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Alexander Orekhov

Alexander Orekhov
Institute of General Pathology and Pathophysiology · Laboratory of Angiopathology

About

889
Publications
55,664
Reads
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15,995
Citations
Citations since 2016
352 Research Items
10841 Citations
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Introduction
Alexander Orekhov currently works at the Institute of General Pathology and Pathophysiology. Alexander does research in Cell Biology, Molecular Biology and Systems Biology. Their current project is 'Transcriptome Analysis'.

Publications

Publications (889)
Article
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Cardiovascular disease (CVD) is strongly associated with the gut microbiota and its metabolites, including trimethylamine- N -oxide (TMAO), formed from metaorganismal metabolism of ʟ-carnitine. Raw garlic juice, with allicin as its primary compound, exhibits considerable effects on the gut microbiota. This study validated the benefits of raw garlic...
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Background Abdominal aortic aneurysm (AAA) is a relatively common and often fatal condition. A major histopathological hallmark of AAA is the severe degeneration of aortic media with loss of vascular smooth muscle cells (VSMCs), which are the main source of extracellular matrix (ECM) proteins. VSMCs and ECM homeostasis are essential in maintaining...
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Pericytes are mural vascular cells covering microvascular capillaries, where they contribute to the formation, maturation, maintenance, stabilisation and remodelling of vasculature. They actively interact and communicate with other cells to maintain the capillary structural integrity, vascular permeability and blood flow. Pericytes are crucial part...
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Bacterial extracellular membrane nanovesicles (EMNs) are attracting the attention of scientists more and more every year. These formations are involved in the pathogenesis of numerous diseases, among which, of course, the leading role is occupied by infectious diseases, the causative agents of which are a range of Gram-positive and Gram-negative ba...
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Impaired mitophagy is one of the hallmarks of the pathogenesis of Parkinson’s disease, which highlights the importance of the proper functioning of mitochondria, as well as the processes of mitochondrial dynamics for the functioning of dopaminergic neurons. At the same time, the main factors leading to disruption of mitophagy in Parkinson’s disease...
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The prevalence of multiple sclerosis and the complexity of its etiology and pathogenesis require further study of the factors underlying the progression of this disease. The prominent role of mitochondria in neurons makes this organelle a vulnerable target for CNS diseases. The purpose of this review is to consider the role of mitochondrial dysfunc...
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Lipid metabolism alterations are an important component of the pathogenesis of atherosclerosis. However, it is now clear that the atherogenesis process involves more than one mechanism, and more than one condition can predispose this condition. Multiple risk factors contribute to the atherosclerosis initiation and define its course. Familial hyperc...
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Pericytes are multipotent mesenchymal stromal cells playing an active role in angiogenesis, vessel stabilisation, maturation, remodelling, blood flow regulation and are able to trans-differentiate into other cells of the mesenchymal lineage. In this review, we summarised recent data demonstrating that pericytes play a key role in the pathogenesis a...
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Cardiovascular diseases remain the leading cause of death and disability. The development of cardiovascular diseases is traditionally associated with various risk factors, most of which are somehow related to an unhealthy lifestyle (smoking, obesity, lack of physical activity, etc.). There are also risk factors associated with genetic predispositio...
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Lung cancer, the most prevalent gender-independent tumor entity in both men and women, is among the leading cause of cancer-related deaths worldwide. Despite decades of effort in developing improved therapeutic strategies including immunotherapies and novel chemotherapeutic agents, only modest improvements in outcome and long-term survival of lung...
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Atherosclerosis is a common cause of cardiovascular disease, which, in turn, is often fatal. Today, we know a lot about the pathogenesis of atherosclerosis. However, the main knowledge is that the disease is extremely complicated. The development of atherosclerosis is associated with more than one molecular mechanism, each making a significant cont...
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Atherosclerosis is the major cause of cardiovascular disease, leading to a high mortality rate worldwide. Several risk factors are known to favor atherogenesis, among which are high blood pressure, smoking, diabetes mellitus, and others. Chronic kidney disease is another serious health problem associated with significant health care costs, morbidit...
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Atherosclerosis is a predecessor of numerous cardiovascular diseases (CVD), which often lead to morbidity and mortality. Despite the knowledge of the pathogenesis of atherosclerosis, an essential gap in our understanding is the exact trigger mechanism. A wide range of risk factors have been discovered; however, a majority of them are too general to...
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Chronic human diseases, especially age-related disorders, are often associated with chronic inflammation. It is currently not entirely clear what factors are responsible for the sterile inflammatory process becoming chronic in affected tissues. This process implies impairment of the normal resolution of the inflammatory response, when pro-inflammat...
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Chronic inflammation is implicated in numerous human pathologies. In particular, low-grade inflammation is currently recognized as an important mechanism of osteoarthritis (OA), at least in some patients. Among the signs of the inflammatory process are elevated macrophage numbers detected in the OA synovium compared to healthy controls. High macrop...
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Cardiovascular diseases associated with atherosclerosis are the major cause of death in developed countries. Early prevention and treatment of atherosclerosis are considered to be an important aspect of the therapy of cardiovascular disease. Preparations based on natural products affect the main pathogenetic steps of atherogenesis, and so represent...
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Diabetic cardiomyopathy (DCM) is defined as the presence in diabetic patients of abnormal cardiac structure and performance (such as left ventricular hypertrophy, fibrosis, and arrhythmia) in the absence of other cardiac risk factors (such as hypertension or coronary artery disease). Although the pathogenesis of DCM remains unclear currently, mitoc...
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Rheumatoid arthritis (RA) is a progressive autoimmune disease that affects the joints. It has been proven that, with the development of RA, there are changes in the metabolism of cells located in the focus of inflammation. In this article, we describe the connection between metabolism and inflammation in the context of rheumatoid arthritis. We cons...
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The nitric oxide synthases (NOS; EC 1.14.13.39) use L-arginine as a substrate to produce nitric oxide (NO) as a by-product in the tissue microenvironment. NOS1 represents the predominant NO-producing enzyme highly enriched in the brain and known to mediate multiple functions, ranging from learning and memory development to maintaining synaptic plas...
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Mitochondrial dysfunction is now recognized as a contributing factor to neurodegenerative diseases, including Alzheimer's disease (AD). Mitochondria are signaling organelles with a variety of functions ranging from energy production to the regulation of cellular metabolism, energy homeostasis, and response to stress. The successful functioning of t...
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Aging is one of the most intriguing processes of human ontogenesis. It is associated with the development of a wide variety of diseases affecting all organs and their systems. The victory over aging is the most desired goal of scientists; however, it is hardly achievable in the foreseeable future due to the complexity and ambiguity of the process i...
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Abstract: Zinc plays an important role in cardiomyocytes, where it exists in bound and histochemically reactive labile Zn2+ forms. Although Zn2+ concentration is under tight control through several Zn2+-transporters, its concentration and intracellular distribution may vary during normal cardiac function and pathological conditions, when the protei...
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Background Autoimmune Rheumatic Diseases (ARDs) occur with a high risk of atherosclerosis development. The macrophages are at the same time a part of the inflammatory response, and also tightly linked to the foam cell formation, thus taking part in both crucial for atherogenesis processes. Objectives To evaluate the macrophage activation, and the...
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This Special Issue (SI) has collected the most recent publications on the mechanisms that macrophages use to regulate homeostasis and their involvement in the pathogenesis of various non-infectious diseases [...]
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Atherosclerosis is one of the leading causes of death in developed and developing countries. The atherogenicity phenomenon cannot be separated from the role of modified low-density lipoproteins (LDL) in atherosclerosis development. Among the multiple modifications of LDL, desialylation deserves to be discussed separately, since its atherogenic effe...
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Polysaccharides (PSs) of plant origin have a variety of biological activities, anti-atherosclerotic including, but their use in atherosclerosis therapy is hindered by insufficient knowledge on the cellular and molecular mechanisms of action. In this review, the influence of several natural PSs on the function of macrophages, viral activity, and mac...
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Several recent cardiovascular trials of SGLT 2 (sodium-glucose cotransporter 2) inhibitors revealed that they could reduce adverse cardiovascular events in patients with T2DM (type 2 diabetes mellitus). However, the exact molecular mechanism underlying the beneficial effects that SGLT2 inhibitors have on the cardiovascular system is still unknown....
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Crohn’s disease remains one of the challenging problems of modern medicine, and the development of new and effective and safer treatments against it is a dynamic field of research. To make such developments possible, it is important to understand the pathologic processes underlying the onset and progression of Crohn’s disease at the molecular and c...
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Hypertension is a major risk factor for cardiovascular disease (CVD) as well as a major contributor to all-cause mortality and disability worldwide. The pathophysiology of hypertension is highly attributed to a dysfunctional endothelium and vascular remodeling. Despite the wide use of pharmacological therapies that modulate these pathways, a large...
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It is known that the development of foci of chronic inflammation usually accompanies body aging. In these foci, senescent cells appear with a pro-inflammatory phenotype that helps maintain inflammation. Their removal with the help of senolytics significantly improves the general condition of the body and, according to many indicators, contributes t...
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Cardiovascular disease has been, and remains, one of the leading causes of death in the modern world. The elderly are a particularly vulnerable group. The aging of the body is inevitably accompanied by the aging of all its systems, and the cardiovascular system is no exception. The aging of the cardiovascular system is a significant risk factor for...
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For the past several decades, humanity has been dealing with HIV. This disease is one of the biggest global health problems. Fortunately, modern antiretroviral therapy allows patients to manage the disease, improving their quality of life and their life expectancy. In addition, the use of these drugs makes it possible to reduce the risk of transmis...
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Atherosclerosis has been known in medicine for several centuries. As early as 1755, the Swedish anatomist Albrecht von Haller used the term "atheroma" to describe vascular lesions. Atherosclerosis may originate from an unbalanced diet or bad habits, and is mainly found in developed countries. Clinical trials have been conducted to establish the cau...
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Macrophages are the key inflammatory cell type involved in all stages of atherosclerosis development and progression, as demonstrated by numerous studies. Correspondingly, macrophages are currently regarded as a promising therapeutic target for the development of new treatment approaches. The macrophage population is heterogeneous and dynamic, as t...
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Atherosclerosis is the cause of the development of serious cardiovascular disorders, leading to disability and death. Numerous processes are involved in the pathogenesis of atherosclerosis, including inflammation, endothelial dysfunction, oxidative stress, and lipid metabolism disorders. Reverse transport of cholesterol is a mechanism presumably un...
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Ageing is an unavoidable multi-factorial process, characterised by a gradual decrease in physiological functionality and increasing vulnerability of the organism to environmental factors and pathogens, ending, eventually, in death. One of the most elaborated ageing theories implies a direct connection between ROS-mediated mtDNA damage and mutations...
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Kruppel like factor 2 (KLF2) is a mechanosensitive transcription factor participating in the regulation of vascular endothelial cells metabolism. Activating KLF2 in endothelial cells induces eNOS (endothelial nitric oxide synthase) expression, subsequent NO (nitric oxide) release, and vasodilatory effect. In addition, many KLF2-regulated genes part...
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For more than a decade, atherosclerosis has been one of the leading causes of death in developed countries. The issue of treatment and prevention of the disease is especially acute. Despite the huge amount of basic and clinical research, a significant number of gaps remain in our understanding of the pathogenesis of atherosclerosis, and only their...
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Distribution of different types of atherosclerotic lesions in the arterial wall is not diffuse, but is characterized by mosaicism. The causes of such distribution remain to be established. At the early stages of atherogenesis, low-density lipoprotein (LDL) particles and immune cells penetrate into the intimal layer of the arterial wall through the...
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Cardiovascular diseases (CVD) are one of the leading causes of morbidity and mortality worldwide. mtDNA (mitochondrial DNA) mutations are known to participate in the development and progression of some CVD. Moreover, specific types of mitochondria-mediated CVD have been discovered, such as MIEH (maternally inherited essential hypertension) and mate...