Alexander McKelvie

Alexander McKelvie
Syracuse University | SU · Martin J. Whitman School of Management

PhD, Entrepreneurship (Jönköping International Business School, 2007)

About

80
Publications
52,435
Reads
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4,493
Citations
Citations since 2016
35 Research Items
3555 Citations
20162017201820192020202120220100200300400500600
20162017201820192020202120220100200300400500600
20162017201820192020202120220100200300400500600
20162017201820192020202120220100200300400500600
Additional affiliations
July 2007 - present

Publications

Publications (80)
Article
The intersection of entrepreneurship and mental health has spurred many novel lines of scholarly inquiry. In this editorial, we summarize 23 such studies that have been published in Journal of Business Venturing Insights over the last seven years. In doing so, we emphasize both the differences and similarities among studies in this emerging body of...
Article
Full-text available
A significant share of new technology-based ventures exit through trade sale at an early stage of firm development. While trade sale is an important exit route for entrepreneurs and investors, and a potential source of new innovations and technology for acquiring firms, we have limited knowledge about the factors that help to effectively achieve a...
Article
We use attribution theory to show that firms that make more internal attributions to positive performance outcomes engage slack resources more freely for corporate entrepreneurship (CE) than firms that make fewer of such attributions. In addition, we show that the way in which companies make external attributions to performance outcomes moderates t...
Book
April J. Spivack and Alexander McKelvie present the development of the concept of entrepreneurship addiction, contributing to wider discussions of the ‘dark side’ of entrepreneurship. Focusing attention on mental health issues and neurodiversity among entrepreneurs, it offers insights into conflicting findings regarding entrepreneurial well-being.
Chapter
Full-text available
Most previous studies on the employment effects of government R&D grants targeting SMEs are characterized by data-, measurement-, and selection problems, making it difficult to construct a relevant control group of firms that did not receive an R&D grant. We investigate the effects on employment and firm-level demand for high human capital workers...
Article
We analyze if various programs for entrepreneurs with disabilities (EWD) positively impact their self-efficacy. We examine if variations in self-efficacy of EWD are related to perceptions of social support, quality assistance from service providers, and perceived barriers to entrepreneurship as a way to evaluate the impact of programs for EWD. We d...
Article
This study tests a situated metacognitive model of entrepreneurial action to highlight how action (or inaction) during the entrepreneurial process is influenced by both individual traits and one's metacognitive ability, namely one's strategic mindset. Integrating theory on resourcefulness and metacognition, we show how entrepreneurs who are more fr...
Article
We replicate the Wiklund et al. (2003) study examining the attitudes towards growth of small business managers. We generalize and extend that study in three important ways: we focus on a different context (United States instead of Sweden), where the conditions and consequences for growth are different, we provide an additional predictor variable –...
Article
Full-text available
We develop and validate a measure of entrepreneurship addiction. Inspired by earlier research on entrepreneurship addiction, we develop multi-item scales to measure six underlying criteria (i.e., obsessive thoughts, withdrawal/engagement, self-worth, tolerance, neglect, and negative outcomes). Via three studies, we refine the measure and investigat...
Article
Full-text available
We highlight the important role that time plays in conceptualizations of opportunity in entrepreneurship research. Through two longitudinal case studies, we introduce a more dynamic understanding of opportunities than portrayed by current theorizing, which tends to emphasize “opportunity discovery.” By adopting a dynamic temporal perspective, we in...
Chapter
Full-text available
Continuous and survival outcomes are important for new venture research because explaining development and growth is difficult when continuous outcomes are zero. This paper focuses descriptive exploratory plots with multilevel and longitudinal data to make preliminary analyses of the effects of predictors, before fitting multivariate regression mod...
Article
Full-text available
In this paper, we address issues related to the measurement of effectuation. We identify and examine 81 empirical studies focusing on research tensions (fundamental assumptions, theoretical underpinnings, boundary conditions, units of analyses, measures, and temporal issues) within the effectuation literature. Our findings suggest these tensions in...
Article
We explore new ventures’ capital structures, providing novel theoretical reasoning concerning path dependence. We examine a longitudinal sample of 1,756 Swedish startups and their use of external financing. We find support for path dependence in new ventures’ financial structures in that their early funding choices of subsidies, debt or equity, per...
Article
While established firms can efficiently manage their resource portfolio, new ventures must construct resource boundaries by assembling resources. In doing so, new ventures are often pushed to utilize resources that are owned by other actors. These inter-organizational relationship strategies do not expand organizational boundaries, but rather creat...
Article
We use signaling theory to explain how new ventures effectively signal future prospects to acquire external resources. Based on a sample of 235 new ventures drawn from a unique dataset combining multiple sources, we examine the signals of founders' human capital (i.e., education, industry experience, and founding experience) and investor prominence...
Article
We investigate the relative importance of external market knowledge acquisition and internal knowledge generation in new venture innovation. We argue that the effectiveness of externally acquired knowledge is less important in environments that are perceived as highly dynamic. To test our model, we examine 316 new ventures in one singular, high-gro...
Article
Full-text available
Research into entrepreneurial failure is increasing in prevalence. However, treatment of failure has tended to be at one level of analysis (firm or individual) and generally assumed a level of finality, marking the end of the firm, an opportunity, or, in some cases, entrepreneurial careers. In this paper, we interview 257 failed entrepreneurs and e...
Article
Full-text available
This article analyses how financial literacy and role models contribute to explaining the performance of micro-enterprises in the informal economy. Grounded in human capital reasoning and social learning theory, we argue that financial literacy and personal knowledge of role models lead to improved firm performance. We test our hypotheses on a uniq...
Article
We explore how publicly listed family and nonfamily firms engage in self-serving attributions in their annual financial reports. We empirically examine how both types of firms emphasize internal attributions for good firm performance (internal-positive attributions) and external attributions for poor firm performance (external-negative attributions...
Article
Full-text available
We examine the notion of entrepreneurship addiction, the compulsive engagement in entrepreneurial activities. We address what is unique about this type of behavioral addiction compared to related work pattern concepts of workaholism, entrepreneurial passion, and work engagement. We identify new and promising areas to expand understanding of what fa...
Article
Full-text available
Growth orientation is important for understanding why some young firms grow but not others, but research remains silent on the intermediary mechanisms mediating the growth orientation–firm growth relationship. We study 282 Swedish firms and show that various innovative activities mediate the growth orientation–firm growth relationship. These mediat...
Article
Full-text available
We address issues related to whom new ventures hire as a function of their pace of growth. Our results are based on a study of over 360,000 hiring decisions among Swedish new ventures between 2007 and 2013. In order to study whether the recruitment decision is dependent on the growth rate, we divide growing firms into five categories based on their...
Article
Full-text available
In this paper, we examine differences in centralization and delegation practices of family and non-family firms. Using Aston studies measures, we examine specific types of decisions and the level of authority involved in decision making by owner-managers. We use Rasch analysis to examine the concentration of authority in a sample of 124 small- and...
Conference Paper
We use signaling theory to explain how new ventures effectively signal future prospects to acquire external resources. Based on a sample of 307 new ventures drawn from a unique dataset combining multiple sources, we examine signals based on founders’ human capital and on endorsement by prominent investors. We find that founders’ founding experience...
Article
Full-text available
We outline and test a decision-making theory of new venture growth and survival. Building upon research in entrepreneurship and decision making under risk, we hypothesize that entrepreneurs' attention to survival and aspiration reference points changes based on venture age (experience-based learning), size (differences in decision complexity), and...
Conference Paper
Nascent ventures face a double-edged sword: be different enough to be noticed but not different enough to challenge norms. Building upon institutional theory, we argue and empirically find that it pays to act similarly to other firms by conforming institutional pressures (i.e., coercive and normative pressures) while also being different in terms o...
Article
Full-text available
Research into entrepreneurial failure is increasing in prevalence. However, there remains a lack of clarity surrounding how failure is conceptualized. This is an important issue because how failure is conceptualized influences the relevance of research questions posed and the comparability of findings across studies. In this article, we review conc...
Article
The evaluation of opportunities to introduce new goods or services to one or more markets is an essential part of entrepreneurship, and the last decade ushered in a steady stream of studies on the topic. However, to date, this knowledge has not been systematically reviewed. The current article addresses this gap by synthesizing studies that speak t...
Article
Full-text available
Organizational size is an important factor contributing to the heterogeneous nature of corporate entrepreneurship (CE). We focus on explicating size-based differences in CE and integrating them into new theoretical development. Through a search of the contemporary CE literature, we argue that there has been a tendency toward examining CE dimensions...
Article
New firms often have difficulties recruiting key employees, impacting the growth and viability of the firm. The majority of the literature has examined this difficulty from the hiring firm’s perspective. In this paper, we adopt the job seeker’s perspective and build on work in organization behavior and human resource management to examine job seeke...
Article
Full-text available
This paper seeks to untangle the role of managers’ growth willingness on investments in innovative activities, including R&D and market knowledge assimilation, and their subsequent roles in explaining growth in young firms. Using a longitudinal sample of 282 young Swedish firms, we find mediating relationships that help to better explain the innova...
Article
This study draws upon previous research on political institutions to examine country-level measures of innovative activity over a ten-year period within 24 developed nations. Investigating the relationship between political institutional structures and two types of innovative activity (i.e., basic and applied) reveals that political institutions ha...
Article
New firms often have difficulties recruiting key employees, impacting the growth and viability of the firm. The majority of the literature has examined this difficulty from the hiring firm’s perspective. In this paper, we adopt the job seeker’s perspective and build on work in organization behavior and human resource management to examine job seeke...
Article
Full-text available
Prior studies have examined the importance of economic, strategic, and human factors to decision policies of angel investors and venture capitalists. As more angels professionalize into angel funds and as markets for technologies and ideas become more competitive, it is becoming more important to compare their decision policies with those of ventur...
Article
Full-text available
It has been well over a decade since Lumpkin and Dess first suggested new entry to represent the principal outcome of an entrepreneurial orientation (EO). Yet, little consideration has been given to the implications of conceptualizing new entry as a phenomenon distinct from EO. This article draws attention to inconsistent assumptions concerning the...
Article
We examine the underlying psychological processes that may motivate habitual entrepreneurs to engage in entrepreneurship repeatedly. By drawing on the psychology literature on behavioral addictions, such as workaholism and Internet use, we develop a framework that defines the symptomatology of what we identify as a “behavioral addiction to entrepre...
Article
While 30 years of entrepreneurial orientation (EO) research has demonstrated that EO provides critical insights into questions of organizational‐level strategy and performance, how EO manifests inside organizations has received little attention. Instead of assuming that EO is homogenous, we examine the questions of how and why EO might pervade orga...
Article
We develop and validate measures of causation and effectuation approaches to new venture creation and test our measures with two samples of entrepreneurs in young firms. Our measure of causation is a well-defined and coherent uni-dimensional construct. We propose that effectuation is a formative, multidimensional construct with three associated sub...
Article
Uncertainty is central to entrepreneurship; however robust and generalizable findings that explain the conditions in which uncertainty may impede [or promote] entrepreneurial action remain elusive. We operationalize uncertainty as a multi-dimensional construct composed of state, effect, and response types of uncertainty (Milliken, 1987) to investig...
Article
The development of firm growth research has been notably slow. In this paper, we argue that a major reason for this lack of development is the impatience of researchers to prematurely address the question of “how much?” before adequately providing answers to the question “how?” On the basis of an extensive review of the literature, we suggest how g...
Article
Full-text available
In this paper, we argue that much of the small business strategic management literature has drawn too heavily from work done on large, established firms. We build upon the notions of the liabilities of smallness and newness to discuss how microenterprises and very new firms are different in regards to their strategic analysis, strategic content, st...
Article
Sales growth and employment growth are the two most widely used growth indicators for new ventures; yet, sales growth and employment growth are not interchangeable measures of new venture growth. Rather, they are related, but somewhat independent constructs that respond differently to a variety of criteria. Most of the literature treats this as a m...
Article
Knowledge about markets and technology are essential to the discovery and exploitation of opportunities for innovation. In this paper, we examine the modes of new knowledge acquisition (i.e. market vs. technological) practices and their effect on innovation in a sample of over 300 new firms and try to answer the question of 'what knowledge matters...
Article
Our study extends a long-running debate into the domain of entrepreneurship by examining firm and industry effects on the performance of new ventures. We examine to what extent firm and industry levels explain sales, sales growth, and survival among 7,256 young Swedish firms over a five-year period, and compare these findings to a sample of 12,692...
Article
Despite the numerous observations that dynamic capabilities lie at the source of competitive advantage, we still have limited knowledge as to how access to firm-based resources and changes to these affect the development of dynamic capabilities. In this paper, we examine founder human capital, access to employee human capital, access to technologic...
Article
Understanding how structure develops in new ventures is important because initial structures have long-lasting effects on the firm, including on its capabilities, growth, and innovativeness. In this paper, we investigate the mechanisms that help govern the development of structure (in terms of specialization, formalization, and centralization and o...
Article
The important relationship between knowledge and innovation is well established in the literature. However, little is known about how new ventures' acquisition, assimilation, transformation, and exploitation of knowledge (i.e., their absorptive capacity) affects innovation. We examine the role of the individual components of absorptive capacity on...
Article
We explore opportunity exploitation decisions made under varying conditions of uncertainty. We conceptualize uncertainty as a multidimensional construct, and employ conjoint analysis to understand entrepreneurs' likelihood of exploiting an opportunity by going forward with a new product launch given varying combinations of state, effect, and respon...
Article
Investment is crucial to a new venture’s survival and success (Bishop & Nixon, 2006). Research has focused on the typical source of new venture capital - the investor - continues to proliferate (Shepherd, 1999; Baum & Silverman, 2003). Scholars have considered the criteria by which formal investors (venture capitalists) make investment decisions (M...
Article
The relationship between knowledge and innovation is well established in the strategy and entrepreneurship literatures. However, little is known about how absorptive capacity – the firm's ability to acquire, assimilate, and use new knowledge – effects innovation in new firms. We build on extant conceptual arguments from scholars who assert that the...
Article
A central tenet of the entrepreneurship literature is that entrepreneurs behave in an uncertain world. All entrepreneurial action, whether embodied as the entering of new markets, the release of a new product or service, altering existing production methods, or founding a new venture, is subject to uncertainty. However, prior research looking into...
Article
While the social sciences do not make “scientific discoveries” of the kind made in the natural sciences, the empirical patterns revealed in Tables 1a and b struck us as coming close to that. Consider especially the “organic as percent of total” columns. They show an astonishingly clear and strong relationship between the size class of firms and the...
Article
Full-text available
This study describes the development of a new research instrument to measure human asset specificity and industry capacity constraints. The survey measures show high reliability and represent the theoretical reasoning laid out in the transaction cost economics literature. This instrument is used to sample approximately 1500 Swedish firms that have...
Article
Extant theorizing suggests that the portfolio of strategic options held by the firm is defined as a function of how existing routines, governance structures, and information channels focus the attention of decision-makers (Barnett, 2008). In the case of new ventures, however, these established routines, structures, and channels are absent or weak....
Article
Research has shown that differences in decision making processes may explain differences in entrepreneurial effectiveness. Particularly rational planning based processes have been set off against other processes such as effectuation, abduction, and bricolage. However, there is still little empirical evidence on entrepreneurial decision making in th...
Article
There is an expectation that studies examining new firm growth should take potential industry effects into account by controlling for industry. For example, Baum, Locke and Smith (2001), examined the effect of industry characteristics in terms of dynamism, complexity, and munificence. Their finding that industry mattered, but to a smaller extent th...
Article
New firms often have difficulties recruiting key employees, impacting the growth and viability of the firm. The majority of the literature has examined this difficulty from the hiring firm’s perspective. In this paper, we adopt the job seeker’s perspective and build on work in organization behavior and human resource management to examine job seeke...
Article
Historically, the rate of women participating in new venture creation has been disproportionally less than men. Not only are women less involved in entrepreneurship, their businesses tend to underperform. There is evidence that women-owned businesses grow at a lower rate, employ fewer people, are less profitable, and fail more often than those owne...

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Projects

Projects (2)
Archived project
In this project we study start-up processes among entrepreneurs within the tourism intdustry, with a particular focus on experience-based tourism. The tourism industry is rapidly transforming from an industry delivering services (transport, accommodation, meals, etc.) to tourists and travelers, to an increased focus on providing extraordinary experiences. This transformation does to a large extent happen through the emergence of new ventures focusing on experience products collaborating with established actors in the tourism market. Starting new ventures in an emerging industry is a situation characterized with uncertainty. The project leans on and further explores the theory of effectuation to seek to understand the behaviours of entrepreneurs in this context. Important issues within the projects are start-up processes, entrepreneurial behaviours, entrepreneurial learning and the institutional framework. The project is a part of the Northern Insight program (www.opplevelserinord.no), and is funded by the Research Council of Norway
Archived project
The Special Issue of Small Business Economics on "Effectuation and entrepreneurship theory: How effectuation relates to other concepts, models, and theories within entrepreneurship" is now ready. It contains 12 very intersting papers as well as our introductory article. Thank you to all the contributors.