Alexander Bismarck

Alexander Bismarck
University of Vienna | UniWien · Materials Chemistry and Research

Prof., Dr., Dipl.-Chem.

About

453
Publications
113,939
Reads
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19,411
Citations
Additional affiliations
January 2021 - December 2023
Imperial College London
Position
  • Visiting Professor
April 2019 - May 2021
University of Johannesburg
Position
  • Visiting Professor
January 2019 - December 2020
Imperial College London
Position
  • Visiting Professor
Education
April 1991 - September 1995
Technische Universität Berlin
Field of study
  • Chemistry, Dipl.-Chem.

Publications

Publications (453)
Article
Full-text available
Structural supercapacitors can both carry load and store electrical energy. An approach to build such devices is to modify carbon fibre surfaces to increase their specific surface area and to embed them into a structural electrolyte. We present a way to coat carbon fibres with graphene nanoplatelets by electrophoretic deposition in water. The effec...
Article
Full-text available
The demand for animal products has significantly increased over the past decades as a result of the growing population and the heightened standards of living. Increased livestock farming does not only yield desired products but also significant quantities of wastes, particularly manure whose storage and application are being monitored with a tighte...
Preprint
Full-text available
Uncured solid bisphenol-A epoxy resins containing up to 20 wt% carbon nanotubes (CNTs) were prepared using melt blending in a high shear mixer. The extrudate was ground to produce fine nanocomposite (NC) powders. This simple method produced well-dispersed NC, with CNT agglomerate sizes below 1 μm. Consolidated NCs displayed improved tensile moduli...
Article
A tubular co-flow reactor to produce macroporous polymer beads by polymerization of medium and high internal phase emulsion (M/HIPE) templates was developed. This reactor allows for improved production rates compared to tubing based microfluidic devices. Water-in-oil (W/O) M/HIPEs, containing methyl methacrylate (MMA) and ethylene glycol dimethacry...
Article
Due to its unique properties, nano fibrillated cellulose (NFC) has been a popular topic of research in recent years. Nevertheless, literature assessing environmental impacts of NFC production is scarce, especially for using other starting materials than wood pulp. Hence, in this study, a new approach of cascaded use of manure to produce biogas and...
Article
The interfacial properties of carbon fiber (CF) reinforced thermoplastic composites depend strongly on the wettability and surface characteristics of the reinforcing fibers, and their compatibility with a chosen matrix. The interface between conventional fibers and thermoplastic matrices is generally weak, due to a lack of specific chemical interac...
Article
Investigations on lithographically formed cavities of surface-imprinted polymers (SIP) can help to gain deeper understanding on cell recognition with SIPs: it is known that surface topography and biomolecules transferred during surface imprinting contribute to cell adhesion. In this work, SIPs synthesized via two different imprinting techniques, na...
Data
List of Figures Figure S1. Tensile stress-strain curves for neat resorcinol-formaldehyde-latex (RFL) matrix containing no fibres Figure S2. High resolution (a) C1s, (b) O1s and (c) N1s XPS spectra detailing the surface composition of AGY-S2 glass fibres compared to unsized AS4D and T700GC-91 and sized T700GC-31E,-41E as well as desized (ultrasound-...
Article
Full-text available
Radical innovations for all aircraft systems and subsystems are needed for realizing future carbon-neutral aircraft, with hybrid-electric aircraft due to be delivered after 2035, initially in the regional aircraft segment of the industry. Electrical energy storage is one key element here, demanding safe, energy-dense, lightweight technologies. Comb...
Article
Poly (ether ether ketone) (PEEK) has a high continuous service temperature, excellent mechanical properties, and good solvent and abrasion resistance, which can be further improved through the addition of carbon nanotubes (CNTs). CNT-PEEK nanocomposites are promising matrices for continuous carbon fibre composites; powder processing can mitigate th...
Article
Macroporous polymers and nanocomposites remain popular materials due to their low densities and unique interconnected pore structures. The determination of mechanical properties in relevant loading conditions, such as shear, remains largely underexplored due to the comparative complexity of such analysis compared to simple compression tests. We inv...
Article
Full-text available
There are a range of promising applications for devices that can convert mechanical energy from their local environment into useful electrical energy. Here, mechanical energy harvesting devices have been developed...
Article
Porous polyepoxides are attractive materials for a range of applications. Liquid foam precursors can be net-shaped by moulding. We report preparation of permeable polyepoxide, Araldite®2020, foams with porosities in the range of 45–60% from surfactant-stabilised W/O medium internal phase emulsion templates. Alteration of internal phase volume ratio...
Article
Full-text available
We evaluated the influence of blending various renewable polymer grades and amounts to allow for high stretchability during stretching at 800 mm/s to produce polymer tapes with high Young’s moduli E and yield stress σy similar to industrial production of non-degradable synthetic polymers. Renewable polymer blends based on TPS, PBAT, and PLA with hi...
Article
Micromixers made from emulsion templated macroporous polymers (poly-Pickering-HIPEs) were used to continuously produce polymerizable high internal phase emulsions (HIPE) by injecting a monomer containing continuous phase and aqueous internal phase into micromixers. The interconnected and complex flow path through poly-Pickering-HIPE micromixers res...
Conference Paper
Full-text available
Interleaving the plies of carbon fibre reinforced epoxy composites with thermoplastic interleaves have previously been shown to enable these composites to display controllable stiffness and shape memory properties. However, the incorporation of unreinforced thermoplastic interleaves leads to a decrease in flexural modulus of the interleaved composi...
Article
Full-text available
Micromixers were fabricated from emulsion-templated macroporous polymers, known as polymerizing high internal-phase emulsions (polyHIPEs). Micromixers are mixing elements containing submillimeter channels, in which mixing occurs by molecular diffusion in the laminar flow regime. PolyHIPEs possess an interconnected pore structure with connected chan...
Article
Full-text available
Volumetric N 2 adsorption at −196°C is generally accepted as "gold standard" for estimating the Brunauer-Emmet-Teller (BET) surface area of nanocellulose. It is unclear however, whether the BET surface area of nanocellulose obtained at such low temperatures and pressures is meaningful at an absolute sense, as nanocellulose is used at ambient temper...
Presentation
On the mechanical degradation of PEO utilised as a drag reducing agent. The long-term experiment was perfomed in a pilot scale flow device (ViEDRA) at Re~100000.
Article
Birch (Betula pendula Roth.) and beech (Fagus sylvatica L.) solid wood and plywood were overmolded with polyamide 6 (PA 6) and polypropylene (PP) to investigate their mechanical properties and interfacial adhesion. In the case of PA 6, maximum tensile shear strengths values of more than 8 to 9 MPa were obtained for birch and beech, respectively. Th...
Article
Full-text available
3D Printing, utilizing a layer-by-layer deposition of materials, is advantageous to manufacture parts as it involves fewer process steps, provides great flexibility for prototyping, especially of complex parts, and has low material waste. Yet, the mechanical properties of 3D printed parts have always been a concern due to the weak inter-layer bondi...
Article
Full-text available
Polyetheretherketone (PEEK) is a high-performance semi-crystalline thermoplastic polymer with outstanding mechanical properties, high thermal stability, resistance to most common solvents, and good biocompatibility. A high temperature thermally induced phase separation technique was used to produce PEEK foams with controlled foam density from PEEK...
Article
Full-text available
Cellulose nanopapers provide diverse, strong and lightweight templates prepared entirely from sustainable raw materials, cellulose nanofibers (CNFs). Yet the strength of CNFs has not been fully capitalized in the resulting nanopapers and the relative influence of CNF strength, their bonding, and biological origin to nanopaper strength are unknown....
Article
Macroporous polymers can be produced by curing liquid foam templates, which consist of air bubbles mechanically beaten into a liquid monomer phase. However, non-aqueous foam templates containing hydrophobic monomers as liquid phase are difficult to produce, as they cannot be stabilised by reducing their surface tension. In this perspective, we revi...
Article
Full-text available
Membranes and filters are essential devices, both in the laboratory for separation of media, solvent recovery, organic solvent and water filtration purposes, and in industrial scale applications, such as the removal of industrial pollutants, e.g. heavy metal ions, from water. Due to their solvent stability, biologically sourced and renewable membra...
Article
Full-text available
Flexible epoxy foams were successfully prepared by curing medium internal phase emulsions (MIPEs) with a continuous organic phase containing epoxy resin and hardener, surfactant and carbon nanotubes and an aqueous internal phase. Curing the MIPEs at ambient temperature resulted in interconnected polyepoxide foams with average pore size of about 10...
Article
Full-text available
Access to clean potable water is increasingly becoming a struggle for whole humankind, thus water treatment to remediate wastewater and fresh water sources is an important task. Pollutants in the nanoscale, such as viruses and macromolecules, are usually removed by means of membrane filtration processes, predominantly nanofiltration or ultrafiltrat...
Article
We hybridised lignocellulose microfibres with a fungal derived nanoscale chitin-β-glucan network produce hydrophobic papers with improved tensile properties.
Article
Full-text available
Thermosetting resins were formulated by mixing solid epoxy components, hardener and accelerator at elevated temperature. These mixtures were ground into uncured, solid resin powders and dispensed onto carbon fibres using a powder printer prior to vacuum curing. Using accelerators reduced curing time from 8 h to 16 min. Manufactured cross-ply carbon...
Article
Full-text available
A solid epoxy resin formulation containing 2.5 wt % carbon nanotubes is 3D printed into self-standing parts, which after thermal curing result in CNTs/epoxy nanocomposites with mechanical properties attractive for heavy-duty applications.
Chapter
A simple kitchen mixer and skills to whip cream can be useful to manufacture highly functional polymer foams with control over their structures. In the 1930s, researchers began to whip or inject gas into monomers or polymer suspensions to produce liquid foams, which served as templates to be solidified to polymer foams. Besides the “simplicity” of...
Article
Full-text available
Safe, light, and high-performance engineering structures may be generated by adopting composite materials with stable damage process (i.e., without catastrophic delamination). Interlayer hybrid composites may fail stably by suppressing catastrophic interlayer delamination. This paper provides a detailed analysis of delamination occurring in poly(ac...
Article
Fungi-derived leather substitutes are an emerging class of ethically and environmentally responsible fabrics that are increasingly meeting consumer aesthetic and functional expectations and winning favour as an alternative to bovine and synthetic leathers. While traditional leather and its alternatives are sourced from animals and synthetic polymer...
Article
Nano-engineered fibre/matrix interfaces can improve state-of-the-art fibre-reinforced composites. Grafting carbon nanotubes (CNTs) to high temperature quartz glass fibres produces “hairy” or “fuzzy” fibres, which combine reinforcements at micrometre and nanometre length scales. Fuzzy quartz fibres were produced continuously, reel-to-reel, on whole...
Article
Full-text available
Fungal chitin is attracting commercial and academic interest as a cheap, renewable, easily isolated and abundant alternative to crustacean chitin. Being covalently decorated with β-glucan, fungal chitin exhibits a native nanocomposite architecture that varies in fibre diameter and chitin to β-glucan ratio from species to species, resulting in mecha...
Article
Full-text available
Macroporous, low‐density polyetheretherketone, polyetherketoneketone, and polyetherimide foams are produced using a high‐temperature, thermally induced phase separation method. A high‐boiling‐point solvent, which is suitable to dissolve at least 20 wt% of these high‐performance polymers at temperatures above 250 °C, is identified. The foam morpholo...
Article
The influence of the molecular weight (MW) of isotactic polypropylene (iPP) on the activation energy of the α-transition (EAα) and the stretching behaviour was investigated and correlations drawn. Mechanical relaxations in polyolefins are related to the mobility of polymer chains. The temperature of the α-transition in polyolefins increases with te...
Cover Page
Full-text available
The image representing article number 2000467 by Martin Kaltenbrunner and co‐workers shows the mixing of the two phases that form a polyHIPE, a process in which UV‐curable monomers and an electrolyte solution are brought together, to form a highly porous, ion conductive structure. The use of such polyHIPEs as high‐performance separators in stretcha...
Article
Full-text available
Powering soft embodiments of robots, machines and electronics is a key issue that impacts emerging human friendly forms of technologies. Batteries as energy source enable their untethered operation at high power density but must be rendered elastic to fully comply with (soft) robots and human beings. Current intrinsically stretchable batteries typi...
Article
Utilizing high-performance cellulose nanopapers as 2D-reinforcement for polymers allows for realizing high-loading-fraction (80 vol-%), high-performance (strength > 150 MPa, modulus > 10 GPa) laminated nanopaper reinforced epoxy composites. Such cellulose nanopapers are inherently dense, which renders them difficult to be impregnated with the epoxy...
Article
Full-text available
An integrated gaseous transport apparatus was designed not only to measure permeability (by the pressure rise technique) but also to study both steady state and (importantly) transient diffusion of oxygen in nitrogen in the pores of the porous material. The apparatus allows for the characterisation of porous media with a wide range of permeabilitie...
Article
An integrated gaseous transport apparatus was designed not only to measure permeability (by the pressure rise technique) but also to study both steady state and (importantly) transient diffusion of oxygen in nitrogen in the pores of the porous material. The apparatus allows for the characterisation of porous media with a wide range of permeabilitie...
Article
Full-text available
Chitin and its derivative chitosan are popular constituents in wound-treatment technologies due to their nanoscale fibrous morphology and attractive biomedical properties that accelerate healing and reduce scarring. These abundant natural polymers found in arthropod exoskeletons and fungal cell walls affect almost every phase of the healing process...
Article
The structural component of fungal cell walls comprises of chitin covalently bonded to glucan; this constitutes a native composite material (chitin-glucan, CG) combining the strength of chitin and the toughness of glucan. It has a native nano-fibrous structure in contrast to nanocellulose, for which further nanofibrillation is required. Nanopapers...
Article
Full-text available
Mycelium composites are an emerging class of cheap and environmentally sustainable materials experiencing increasing research interest and commercialisation in Europe and the United States for construction applications. These materials utilise natural fungal growth as a low energy bio-fabrication method to upcycle abundant agricultural by-products...
Article
Stretched polyolefin films and tapes are used in many packaging applications, such as BigBags. Stretching is elongation of polymer tapes in one direction, resulting in improved mechanical properties. Both, amorphous and crystalline polymers are in principle stretchable but linear, unbranched macromolecules are highly stretchable. Hence, the stretch...
Article
Macroporous elastomers with fast shape recovery have been produced by polymerisation of emulsion templates. Particle stabilised high internal phase emulsions (HIPEs) containing trimethylolpropane tris(3-mercaptopropionate) (TRIS) and divinylbenzene (DVB) in the continuous phase and a surfactant as additive were prepared. The polymerisation of the H...
Article
Full-text available
Greener alternatives to synthetic polymers are constantly being investigated and sought after. Chitin is a natural polysaccharide that gives structural support to crustacean shells, insect exoskeletons, and fungal cell walls. Like cellulose, chitin resides in nanosized structural elements that can be isolated as nanofibers and nanocrystals by vario...
Conference Paper
Full-text available
Mycelium, the vegetative growth of filamentous fungi, has attracted increasing commercial and academic interest in recent years due to its ability to upcycle agricultural and industrial wastes into low-cost, environmentally sustainable composite materials. Mycelium composites, comprising a mycelium matrix formed through natural fungal growth and a...
Conference Paper
Full-text available
Cellulose and chitin, the most abundant natural polymers in the world, are used in applications ranging from construction and paper to cosmetics, pharmaceuticals and water treatment. Traditionally these polymers have been sourced from finite resources such as forests and crustacean exoskeletons, however they can be sourced more sustainably and at l...
Poster
Full-text available
Cellulose and chitin, the most abundant natural polymers in the world, are used in applications ranging from construction and paper to cosmetics, pharmaceuticals and water treatment. Traditionally these polymers have been sourced from finite resources such as forests and crustacean exoskeletons, however they can be sourced more sustainably and at l...
Presentation
Full-text available
Mycelium, the vegetative growth of filamentous fungi, has attracted increasing commercial and academic interest in recent years due to its ability to upcycle agricultural and industrial wastes into low-cost, environmentally sustainable composite materials. Mycelium composites, comprising a mycelium matrix formed through natural fungal growth and a...
Conference Paper
The desire to reduce overall weight in devices is a key driver for perpetual material development; the ability to combine composites with energy storage functions/capabilities which simultaneously provide structural integrity has the potential to supersede monofunctional components. To achieve this ambition, the multifunctional structure must perfo...
Data
Supplementary Information. Biomass and extract dry mass yields, associated water content and overall total dry polymer yield, energy-dispersive x-ray spectroscopy (EDS) spectra and elemental composition maps, zeta potentials as a function of pH, inverse gas chromatography (iGC) for total surface energy as a function of surface coverage, 13C ssNMR p...
Article
Mycelium, the vegetative growth of filamentous fungi, has attracted increasing commercial and academic interest in recent years due to its ability to upcycle agricultural and industrial wastes into low-cost, sustainable composite materials. However, mycelium composites typically exhibit foam-like mechanical properties, primarily originating from th...
Article
Contamination of fresh water sources with heavy metal ions constitutes a serious threat to drinking water safety. Treatment of water in order to remove these contaminants, e.g. copper ions, is thus an important task, usually performed by utilizing adsorbents or continuous membrane/filter processes. In particular combinations of these processes, i.e...
Article
Carbon aerogel (CAG) is a potential hierarchical reinforcement to improve the matrix-dominated mechanical properties of continuous carbon fibre reinforced polymer (CFRP) composites in both multifunctional and purely structural applications. When using CAG to reinforce a polyethylene glycol diglycidyl ether (PEGDGE) matrix, the interlaminar shear st...
Article
The influence of the crystallization temperature and the pressure on the crystallization kinetics, structure and compression strength of γ-polypropylene was investigated. Samples were produced in a custom-made high-pressure crystallization cell and characterized by differential scanning calorimetry (DSC), wide angle X-ray scattering (WAXS) and tran...
Conference Paper
Full-text available
Chitin, the second most abundant natural polymer in the world, has remarkable mechanical properties with a higher tensile strength than steel and carbon fibres. However, it is currently primarily sourced from seasonally and regionally limited crustacean waste, making it an expensive resource of limited sustainability. This study adopted cheaper, mo...