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Alexander G Schauss

Alexander G Schauss
AIBMR Life Sciences Inc. · Natural and Medicinal Research

PhD

About

193
Publications
202,474
Reads
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4,100
Citations
Citations since 2017
9 Research Items
1892 Citations
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Additional affiliations
April 2008 - July 2015
United Stated Department of Agriculture (USDA) - Agricultural Research Services, Boston
Position
  • Neuroscience investigations
Description
  • In vitro and in vivo investigations of foods on cognitive function and memory affected by aging.
March 2005 - October 2008
National Research Institute for Radiobiology and Radiohygiene
Position
  • Radiopharmacokinetic investigations
January 2005 - present
NIS Labs
NIS Labs
Position
  • Development of cell-based antioxidant assays, including the CAP-e assay, and pilot and randomized controlled clinical trials.
Description
  • Publications in numerous journals, including Food Chemistry, Nutrition Research, Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry, and Journal of Medicinal Foods.
Education
January 1991 - May 1991
University of Washington, Tacoma
Field of study
  • Statistics
June 1989 - August 1989
University of Washington, Seattle
Field of study
  • biostatistics
April 1988 - June 1988
University of Texas Medical Branch at Galveston
Field of study
  • Geriatric nutrition

Publications

Publications (193)
Chapter
Full-text available
Citicoline is an endogenous mononucleotide composed of ribose, cytosine, pyrophosphate, and choline, and an essential precursor for the synthesis of neuronal plasma membrane phospholipids, important as a rate-limiting step in phosphatidylcholine synthesis. Choline is a component of the diet and is produced in the brain, albeit in small amounts. The...
Chapter
Diagnosis, lower urinary tract symptoms including overactive bladder and urinary incontinence, causes and contributing factors, LUTS questionnaires, differential diagnosis, therapeutic considerations, including pharmaceutical, physical therapy, behavior therapy, botanical medicines, dietary supplements and nutrition modifications, medications that...
Chapter
Full-text available
Difference between citicoline and choline; bioavailability/pharmacokinetics; mechanism of action; clinical applications for its use in learning and memory, attention, Alzheimer's disease, and dementia, Parkinson's disease, stroke, and cerebral ischemia, traumatic head injuries; eye health and visual function, including amblyopia, glaucoma, ischemic...
Article
Full-text available
Context: Dietary supplement manufacturers claim cutaneous anti-aging properties for their products; however, research supporting these claims remains sparse. Objectives: The study intended to determine if a correlation existed between the effects of a collagen dietary supplement and changes associated with skin aging. Design: The study was a 1...
Article
Full-text available
Objectives: The aim of the study intended to correlate the effects of the dietary supplement, BioCell Collagen, with any changes associated with skin aging, since dietary supplements claim cutaneous anti-aging properties for their products; however, research supporting these claims remains sparse. Methods: A 12-week, randomized, double-blind, pl...
Article
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To assess whether biotin supplements cause interference in routine clinical laboratory testing of thyroid stimulating hormone (TSH), free triiodothyronine (FT3), free thyroxine (T4), parathyroid hormone (PTH) troponin-T and N-terminal pro b-type natriuretic peptide (NTproBNP). Three adult volunteers (two women and one man) were orally administered...
Article
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Background: Storage lower urinary tract symptoms (LUTS) including overactive bladder (OAB) and urinary incontinence (UI) affect millions of people worldwide, significantly impacting quality of life. Plant based medicines have been documented both empirically and in emerging scientific research to have varying benefits in reducing bladder symptoms....
Chapter
Numerous advances have been made in recent years to demonstrate the health benefits of açai pulp and seed while also elucidating their mechanisms of action. Studies have confirmed it to be one of the most potent antioxidant and antiinflammatory food sources available, attributable to a class of flavones, as well as other polyphenols, lignans, sacch...
Article
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Objective: Açaí (Euterpe spp.), an exotic palm fruit, has recently emerged as a promising source of natural antioxidants with wide pharmacological and nutritional value. In this study, two different species of açaí pulp extracts, naturally grown in two distinct regions of the Amazon, namely, Euterpe oleracea Mart. (habitat: Brazilian floodplains o...
Chapter
Full-text available
The pulp of two small palm fruits found in the Amazon forests of South America-. Euterpe oleracea Mart., and Euterpe Precatoria Mart., commonly known as 'acai'-have been found to contain the most potent combination of antioxidant and anti-inflammatory polyphenolics and flavonoids of all fruits, vegetables, or nuts. Flavones in the pulp include a co...
Article
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Safety assessment is reported of an orally ingested dihydroquercetin-rich extract (Lavitol) derived from the Dahurian larch tree, used as a food additive and as a dietary supplement ingredient. Dihydroquercetin, a potent antioxidant, is also known as taxifolin. The results of genotoxicity and toxicological tests (Comet assay, micronucleus test in h...
Chapter
Full-text available
Euterpe oleracea Martius (Arecaceae), commonly known as açaí, is one of several Amazonian palm trees of the genus Euterpe that produce a small edible fruit. A viscous liquid prepared from the fruit's pulp has a long history of use among endogenous people living in the Amazon floodplains. Açaí contains various polyphenols including anthocyanins, pro...
Chapter
Full-text available
Inflammation occurs by activation of the immune system in response to infection, injury, or irritation. In recent decades, the role that inflammation plays across wide spectra of human diseases and disease processes has received considerable attention. At the same time, there is mounting evidence that polyphenols can prevent, mitigate, or contribut...
Article
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This toxicological assessment evaluated the safety of a hydroethanolic extract prepared from Caralluma fimbriata (CFE), a dietary supplement marketed worldwide as an appetite suppressant. Studies included 2 in vitro genotoxicity assays, a repeated dose oral toxicity study, and a developmental study in rats. No evidence of in vitro mutagenicity or c...
Chapter
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The terms “superfood” and “superfruit” first appeared in food advertising at the beginning of the 21st century to describe a food that possessed functional health properties beyond its nutritive value. Familiar foods such as blueberries, strawberries, cranberries, walnuts], and pomegranates, were the first to be categorized as superfoods, which res...
Chapter
Full-text available
As late as 2002, major reviews on vitamin E made surprisingly little to no mention of the presence of tocotrienols (Brigelius-Flohe et al., 2002), despite the discovery of these classes of compounds by Pennock and Whittle (Pennock et al., 1964; Whittle et al., 1966) in 1964, and their biological significance delineated in the early 1980s and therea...
Article
Full-text available
There are two predominant palm tree species producing edible fruit known as “açaí” found widely dispersed through the Amazon: Euterpe oleracea Mart. and Euterpe precatoria Mart. They differ from each other in terms of how the plants grow and their phytochemical composition. E. oleracea (EO) has received considerable attention as a “super fruit” bec...
Article
Full-text available
Introduction: Non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) creates a significant health burden, without effective treatment modalities. Oxidative stress contributes to hepatic injury. The pulp of the Amazonian palm fruit, açaí (Euterpe oleracea Mart.) has significant antioxidative and antiinflammatory bioactivities in vitro and in vivo. Aims; To eval...
Conference Paper
Full-text available
Tocotrienols are found throughout the plant kingdom and have the same basic structure as tocopherols, only with three unsaturated bonds in the side chain. Daily consumption of tocotrienols from foods is thought to be around several milligrams per day, which is well below the levels found in studies to be beneficial to health. Tocotrienols are relat...
Article
Full-text available
Osteoarthritis (OA) is a significant source of pain and disability. Current medical and surgical treatments can be costly and have serious side effects. The aim of this randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial was to investigate the tolerability and efficacy of BioCell Collagen (BCC), a low molecular weight dietary supplement consisting o...
Article
Full-text available
Constant overproduction of pro-inflammatory molecules leads to chronic inflammation. Unlike acute inflammation, which is essential for healing, chronic inflammation can delay healing and, if left unchecked, contribute to a host of diseases. There is growing evidence that some dietary factors can play important roles in maintaining health and even r...
Article
Full-text available
A safety evaluation was performed for EpiCor, a product produced by a proprietary fermentation process using Saccharomyces cerevisiae. Studies included the following assays: bacterial reverse mutation, mouse lymphoma cell mutagenicity, mitogenicity assay in human peripheral lymphocytes, and a cytochrome P450 ([CYP] CYP1A2 and CYP3A4) induction asse...
Article
Age-related diseases of the brain compromise memory, learning, and movement and are directly linked with increases in oxidative stress and inflammation. Previous research has shown that supplementation with berries can modulate signaling in primary hippocampal neurons or BV-2 mouse microglial cells. Because of their high polyphenolic content, fruit...
Article
Full-text available
Natural Eggshell Membrane (NEM®) is a novel dietary ingredient that contains naturally occurring glycosaminoglycans and proteins essential for maintaining healthy joint and connective tissues. NEM® was evaluated for safety via in vitro and in vivo toxicological studies. This included testing for cytotoxicity, genotoxicity, acute oral toxicity, and...
Article
Full-text available
Heroin addiction is a serious health and social problem that afflicts societies around the world. Its addicting characteristics have been known for thousands of years. Derived from opium, obtained from the opium poppy (Papaver somniferum), heroin is highly addictive. Conventional approaches to heroin withdrawal involve the use of synthetic or semi-...
Article
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Recent studies have shown that some flavonoids are modulators of proinflammatory cytokine production. In this study, velutin, a unique flavone isolated from the pulp of açaí fruit (Euterpe oleracea Mart.), was examined for its effects in reducing lipopolysaccharide-induced proinflammatory cytokine tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-α and interleukin (IL)-...
Article
Full-text available
Five flavonoids, (2S,3S)-dihyrokaempferol 3-O-β-d-glucoside (1) and its isomer (2R,3R)-dihydrokaempferol 3-O-β-d-glucoside (2) , isovitexin (3), velutin (4) and 5,4′-dihydroxy-7,3′,5′-trimethoxyflavone (5), were isolated from acai (Euterpe oleracea Mart.) pulp. The structures of these compounds were elucidated based upon spectroscopic and chemical...
Article
Full-text available
L-(+)-ergothioneine has antioxidant and anti-inflammatory properties in vitro and in vivo and has uses as a dietary supplement and as an ingredient in foods, cosmetics, and as a pharmaceutical additive. The clastogenic potential and mutagenic of ergothioneine were assessed in vitro and in vivo. Ergothioneine concentrations up to 5000 μg/mL, with an...
Article
Full-text available
Dietary interventions involving antioxidants are of interest for reducing inflammation, improving joint motion, and altering pain perception. We evaluated the effect of oral consumption of a fruit and berry blend on pain and range of motion (ROM). This open-label clinical pilot study involved 14 study participants with limitations in ROM that was a...
Article
Full-text available
Some strains of Bacillus coagulans can survive extremes of heat, stomach acid and bile acids, to which commonly consumed probiotics are susceptible. A toxicological safety assessment was published in 2009 on a proprietary preparation of B. coagulans - GanedenBC(30)™ - a novel probiotic. It was concluded that GanedenBC(30)™ is safe for chronic human...
Article
Full-text available
Açaí fruit pulp has received much attention because of its high antioxidant capacity and potential anti-inflammatory effects. In this study, athero-protective effects of açaí juice were investigated in apolipoprotein E deficient (apoE(-/-)) mice. ApoE(-/-) mice were fed AIN-93G diet (CD) or CD formulated to contain 5% freeze-dried açaí juice powder...
Article
Full-text available
Five flavonoids, (2S,3S)-dihyrokaempferol 3-O-b-D-glucoside (1) and its isomer (2R,3R)-dihydrokaempferol 3-O-b-D-glucoside (2) , isovitexin (3), velutin (4) and 5,40-dihydroxy-7,30,50-trimethoxyflavone (5), were isolated from acai (Euterpe oleracea Mart.) pulp. The structures of these compounds were elucidated based upon spectroscopic and chemical...
Chapter
Indigenous people did not separate nutrition and medicine the way the modern world does today. Edible plants often functioned as food for sustenance, and at the same time contained compounds with medicinal properties. Today, food scientists are finding that native foods are not only nutrient-dense food sources but also rich sources of bioactive phy...
Chapter
Euterpe is a genus of native tropical palm trees found in the Amazon and a few Caribbean islands. E. edulis fruit harvest starts in December and runs through February in Maranhao state, the coastal region of Bahia state, and Espirito Santo. E. precatoria fruit is harvested in February and continues through June, with most of the fruit coming from R...
Article
The dietary antioxidant L-(+)-ergothioneine was tested for its potential mutagenic activity using the bacterial reverse mutation assay. The experiments were carried out using histidine-requiring auxotrophic strains of Salmonella typhimurium (Salmonella typhimurium TA98, TA100, TA1535 and TA1537), and the tryptophan-requiring auxotrophic strain of E...
Article
Acai fruit (Euterpe oleracea Mart.) has been demonstrated to exhibit extremely high anti-oxidant capacity. Seven major flavonoids were isolated from freeze-dried acai pulp by various chromatographic methods. Their structures were elucidated as orientin (1), homoorientin (2), vitexin (3), luteolin (4), chrysoeriol (5), quercetin (6), and dihydrokaem...
Article
The dietary supplement, 112 Degrees, was formulated with the goal of supporting sexual functioning in men. Due to rampant problems with drug adulteration for this category of products, a comprehensive screening for active pharmaceutical agents, with an emphasis on drugs prescribed for erectile dysfunction such as type 5 phosphodiesterase (PDE-5) in...
Article
The safety of an açai (Euterpe oleracea Mart.) pulp enriched fruit and berry juice, MonaVie Active®, fortified with the functional ingredient, glucosamine, was studied. The beverage was found not to be mutagenic, clastogenic, cytotoxic, or genotoxic, as determined by the bacterial reverse mutation assay, chromosomal aberration assay, mouse micronuc...
Article
Full-text available
A patented herbal combination formula, known as VigRX, has been studied for purity, and for safety and effi-cacy in a Sprague-Dawley rat model. Two separate assays determined that VigRX was free from pharmaceutical adulter-ants, including phosphodiesterase type 5 (PDE-5) inhibitors and related analogues. An in vitro assay determined that VigRX is a...
Chapter
Full-text available
The pulp of the Amazonian palm fruit, açai (Euterpe oleracea Mart.), has been found to have exceptional antioxidant capacity in vitro, particularly against the superoxide, peroxyl, and hydroxyl radicals. Studying foods for their potential health benefits to humans can benefit from in vitro assays that can correlate with in vivo outcomes. Using the...
Article
Full-text available
Rev7 is an indigestible gum polymer used for the manufacturing of chewing gum. It allows for the formulation of chewing gum with low adhesion; thus can be readily removed from surfaces such as sidewalks, clothing, carpets and furniture. In a toxicological safety assessment, Rev7 was found to be non-mutagenic in the AMES assay. The highest concentra...
Article
Full-text available
Reducing oxidative damage is thought to be an effective aging intervention. Açai, a fruit indigenous to the Amazon, is rich in phytochemicals that possesses high anti-oxidant activities, and has anti-inflammatory, anti-cancer and anti-cardiovascular disease properties. However, little is known about its potential anti-aging properties especially at...
Article
Full-text available
An herbal combination formula, known as VigRX, has been studied for purity, safety and for efficacy in a Sprague-Dawley rat model. Two separate assays determined that VigRX was free from pharmaceutical adulterants, including phosphodiesterase type 5 (PDE-5) inhibitors and related analogues. An in vitro assay determined that VigRX is able to inhibit...
Chapter
Full-text available
Soursop (A. muricata) fruit is useful as a processed product due to its high pulp recovery and many flavor compounds, particularly rich volatiles. Some constraints to processing are: short storage life of the soursop fruit; fragile peel; uneven ripening of soursop fruit, which makes the selection for processing tedious; loss of flavor by thermosens...
Article
Full-text available
The dietary supplement Citicoline free-base (choline cytidine 5'-pyrophosphate) was toxicologically evaluated in Sprague-Dawley rats using oral gavage. In an acute 14-day study, 2000 mg/kg was well tolerated. In a 90-day study, 100, 350, and 1000 mg/kg/day doses resulted in no mortality. In males, slight significant increases in serum creatinine (3...
Article
Full-text available
It has been demonstrated that some strains of Bacillus coagulans can survive extremes of heat, acidity of the stomach, and bile acids, to which commonly consumed probiotics are susceptible. A toxicological safety assessment was performed on a proprietary preparation of B. coagulans – GanedenBC30™ – a novel probiotic. Seven toxicologic studies were...
Chapter
Full-text available
Article
Full-text available
The in vitro and in vivo properties of an açai based juice blend (MonaVie Active, Salt Lake City, UT) were evaluated. Initially, a phenolic profile was determined for the beverage, and a cell-based antioxidant protection (CAP-e) assay (Honzel et al., 2008) was performed, which showed that the antioxidants in the beverage could penetrate erythrocyte...