Alexander Tymchuk

Alexander Tymchuk
University of California, Los Angeles | UCLA · Semel Institute for Neuroscience and Human Behavior

BA; BEd; MA; PhD

About

89
Publications
2,195
Reads
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1,691
Citations
Additional affiliations
July 1971 - present
University of California, Los Angeles
Position
  • Professor Emeritus

Publications

Publications (89)
Article
The primary purpose of this study was to examine how mothers with or without mental handicap ascribed to those symptoms of psychopathology included in the self-report version of the Psychopathology Instrument for Mentally Retarded Adults (PIMRA). A secondary purpose was to examine the psychometric properties of the PIMRA. Mothers with mental handic...
Article
Abstract  In the first part of the study behaviour of nine mothers with mental handicap towards their children was compared to that of a contrast group toward their children. Praising and labelling rates by the mothers with mental handicap were less than those for the contrast mothers while there was little verbal and no physical punishment by eith...
Article
Eight mothers with mental handicaps were trained to understand and apply behavioural and developmental principles. The results of three questionnaires administered showed that where mothers with mental handicaps did significantly more poorly before training than a comparison group of mothers without handicaps from similar backgrounds, after trainin...
Article
There have been few intervention studies with mothers with mental handicaps and their children, but recently there has been more interest in this population. Previous work has focused upon a limited number of behaviours and only upon interactions between a mother and one child, even though some mothers had several children. This study reports on pa...
Article
The Art of Technical Writing: A Manual for Scientists, Engineers, and Students. Eugene Ehrlich and Daniel Murphy. New York: Thomas Y. Crowell Company, Apollo Edition, 1969. 182 pp. $1.95 paper. A Primer on Food, Agriculture, and Public Policy. Earl O. Heady. New York: Random House, Inc., 1967. 169 pp. $4.95. Professional Education for Ministry. Edw...
Article
Community Psychiatry, edited by Leigh M. Roberts, Seymour L. Hel?leck, and Martin B. Loeb. Garden City, N. Y.: Doubleday and Company, Inc., 1969. x + 269 pp. $1.45. Free and Inexpensive Learning Materials. Fifteenth Edition. Division of Surveys and Field Services, George Peabody College for Teachers, Nashville, Tennessee 37203. 1970. 278 pages. $3....
Article
This article presents a number of instruments for assessing the presence or absence of dangers and safety precautions in the homes of people with mental handicaps, including those caring for their children at home, and the frequency of accidents occurring at home. An intervention programme for teaching people to recognise the importance of these da...
Article
Although there has been much concern about people with mental handicaps as parents, available evidence shows that: they do not necessarily have children who are mentally handicapped; they have fewer or the same number of children as the norm; while some provide inadequate child care, others provide adequate care; and they can develop parenting skil...
Article
In order to function independently, people with mental handicaps require knowledge and skills in many areas. One of the most critical areas, especially for parents with mental handicaps who are caring for their children, is how to respond in the case in common emergencies. This article describes and presents an instrument which can be used to asses...
Article
The Beck Depression Inventory was administered to mothers with a history of mild intellectual disability and to mothers in a contrast group. The results showed that not only did mothers with intellectual disability score significantly higher on the Beck, but also three times as many of these mothers scored above a frequently used cutoff score consi...
Article
Recent research has suggested the value of “simulated presenc” as an intervention for dementia patients who are experiencing distress. This pilot study examined the impact of presenting familiar personal photographs of friends and family along with preferred music on 23 caregivers and care recipients with dementia. Responses of both groups were ext...
Article
Worldwide, unintentional injuries are a major cause of emergency department visits, hospitalization, permanent disability, and death among children. Today, unintentional injuries are the leading cause of death in children aged 1-14 years in South American countries, including Brazil and Argentina. The majority of unintentional injuries happen in or...
Article
An increasing number of patients receive transplants of organs procured from living donors.1 Organ donors provide the "gift of life" because of a desire to help another individual. Usually the organ recipient is a close relative because affection and a desire for the well-being of the ill individual needing the transplant are also substantial incen...
Article
This paper describes the development and validation of the Home Inventory for Dangers and Safety Precautions – Illustrated Version to be used with parents whose children are at significant risk for home injury. Because illustrations are useful in facilitating learning by parents who have difficulty ensuring child and self home safety, colored illus...
Article
Presented here is a model of applied research in child maltreatment. Applied research is defined and 3 examples from an ecobehavioral perspective are presented. The advantages of these models along with the inherent systemic, cultural, and familial difficulties of conducting applied research in this area are discussed. Particular attention is paid...
Book
This edited book includes paper presented a conference of the President's Committee on Mental Retardation on the status and needs of individuals with relatively mild cognitive impairments.
Article
Young low-income parents with functional disabilities have difficulty ensuring the safety and health of their children, in part because they have limited information and skills regarding these critical aspects of childcare. They are unaware of ways to anticipate and remediate dangerous situations and to prevent child injury and have difficulty reco...
Article
This paper describes the development and preliminary validation of a prescriptive home danger and safety precaution instrument containing 14 epidemiological categories to be used in the design and evaluation of family-tailored injury prevention and safety interventions. The HIDSP-2 evolved from application and revision of the previous home danger a...
Article
This introductory article to a special issue on parenting by persons with intellectual disabilities discusses the need for information sharing across nations, the facilitation of political self-activism by parents with intellectual disabilities, the need for suitable support for this population, and the epidemiological data needed to promote progra...
Article
Parents with intellectual disabilities, like all parents, require suitable services and support in order to ensure the health, safety, and well-being of themselves and of their children. Substantial clinical and empirical literature now exist documenting the degree to which these parents can be successful when supports and services are matched to t...
Chapter
In this chapter, a discussion of unresolved definitional, assessment, educational, and policy needs regarding parenting in general and child maltreatment in particular is presented. These unresolved needs are critical to consider when discussing parenting by persons with disabilities. Juxtaposed with the issues surrounding parenting is a presentati...
Chapter
Although the ethical challenges facing investigators in planning for and performing child maltreatment research are being recognized, formal discussion is just beginning regarding the complexities of those ethical questions, regarding the methods available to aid investigators in the identification of the issues, and regarding how investigators mig...
Article
Consent doctrine seeks to protect individual autonomy and self-determination of potential subjects or patients. It was created and mandated in reaction to perceived abuses in patient/subject and healthcare professional relationships. In part because of the speed in which these occurred, the doctrine was created as an imperative in the absence of so...
Article
Elderly people in long-term care facilities do not understand much about various medical procedures, including enteral feeding. After presentation of empirically precise information about enteral tube feeding, residents in both long-term care and community-dwelling groups showed significant improvement in their understanding. The community-dwelling...
Article
To determine choices about enteral tube feeding and factors associated with deciding to accept or forego this intervention in a group of ambulatory non-demented older individuals. Descriptive survey. Thirty four volunteers from a senior adult day center and 34 volunteers from the residential care section of a multilevel long-term care institution,...
Article
We trained three mothers with mental retardation to discuss categories of home dangers, ways to remedy those dangers, and to discuss emergencies with their eldest children following a multiple baseline procedure. Training the mothers concerning dangers and safety increased their knowledge while their discussions with their children increased the ch...
Article
As more and more mentally retarted women have children, nurses' one-on-one teaching and home care strategies are becoming crucial.
Article
The current conceptualization of informed consent has been problematic with elderly people. One of the primary difficulties has been the presumption that a single approach is optimal for all people. Research has shown that not all people optimally acquire information following a single approach. Elderly people, particularly those in long‐term care,...
Article
While there has been increased attention placed upon the inadequacy of parenting by persons with mental retardation, such attention does little to increase our understanding of the complexities of parenting. A refocusing of research and intervention efforts is needed to examine the concomitants of adequacy of parenting. What we know about both the...
Article
A methodology was developed for determining what parents with mental retardation knew about the information they should provide to the health professional when they suspect that their child is ill Parents with mental retardation were compared to parents without mental retardation using this methodology Neither group was very familiar with basic inf...
Article
Health professionals concerned about the needs of parents with mental retardation are beginning to distinguish characteristics which facilitate and inhibit their parenting abilities. Child health is dependent on adequate parenting abilities. A composite of research findings has been derived to develop not only a risk profile that identifies potenti...
Article
Full-text available
Examines the contribution of psychological research and practice in facilitating fair and progressive decisions regarding the status of families with parents who are mentally retarded (MR). The topics discussed include client identification, assessment of parenting skills and capabilities, intervention, legal proceedings, and education. Psychologis...
Article
The Tennessee Self-concept Scale was orally administered to 27 mothers with mental retardation and self-administered to 95 mothers whose children attended daycare in the areas in which the former mothers lived. Analyses showed that the mothers with mental retardation scored significantly lower on all subscales. Where 72% of the comparison group sco...
Article
The percentage of elderly people in long‐term care who gave correct responses to individual items on comprehension tests designed to assess their knowledge of high‐ and low‐risk medical situations was analyzed. For the high‐risk vignettes, accuracy decreased progressively for information from the beginning to the end of the consent documents follow...
Article
The topic of parenting by people with mental retardation has a long and controversial history during which it was assumed that, as a result of that mental retardation, they were unable to provide adequate parenting. More recently, individual researchers and practitioners have attempted to demonstrate that, while some parents with mental retardation...
Article
The purpose of the present article was to develop and validate a tool to assess knowledge of how to respond to common home emergencies and to validate a training program for mothers with mental retardation on how to respond to emergencies. Four mildly mentally retarded mothers were trained following a multiple baseline procedure in which one emerge...
Article
Developed methods for assessing dangers and safety precautions in the home and for evaluating the effects of safety training, using 4 mothers with mental retardation (MR). The assessment instruments developed were the Home Safety Observation Inventory and the Safety Precautions Inventory. Ss were trained in accident prevention and danger assessment...
Article
The primary informational labels of over-thecounter medications commonly-used by parents were examined for the frequency with which specific informational items were found The results showed that not only was there great variability between medications, but also the actual percentage of suggested information was low The implications of these data f...
Article
While the avowed purpose of informed consent is to inform, this objective has been shown not to have been met in many situations, particularly with elderly people. The assumption that a single methodology for informed consent would suffice for all people may underlie this failure. The view of consent within a simplistic paradigm of how a person see...
Article
Mothers with mental retardation with or without a history of child abuse and/or neglect were compared on a number of demographic variables. The reasons why children were or were not removed also were examined. The demographic comparisons showed that while those mothers with such a history generally had higher IQs, they were similar to the mothers w...
Article
The decision-making abilities of mothers with mental retardation and contrast mothers were examined. Both groups received two high- and two low-risk vignettes in full and partial formats. Although there were no significant differences between the two groups on the appropriateness of their decisions, as expected, the mothers with mental retardation...
Article
The complexity of language on primary panels of containers of commonly used over‐the‐counter medications was analyzed using both a frequently used readability formula as well as three supplemental indexes. The results from the readability formula showed that, although the comprehension grade levels of the information ranged from elementary school t...
Article
Elderly people are reliant primarily upon the labels of high risk household products for information regarding their appropriate use. Because deaths and accidental poisonings from high risk household products for elderly people have increased, the information on labels may be insufficient or poorly displayed. Labels of common, high risk household p...
Article
Seventy residents of the residential care section of a long-term care facility were asked to make health decisions after being presented four clinical vignettes. Two vignettes involved high-risk procedures (aortic valve replacement and carotid endarterectomy) and two were low risk (flu vaccination and psychotropic medication). Comparisons were made...
Article
Applied emergency assessment and training methodology from an earlier study (A. Tymchuk et al, in press) to a new group of 4 mothers (aged 26–35 yrs; IQ range 58–71) with more severe mental retardation. While initial knowledge of what to do in response to more common emergencies was high for 2 Ss, all knew very little about high risk emergencies, p...
Article
Informed consent information on high and low risk medical procedures was presented to elderly people in a long term care facility in standard, simplified or storybook formats. Comprehension was significantly better for the simplified and storybook formats. Ratings of decision-making ability approximated the comprehension test results. Performance o...
Article
Nine mothers with mental retardation received group training in decision-making using vignettes describing child-raising situations. A multiple baseline procedure was used to assess the effectiveness of training in how to identify and apply decision-making steps to trained and untrained vignettes. Significant changes in step identification and use...
Article
Full-text available
Providing elderly persons with understandable information with which they can make informed health care decisions is a difficult, yet critical, task. Four methods of enhancing understanding of the Resident's Bill of Rights were evaluated in residents of the board and care section of a long-term care facility. The methods included the use of large p...
Article
Although federal protective requirements for human subjects in research exist, it is unknown how knowledgeable individual investigators are about these requirements. The present study was undertaken to determine how much investigators know about legal requirements and what their attitudes are about those. Analysis showed that, although respondents...
Article
Psychologists have become more concerned with the ethical nature of their practices. In response to this concern psychologists have identified guides that can be used in ethical decision making. These guides have been integrated into an ethical decision-making model. The model is applied to one area of great concern to psychologists, that of decidi...
Article
Surveyed 155 American Psychological Association student members regarding the extent of their training in ethics and their opinions about such training. In addition, they were asked to respond to 17 vignettes requiring an ethical decision. Although 92% of the Ss were receiving clinical training within university settings, only 55% indicated their d...
Article
The aim of this article is to present a model for resolving value dilemmas that has proven useful in my own applied social scientific activities and in teaching graduate students to recognize and resolve ethical problems. The model was developed to fill a void in my own training, and is probably best understood against that background.
Article
Discusses the inadequacy of old, and the lack of new guidelines for the protection of the rights of individuals in psychological treatment. A questionnaire containing vignettes of clinical and research situations that required decision-making processes was completed by 113 members of the Division of Clinical Psychology of the American Psychological...
Article
Discusses the inadequacy of old, and the lack of new guidelines for the protection of the rights of individuals in psychological treatment. A questionnaire containing vignettes of clinical and research situations that required decision-making processes was completed by 113 members of the Division of Clinical Psychology of the American Psychological...
Article
Responses from 55 of the 98 clinical psychology programs surveyed indicate that 67% offer formal courses in ethics, compared with 9% reported 22 yrs earlier in a similar survey. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)
Article
A questionnaire examining the level of knowledge and the attitudes held toward mental retardation was distributed to a sample of mildly mentally retarded adults. Contrary to current opinion, the results indicate that the mildly retarded have the insight and the ability to respond on a 5-point scale to statements regarding retardation. The majority...
Article
It has been difficult to assess the cognitive capacities and patterns of young psychotic children because of their extreme impairment in communicative skills; however, this assessment can be done with individuals functioning at higher levels. The intellectual patterns of 20 verbal childhood psychotics in the adolescent age group were studied to det...
Article
There has been an increasing concern for the protection of the rights of the mentally retarded. Various organizations have provided leadership in this area; however, there are additional needs to insure that such protection occurs. Such protection can occur through the education of the retarded and others regarding the rights of the retarded. A fur...
Article
Performance on the Bender Visual-Motor Gestalt test has been repeatedly shown to be sensitive to the effects of brain lesions. However, brain damaged and control populations typically overlap greatly in their error scores. A new Bender scoring system is presented with differential weighting for errors of greater or lesser severity, which permits a...
Article
A model is presented for working with parents of the developmentally disabled which combines dynamic and behavioral therapeutic strategies. Since parents of the developmentally disabled often have intense feelings related to these children, reconciliation of these feelings must be made before the parents can become effective as trainers of their ch...
Article
Bender error and time score comparisons were made between groups of 16 epileptic, 27 mentally retarded and 33 school and/or behavior problem children. The results indicated that there were significant differences in error scores between the epileptic and the school/behavior problem groups, and between retarded and the school/behavior problem groups...
Article
Two groups of nonretarded children were matched on chronological age (CA), Peabody Picture Vocabulary Test and mental age (MA) with a group of mildly retarded children. The 3 groups were presented with a serial recall task similar to the forward series of the digit span subtest of the Wechsler Intelligence Scale for Children. Digit strings of syste...
Article
Forty eight institutionalized cultural familial retarded delinquent boys were randomly assigned to 1 of 2 experimental conditions or to a contrast condition. Subjects in the 2 experimental conditions were given their respective lists of verbal similarities to determine if they knew the superordinate concepts. These subjects were then given training...
Article
This article presents some of the evidence indicating the importance of noncognitive variables in determining how well the socioculturally retarded child will achieve in structured testing and scholastic situations. Socioculturally retarded children come from intellectually and experientially restricted environments, and such environmental restrict...
Article
Effects of verbal concept formation training and stimulus enhancement on verbal abstracting were studied in 48 delinquent, mentally retarded, adolescent boys (age range 15 to 18 years) who resided in a state institution. Two two-word similarities tests were used to measure verbal abstraction in the pretest session. The first condition of stimulus e...
Article
The implications of EEG abnormalities in children with learning disabilities are considered. Groups of children with specific types of EEG abnormalities were compared on a variety of psychological tests. Paradoxical differences were found and these results were discussed. The EEG is of value only with other neurological data in evaluating specific...
Article
Compared the performance of 3 groups of 30 children each, matched on CA and IQ, on a variety of motor, psychomotor, language, and reasoning tests. 1 group had brain lesions, 1 had abnormal EEGs, and 1 had normal EEGs. Both of the EEG groups had adjustment difficulties, but no history of brain damage. The tests which best discriminated among the 3 g...
Article
Thesis (Ph. D.)--George Peabody College for Teachers, 1971. Bibliography: leaves 113-122. Abstract bound in.
Article
Several studies investigating the Halstead-Reitan Category Tests for children have found the test scores are significantly related to IQ and brain damage. This study compares abstract reasoning ability, as measured by the Category Tests, in a variety of diagnostic groups of children matched on age and intelligence. The groups included children with...

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