–machine interfaces (HMIs) for AVs was presented. The goal of the workshop was to bring together members of the human factors commun...
Article
Full-text available
Research on external human–machine interfaces (eHMIs) has recently become a major area of interest in the field of human factors research on automated driving. The broad variety of methodological approaches renders the current state of research inconclusive and comparisons between interface designs impossible. To date, there are no standardized tes...
Technical Report
Full-text available
The report at hand gives an overview of current research issues and relevant methodical aspects concerning the conceptualization of experimental studies on highly automated driving (according to SAE automation level 3). For that purpose, 569 relevant publications from 1998 to 2019 were analyzed. The content of the report may serve as a guideline fo...
Book
Full-text available
In den nächsten Jahren ist mit einer steigenden An­ zahl autofahrender Senioreninnen und Senioren1 im Straßenverkehr zu rechnen. Mit zunehmendem Alter gehen jedoch zahlreiche fahrrelevante Leis­ tungsveränderungen und Einschränkungen einher. Ein relativ neuartiger Ansatz zur Kompensation altersbedingter Einschränkungen und zur Sen­ kung des Unf...
Conference Paper
The investigation of drivers’ take-over performance when switching from working on different non-driving related tasks (NDRTs) while driving with a conditionally automated driving function (SAE L3) is an important human factors topic in current vehicle automation research, as drivers are required as a potential fallback during the automated drive....
Presentation
Full-text available
System initiated steering interventions could be used to prevent collisions which to date cannot be fully prevented by autonomous emergency braking. To successfully prevent the collision and maximize the benefit of steering interventions high lateral dynamics are required. In addition, the time of system-initiated triggering should be optimized to...
Presentation
Introduction Within the next years, vehicles will be capable of taking over the driving task in certain environments without the need to be continuously monitored by the user. This so-called conditionally automated driving (L3-automation according to SAE J3016 [1]), unlike highly or fully automated driving, still will require the user as a fallbac...
Conference Paper
Full-text available
Aktuell gelten für aktiv in die Querführung eingreifende Assistenzsysteme geschwindigkeitsabhängige Grenzwerte, welche die Wirksamkeit im Nutzenfall beschränken. Die Grundlage dieser Grenzwerte bilden Toleranzgrenzen für fahrdynamische Kennwerte, die anhand von subjektiven Bewertungen der Kontrollierbarkeit von Falschauslösungen ermittelt wurden (T...
Conference Paper
This paper investigates whether an Augmented Reality Head-up Display (AR-HUD) supports usability and reduces visual demand during conditionally automated driving. In a driving simulator study, 24 drivers experienced several driving scenarios while driving with conditional automation. The drivers completed one drive with a fully developed HMI design...
Article
Full-text available
Automated driving systems are getting pushed into the consumer market, with varying degrees of automation. Most often the driver's task will consist of being available as a fall-back level when the automation reaches its limits. These so-called takeover situations have attracted a great body of research, focusing on various human factors aspects (e...
Article
In a driving simulator study we evaluated a speech-based driver assistance system for urban intersections (called Assistance on Demand AoD system) which supports the driver in monitoring and decision making. The system provides recommendations for suitable time gaps to enter the intersection based on the observation of crossing traffic. Following an...
Article
One of the major challenges of designing an HMI for partially automated vehicles is the trade-off between a sufficient level of system information and avoidance of distracting the driver. This study aimed to investigate drivers’ glance behavior as an indicator of dis- traction when vehicle guidance is partially automated. Therefore, an on-road expe...
Article
Conditionally automated driving (CAD) systems are expected to improve traffic safety. Whenever the CAD system exceeds its limit of operation, designers of the system need to ensure a safe and timely enough transition from automated to manual mode. An existing visual Human-Machine Interface (HMI) was supplemented by different auditory outputs. The p...
Article
This study investigated driver performance during system limits of partially automated driving. Using a motionbased driving simulator, drivers encountered different situations in which a partially automated vehicle could no longer safely keep the lateral guidance. Drivers were distracted by a non-driving related task on a touch display or driving w...
Article
Full-text available
During conditionally automated driving (CAD), driving time can be used for non-driving-related tasks (NDRTs). To increase safety and comfort of an automated ride, upcoming automated manoeuvres such as lane changes or speed adaptations may be communicated to the driver. However, as the driver’s primary task consists of performing NDRTs, they might p...
Conference Paper
Full-text available
Conditionally automated driving (CAD) relieves the driver from monitoring current traffic conditions. This type of driving inherently enables the driver to execute different non-driving-related tasks (NDRTs). However, the driver still must be available as a backup option. With this in mind, the classification and evaluation of various NDRTs concern...
Conference Paper
Conditionally Automated Driving (CAD) functions need to be carefully examined regarding related driver attitudes such as trust and usability to increase their acceptance among future system users. By adding speech output to an existing audio-visual Human-Machine Interface (HMI), the level of trust in automation was suspected to be increased due to...
Poster
Full-text available
Poster presented at the Ko-HAF interim presentation
Chapter
The subproject UR:BANKON“Controllability“ developed and evaluatedmethodswhich can be used to assess safetyand controllability in early-stage development of new driver assistance systems. The empirical studies focused on emergency steering and evasion assistants that help the driver to avoid collisions in time-critical scenarios. Several factors lik...
Chapter
The development of evasion systems is a challenge when it comes to the design of the human machine interaction. To effectively assist the driver and prevent a collision, an emergency evasive manoeuvre has to be highly dynamic whichmay have an adverse effect on controllability in case of system failures.Therefore it is important to find a good trade...
Conference Paper
Full-text available
Vehicle automation is one of the most rapidly growing fields within the domain of traffic research and from a technical standpoint, the vision of self-driving cars has become more and more tangible within recent years. Highly automated driving (HAD) is characterized by the automatic exertion of lateral and longitudinal vehicle control without the n...
Presentation
Full-text available
Presentation of a method to assess driver's fatigue with a camera-based eye tracking system.
Article
Increasingly complex in-vehicle information systems (IVIS) have become available in the automotive vehicle interior. To ensure usability and safety of use while driving, the distraction potential of system-associated tasks is most often analyzed during the development process, either by employing empirical or analytical methods, with both families...
Chapter
Full-text available
Cooperative perception of the traffic environment will enable Highly Automated Driving (HAD) functions to provide timelier and more complex Take-Over Requests (TOR) than it is possible with vehicle-localized perception alone. Furthermore, cooperative perception will extend automated vehicles’ capability of performing tactic and strategic maneuvers...
Chapter
Seamless Electronics for Automotive Services. Going forward from the last ELIV „Electronics in Vehicles“ in 2015 – the most significant Congress in Automotive Electronics has now seen a substantial upgrade. In line with the feedback given by participants, speakers and journalists we have added new elements and contents to the event, which is benefi...
Conference Paper
Full-text available
Hochautomatisiertes Fahren entbindet den Fahrer von der permanenten Überwachung der Verkehrssituation. Im Gegensatz zum manuellen oder Teilautomatisierten Fahren wird hierdurch prinzipiell aus Fahrersicht die Ausführung einer Vielzahl an unterschiedlichen fahrfremden Tätigkeiten (FFT) möglich. Der Fahrer muss jedoch auch beim Hochautomatisierten Fa...
Conference Paper
Cooperative Conditionally Automated Driving (CAD) systems pose new challenges to the development of human-machine interfaces (HMI). The system's current status and intentions must be communicated unambiguously to ensure safe driver-system interaction and acceptance. This topic is becoming increasingly important as advanced automated driving functio...
Conference Paper
Full-text available
Conditionally automated driving reliefs the driver from manually controlling the vehicle and continuous monitoring of the driving situation. Driving time can thus be used for non-driving-related activities, however, the driver still has to be ready to take over manual vehicle control occasionally. Therefore, driving performance during take-over sit...
Conference Paper
Full-text available
During conditionally automated driving there is no need for continuous monitoring while the automated driving function carries out vehicle control (SAE Level 3). Nevertheless, taking over manual control will be necessary in case of system limits. Driver performance during such take-over situations has mainly been investigated using either simple, s...
Conference Paper
We evaluated a system to support the driver in urban intersections (called "Assistance on Demand" AoD system). The system is controlled via speech and supports the driver in monitoring and decision making by providing recommendations for suitable time gaps to enter the intersection. This speech-based control of the system allows the implementation...
Article
Cooperative warning systems have a great potential to prevent traffic accidents. However, because of their predictive nature, they might also go along with an increased frequency of incorrect alarms that could limit their effectiveness. To better understand the consequences associated with incorrect alarms, a driving simulator study with N = 80 dri...
Conference Paper
Full-text available
During highly automated driving, upcoming automated manoeuvres (e.g., lane changes) should be communicated to the driver in order to ensure system transparency. As driving time can be used for non- driving-related tasks (NDRT), such as office work or in-vehicle entertainment, drivers might prefer to be informed in a non-distracting way as interrupt...
Conference Paper
Vehicle manufacturers have introduced second-level automation systems that are capable of both longitudinal and lateral vehicle control, but the driver has to be able to take over the vehicle control at all times. To emphasise this, these partial automation systems usually allow hands-free driving only for short time periods (e.g. 10 s). In a dynam...
Research
Full-text available
Presentation held at the UR:BAN Conference in Garching.
Article
Different motor vehicle manufacturers have recently introduced assistance systems that are capable of both longitudinal and lateral vehicle control, while the driver still has to be able to take over the vehicle control at all times (so-called Partial Automation). While these systems usually allow hands-free driving only for short time periods (e.g...
Conference Paper
Full-text available
Verschiedene Automobilhersteller haben kürzlich Assistenzsysteme zur gleichzeitigen Unterstützung der Längs- und Querführung eingeführt (sog. Teilautomatisierung). Da es dem Fahrer nicht erlaubt ist, sich während dem teilautomatisierten Fahren von der Fahraufgabe abzuwenden, erlauben diese Systeme in der Regel das Fahren ohne Hände (Hands-off) am L...
Conference Paper
Driver assistance systems like Adaptive Cruise Control (ACC) allow drivers to automatically maintain a comfortable distance to a preceding vehicle. One crucial parameter for these systems is the optimal following distance in seconds (time headway, THW). Studies show that drivers decrease their THWs as velocity increases (e.g., Brackstone, Waterson...
Conference Paper
Full-text available
Driver warnings are increasingly complex with regard to the information that is displayed to the driver. For example, several studies suggest that including information about the direction of a conflict increases the effectiveness of driver warnings. However, this requires to recognize and track other road users by on-board or cooperative sensors....
Conference Paper
Driver assistance systems that are capable of taking over both longitudinal and lateral vehicle control have been recently introduced to the market. All of these systems allow drivers to take off their hands for a limited amount of time, but also require drivers to be able to take over vehicle control at all times and can therefore be classified as...
Conference Paper
Full-text available
Zusammenfassung: Ziel dieser Feldstudie war die Untersuchung der Bereitschaft zur Durchführung fahrfremder Tätigkeiten mit unterschiedlichen Graden der Fahrzeugautomatisierung. N = 32 Fahrer verschiedener Altersgruppen mit und ohne vorherige ACC-Erfahrung absolvierten Testfahrten im Berufsverkehr auf einer Autobahnstrecke und wurden entweder durch...
Conference Paper
Full-text available
Vehicle automation will be introduced stepwise to the consumer market. On an initial level, it is likely that these functions are going to operate only within a limited velocity range or only in a limited number of use cases (e.g., in traffic jams). Consequently, the frequency of state transitions to lower levels of vehicle automation as well as th...
Conference Paper
Full-text available
The progress in developing highly automated driving applications and the corresponding opportunities for the driver to take himself out of the loop have raised a couple of questions regarding the effects of highly automated driving on the driver's state. Within this framework a simulator study was conducted at the Wuerzburg Institute for Traffic Sc...
Article
Full-text available
The present study focuses on steering interventions that “push” the driver’s vehicle away from the obstacle suddenly entering the vehicle’s trajectory from the side of the road (e.g. a cyclist or a car leaving a parking space).The main objective was to investigate the effectiveness of the different intervention strategies while considering safety-o...
Article
Full-text available
Cooperative perception makes it possible – in addition to emergency warnings – to provide drivers with early advisory warnings about potentially dangerous driving situations. Based on research results pertaining to imminent crash warnings, it was expected that the effectiveness of such advisory warnings depends on situation-specific anticipations b...
Conference Paper
Full-text available
Future perception and communication technologies provide the possibility of assisting drivers by so-called advisory warnings in potentially dangerous driving situations (e.g. conflicts at urban intersections). In order to assist the driver in these time-critical situations effectively, a number of design considerations concerning the human-machine-...
Conference Paper
Mit der zunehmenden Verfügbarkeit Infotainmentsystemen mit immer komplexeren Bedienelementen im automobilen Fahrzeuginnenraum ist in den letzten Jahren der Bedarf an adäquater Absicherungsmethodik gestiegen. So gibt es eine Reihe von Normen und Richtlinien, die etwa die Einhaltung bestimmter Höchstwerte für Blickabwendungszeiten und Bediendauern be...