Alex Mathew Wood

Alex Mathew Wood
The London School of Economics and Political Science | LSE · Department of Psychological and Behavioural Science

Professor

About

160
Publications
234,849
Reads
How we measure 'reads'
A 'read' is counted each time someone views a publication summary (such as the title, abstract, and list of authors), clicks on a figure, or views or downloads the full-text. Learn more
12,555
Citations
Introduction
Dr Alex is a Professor of Mental Health and holds the Centennial Chair at London School of Economics and Political Science (LSE). He also has a consultancy business and is happy to discuss contracting work. Website: www.alexwoodpsychology.com

Publications

Publications (160)
Article
Full-text available
Central to the theory underpinning schema therapy is a hierarchically structured model where maladaptive and adaptive schemas are manifestations of higher order core emotional needs which emerge through specific parenting conditions. Despite widespread use in therapy, the hierarchical model of adaptive schemas has not been tested nor has it been li...
Article
Full-text available
How do income and income inequality combine to influence subjective well-being? We examined the relation between income and life satisfaction in different societies, and found large effects of income inequality within a society on the relationship between individuals’ incomes and their life satisfaction. The income–satisfaction gradient is steeper...
Article
What measure of relative deprivation best predicts health? While numerous indices of relative deprivation exist, few studies have compared how well different measures account for empirical data. Hounkpatin et al. (2016) demonstrated that the relative ranked position of an individual i's income within a comparison group (their relative rank) was a b...
Article
Objective: Quality-adjusted life years (QALYs) are used to measure the health benefits associated with treatments. QALYs are derived from objective mortality data weighted by assessments made by the general population of the impact on health-related quality of life associated with particular health states. In this study, a simple change is introdu...
Article
Full-text available
Systematic reviews are characterized by a methodical and replicable methodology and presentation. They involve a comprehensive search to locate all relevant published and unpublished work on a subject; a systematic integration of search results; and a critique of the extent, nature, and quality of evidence in relation to a particular research quest...
Article
Full-text available
Self-injurious cognitions (SICs) are cognitions about deliberately injuring oneself (self-injurious behavior [SIB]). Existing measures of the content of SICs provide varying coverage, highlighting a lack of consensus regarding which cognitions characterize SIB. Additionally, a central, unresolved conceptual and measurement issue concerns whether to...
Article
Full-text available
Self-injurious cognitions (SICs) are cognitions about deliberately injuring oneself (self-injurious behavior; SIB). Existing measures of the content of SICs provide varying coverage, highlighting a lack of consensus regarding which cognitions characterize SIB. Additionally, a central, unresolved conceptual and measurement issue concerns whether to...
Article
Full-text available
This study aimed at developing a revised validated version of the Young Parenting Inventory (YPI) known as YPI-R2 that had 17 theoretical subscales. Using separate ratings for fathers and mothers samples from Singapore (n = 582, 617), Manila (n = 520, 538), Jakarta (n = 366, 383), and the USA (n = 204, 214), exploratory and confirmatory factor anal...
Data
Inter-factor correlation for Fathers Manila negative parenting. (DOCX)
Data
Dataset on Jakarta, Manila, Singapore, and USA. (ZIP)
Data
Early maladaptive schemas and their hypothesized links to early parenting patterns in the YPI, and core emotional needs. (DOCX)
Data
Divergent validity of the YPI-R2 (Fathers) with s-EMBU (Fathers) using the Manila sample (n = 520–5 factors 20 items). (DOCX)
Data
Divergent validity of the YPI-R2 (Mothers) with s-EMBU (Mothers) using the Manila sample (n = 538–6 factors 33 items). (DOCX)
Data
Average correlation between YPI-R2 subscales and counterparts from s-EMBU subscales. (DOCX)
Data
EFA of the initial item pool of the YPI with 204 items using Manila sample (Father, n = 520; Mother, n = 538). (DOCX)
Data
Reliability Coefficients (α), Mean (M) and Standard Deviation (SD) of the YPI-R2 (Fathers; 5 factors 20 items) and YPI-R2 (Mothers; 6 factors 33 items). (DOCX)
Data
Socio-demographic characteristics of the participants in the Singapore (Phase 1); Manila (Phase 2 & Phase 3); Jakarta & USA samples (Phase 3). (DOCX)
Data
Inter-factor correlation for Mothers Manila negative parenting. (DOCX)
Data
Young Parenting Inventory–Revised (YPI-R2) Questionnaire. (PDF)
Article
The factor structure of an initial item pool of 207 positive parenting items was investigated (Manila; n = 520, 538) to develop the Positive Parenting Schema Inventory. Single group and multigroup confirmatory factor analyses of the Positive Parenting Schema Inventory showed invariance of the factor structure in six out of the seven levels on two o...
Article
Full-text available
The financial crisis of 2007/08 precipitated a severe global economic downturn, typically referred to as the Great Recession. However, in the United Kingdom this period has been marked by limited change in national indicators of subjective well-being. We assessed the life satisfaction change in response to the Great Recession in a sample of British...
Data
Stata do file PLOS R1.pdf. Stata do file. (PDF)
Article
Full-text available
Background: Central banks set economy-wide interest rates to meet exclusively economic objectives. There is a strong link between indebtedness and psychiatric morbidity at the individual level, with interest rates being an important factor determining ability to repay debt. However, no prior research has explored whether central bank interest rate...
Article
The mental and physical demands of working in a care home are known to lead to elevated risk for staff of work and stress related illnesses such as depression. However, little is known about how these develop. Recent developments in defeat and entrapment research have demonstrated that they are best conceptualised as a single factor. Our aim was to...
Article
Full-text available
Negative schemas have been widely recognized as being linked to psychopathology and mental health, and they are central to the Schema Therapy (ST) model. This study is the first to report on the psychometric properties of the Young Positive Schema Questionnaire (YPSQ). In a combined community sample (Manila, Philippines, n = 559; Bangalore, India,...
Article
This study tests whether psychological attachment to a political party influences voluntary participation in a government-promoted public-good scheme, positing that cooperation is higher among households that identify with the party in government and lower among households that identify with the party in opposition. The focus is participation in a...
Chapter
Full-text available
Psychometrics, an area of psychology that has developed to specifically ensure psychological constructs are measured with optimum reliability and validity, is virtually unheard of in economics. This chapter offers a guide to the necessary steps in developing subjective measures and introduces researchers to psychometrics, enabling them to evaluate...
Article
Full-text available
A number of structural equation models have been developed to examine change in 1 variable or the longitudinal association between 2 variables. The most common of these are the latent growth model, the autoregressive cross-lagged model, the autoregressive latent trajectory model, and the latent change score model. The authors first overview each of...
Article
Full-text available
Personality is important for a range of life outcomes. However, despite evidence that personality changes across time, there is a concerning tendency for researchers outside of personality psychology to treat measures of personality as if they are non-changing when establishing whether personality predicts important life outcomes. This is problemat...
Article
Purpose From Adam Smith onwards, gratitude has been held as invaluable to societal functioning in view of its role in helping individuals maintain their reciprocal obligations to one another. The purpose of the current research is to use current conceptions of gratitude derived from work in social psychology to test whether simple descriptions of h...
Article
Full-text available
Objective: Although gratitude has been identified as a key clinically relevant trait for improving well-being, it is understudied within medical populations. The current study addressed this gap and extended previous and limited cross-sectional research by examining the longitudinal associations of gratitude to depression in two chronic illness sam...
Article
Full-text available
Background: Two core but untested predictions of Positive Clinical Psychology (PCP) are that (1) Many psychiatric problems can be understood as one end of bipolar continua with well-being, and (2) that reducing psychiatric symptoms will provide an equal (near linear) decrease in risk for several other psychiatric variables, irrespective of positio...
Article
Full-text available
Background A rank based social norms model predicts that drinkers’ judgements about their drinking will be based on the rank of their breath alcohol level amongst that of others in the immediate environment, rather than their actual breath alcohol level, with lower relative rank associated with greater feelings of safety. This study tested this hyp...
Article
Full-text available
Existing research on Big Five personality and unemployment has relied on personality measures elicited after the respondents had already spent years in the labor market, an experience that could change personality. We clarify the direction of influence by using the British Cohort Study (N = 4,206) to examine whether conscientiousness and other Big...
Article
Children living in low-income households face elevated risks of behavioral problems, but the impact of absolute and relative income to this risk remains unexplored. Using the U.K. Millennium Cohort Study data, longitudinal associations between Strengths and Difficulties Questionnaire scores and absolute household income, distance from the regional...
Article
Full-text available
Purpose Parents face an increased risk of psychological distress compared with adults without children, and families with children also have lower average household incomes. Past research suggests that absolute income (material position) and income status (psychosocial position) influence psychological distress, but their combined effects on change...
Article
Full-text available
On average, marriage tends to lead to temporary increases in life satisfaction, which quickly return to pre-marital levels. This general pattern, however, does not consider the personality of individuals entering into marriage. We examine whether following marriage pre-marital personality predicts different changes to life satisfaction in a sample...
Book
Edited by the founder of the field, this is the first handbook on positive clinical psychology-a revolutionary approach that places equal importance on both the positive and negative aspects of mental health and well-being. The first handbook on positive clinical psychology, a revolutionary approach that places equal importance on the positive and...
Chapter
Full-text available
This chapter attempts to clarify when and where gratitude is apparently negative, with the aim of building a more balanced study of gratitude within psychology. It discusses the positive clinical psychology (PCP), which aims to transform the discipline into one where the understanding and fostering the positive is given equal attention as understan...
Chapter
This introductory chapter presents an overview of the development of Positive Clinical Psychology (PCP) and the empirical and theoretical evidence as to why the movement is needed. PCP aims to address the separatist criticism of positive psychology and redress any imbalanced focus on either the positive or negative in both positive and clinical psy...
Article
Full-text available
Objective: To explore whether negative emotions mediate the effect of diabetes cognitions on diabetes self-care and conversely whether diabetes cognitions mediate the effect of negative emotions on diabetes self-care. Design: Longitudinal observational study in adults with type 2 diabetes. Main outcome measures: Self-reported depression and an...
Article
Full-text available
Loss aversion is considered a general pervasive bias occurring regardless of the context or the person making the decision. We hypothesized that conscientiousness would predict an aversion to losses in the financial domain. We index loss aversion by the relative impact of income losses and gains on life satisfaction. In a representative German samp...
Article
Full-text available
In this review we argue in favour of further integration between the disciplines of positive and clinical psychology. We argue that most of the constructs studied by both positive and clinical psychology exist on continua ranging from positive to negative (e.g., gratitude to ingratitude, anxiety to calmness) and so it is meaningless to speak of one...
Article
Full-text available
We first replicate a study by Vautier and Pohl (2009), who used the State-Trait Anxiety Inventory (STAI) to re-examine the structure of anxiety. Using two large samples (N = 4,138 and 1,824), we also find that state and trait anxiety measure continua that range from high calmness to high anxiety. We then significantly extend previous findings and m...
Article
Full-text available
Research on why income influences health has produced mixed findings. Many, but not all, studies suggest that the relationship between income and health is due to income indicating psychosocial position rather than the associated material benefits. The inconsistent findings may be partly due to the use of the Yitzhaki Index, a function which calcul...
Article
This paper assesses the determinants of take-up of a voluntary waste separation scheme, in a scenario where residents sorted, stored and paid for collection of recycling waste even though mixed waste was collected at the kerbside more conveniently, free of charge and without any quantity limits. Uptake of the scheme was positive, persistent and div...
Article
Full-text available
This paper reviews empirical evidence for associations between goal conflict, ambivalence, self-discrepancy, self-concordance and well-being. The research indicates that goal conflict, ambivalence and discrepancy impede well-being, whilst concordance promotes well-being. The evidence was strongest for ambivalence, self-discrepancy, and self-concord...
Article
Full-text available
This paper reports a test of the relative income rank hypothesis of depression, according to which it is the rank position of an individual's income amongst a comparison group, rather than the individual's absolute income, that will be associated with depressive symptoms. A new methodology is developed to test between psychosocial and material expl...
Article
In this review we argue in favour of further integration between the disciplines of positive and clinical psychology. We argue that most of the constructs studied by both positive and clinical psychology exist on continua ranging from positive to negative (e.g., gratitude to ingratitude, anxiety to calmness) and so it is meaningless to speak of one...
Article
Full-text available
Two types of social norm message frame for encouraging seeking of alcohol-related health information by excessive drinkers were compared: (a) how much the average person actually drinks and (b) how their drinking ranks among others. It was hypothesized, in accordance with recent evidence of how the brain represents value, that Frame (b) would be mo...
Article
People's evaluations in the domain of healthy eating are at least partly determined by the choice context. We systematically test reference level and rank-based models of relative comparisons against each other and explore their application to social norms nudging, an intervention that aims at influencing consumers' behavior by addressing their ina...
Article
Previous research has suggested that defeat (conceptualized as a failed social struggle) and entrapment (conceptualized as a perceived inability to escape from aversive situations) form a single construct that reliably predicts psychopathological outcomes in clinical and community settings. However, scales designed to assess defeat and entrapment m...
Article
Full-text available
Low income is an established risk factor for suicidal thoughts and attempts. This study aims to explore income within a social rank perspective, proposing that the relationship between income and suicidality is accounted for by the rank of that income within comparison groups. Participants (N = 5779) took part in the Adult Psychiatric Morbidity Sur...
Article
Full-text available
How do perceptions of being supported relate to the amount of social support received? Received and perceived support have generally been found to be only moderately related. Previous research has however focused on the amount of support received regardless of whether it was needed. We hypothesized that a measure of support received when needed wou...
Article
Unemployment has a strongly negative influence on well-being, but it is unclear whether it also alters basic personality traits. Whether personality changes arise through natural maturation processes or contextual/environmental factors is still a matter of debate. Unemployment, a relatively unexpected and commonly occurring life event, may shed lig...
Article
Full-text available
It was shown that student satisfaction ratings are influenced by context in ways that have important theoretical and practical implications. Using questions from the UK's National Student Survey, the study examined whether and how students' expressed satisfaction with issues such as feedback promptness and instructor enthusiasm depends on the conte...
Article
Full-text available
This article describes the largest evaluation of a UK child bereavement service to date. Change was assessed using conventional statistical tests as well as clinical significance methodology. Consistent with the fact that the intervention was offered on a universal, preventative basis, bereaved young people experienced a statistically-significant,...
Article
Full-text available
Objective: Financial resources are a potent determinant of health, yet it remains unclear why this is the case. We aimed to identify whether the frequently observed association between absolute levels of monetary resources and health may occur because money acts an indirect proxy for a person's social rank. Method: To address this question we ex...
Article
Full-text available
Gratitude is essential to social life and well-being. Although research with youth populations has gained momentum recently, only two gratitude interventions have been conducted in youth, targeting mostly adolescents. In the current research, we tested a new intervention for promoting gratitude among the youngest children targeted to date. Elementa...
Article
Full-text available
The concepts of “defeat” (representing failed social struggle) and “entrapment” (representing an inability to escape from a situation) have emerged from the animal literature, providing insight into the health consequences of low social rank. Evolutionary models suggest that these constructs co-occur and can lead to the development of mental disord...
Article
Full-text available
Increasingly, psychological research has indicated that an individual’s personality changes across the lifespan. We aim to better understand personality change by examining if personality change is linked to striving towards fulfilment, as suggested by existential–humanistic theories of personality dynamics. Using the Wisconsin Longitudinal Study,...
Article
This paper describes a new model of students' concern about indebtedness within a rank-based social norms framework. Study 1 found that students hold highly variable beliefs about how much other students will owe at the end of their degree. Students' concern about their own anticipated debt - and their intention of taking on a part-time job during...
Article
Full-text available
Higher income is associated with greater well-being, but do income gains and losses affect well-being differently? Loss aversion, whereby losses loom larger than gains, is typically examined in relation to decisions about anticipated outcomes. Here, using subjective-well-being data from Germany (N = 28,723) and the United Kingdom (N = 20,570), we f...
Article
Prosociality represents an important aspect of social functioning in adolescents and is related to the risk of psychological problems. The current paper describes the development and psychometric testing of two new short-form versions of prosocial perceptions named the Brief Adolescent Prosocial Perceptions Scale Self- (BAPPS-S) and Parent-report (...