Alex Kirlik

Alex Kirlik
University of Illinois, Urbana-Champaign | UIUC · Department of Computer Science, Beckman Institute for Advanced Science and Technology

PhD

About

151
Publications
31,467
Reads
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1,899
Citations
Citations since 2016
14 Research Items
765 Citations
2016201720182019202020212022020406080100120
2016201720182019202020212022020406080100120
2016201720182019202020212022020406080100120
2016201720182019202020212022020406080100120
Introduction
Alex Kirlik is Professor in the Department of Computer Science with additional appointments in the Department of Industrial & Enterprise Systems Engineering, the Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering, the Beckman Institute for Advanced Science and Technology, and the Information Trust Institute, the Coordinated Science Laboratory, the Intelligent Robotics Laboratory and the Illinois Informatics Institute. He previously served as acting head of Illinois's Human Factors program in the Institute of Aviation from 2006-2010. Alex earned his B.S., M.S. and Ph.D. degrees in Industrial & Systems Engineering (Human-Machine Systems) at The Ohio State University. His Ph.D. thesis, "The organization of perception and action in complex control skills" earned the Briggs Award from the APA.
Additional affiliations
September 2002 - October 2016
University of Illinois, Urbana-Champaign
Position
  • Professor (Full)
January 1990 - May 2001
Georgia Institute of Technology
Position
  • Research Assistant

Publications

Publications (151)
Article
In his well-researched and thought-provoking article, David Kaber identifies what he believes to be a number of gaps in the research literature on human–automation interaction (HAI), spanning the spectrum from analysis to modeling and design. One of the central themes in his article is the observation that we have failed to give the phenomenon of s...
Article
Full-text available
This paper presents an interface system display that is conceived to improve pilot situation awareness with respect to a flight envelope protection system, developed for a midsized transport aircraft. The new display is designed to complement existing cockpit displays by augmenting them with information related to both aircraft state and control au...
Chapter
Full-text available
This chapter considers some of the problems associated with many current approaches to automation design that adopt a displacement approach, in which automated systems are considered as substituting for functions that had typically been performed by humans in system control (e.g., control theory) and human decision making (multi-attribute decision...
Book
Full-text available
Cognitive engineering is an interdisciplinary approach to the analysis, modeling, and design of engineered systems or workplaces in which humans and technologies jointly operate to achieve system goals. As individuals, teams, and organizations become increasingly reliant on information technology and automation, it is more important than ever for s...
Conference Paper
Human speech often contains ambiguity stemming from the use of demonstrative pronouns (DPs), such as “this” and “these.” While we can typically decipher which objects of interest DPs are referring to based on context, modern day voice assistants (VAs – such as Google Assistant and Siri) are yet unable to process queries containing such ambiguity. F...
Article
With computational algorithms making an increasing number of deeply consequential, and often problematic judgments on our behalf, there is a growing interest in slowing down technology to encourage users to reflect on judgments made by algorithms. Prior work in slow technology has established slowness as an agent of reflection and serendipity; howe...
Article
Full-text available
The work of a hospital’s medical staff is safety critical and often occurs under severe time constraints. To provide timely and effective cognitive support to medical teams working in such contexts, guidelines in the form of best practice workflows for healthcare have been developed by medical organizations. However, the high cognitive load imposed...
Chapter
This chapter provides an introduction to and overview of both foundational and contemporary research using computational modeling to aid in the scientific understanding of human expertise. We discuss the distinction between computational modeling techniques that have been used for decades to calculate summary statistics and for hypothesis testing b...
Chapter
Few scientific disciplines have the potential of cognitive science to speak to the problems which people face every day in dealing with an increasingly complex technological, social, and cultural environment. In principle, understanding activities such as perceiving, learning, reasoning, speaking, deciding, and acting should be relevant to improvin...
Conference Paper
Full-text available
Many students underperform on exams due to experiencing high test anxiety. We report on a study comparing a novel intervention of seeking support from one's social network to the more common approaches of expressive writing and studying task-relevant materials for simulated open-ended test questions. We measured in-the-moment (state) anxiety before...
Article
Full-text available
This article demonstrates a multidisciplinary approach that proposes to augment future caregiving by prolonged independence of older adults. The human–robot system allows the elderly to cooperate with small flying robots through an appropriate interface. ASPIRE provides a platform where high-level controllers can be designed to provide a layer of a...
Conference Paper
Full-text available
Many online platforms use curation algorithms that are opaque to the user. Recent work suggests that discovering a filtering algorithm's existence in a curated feed influences user experience, but it remains unclear how users reason about the operation of these algorithms. In this qualitative laboratory study, researchers interviewed a diverse, non...
Conference Paper
The modality students use to complete programming-centric exams is shifting from paper to computer. We developed and distributed a survey to investigate how exam modality affects student perceptions of test anxiety and performance during programming-centric exams. We examine the distribution of modality preference among students and understand how...
Research
Full-text available
DRAFT ms (12/2015) for J.M. Flach, P. Tsang and M. Vidulich (Eds.), Advances in Aviation Psychology, Vol. 2. Ashgate. Comments and corrections are welcome; please send to Alex Kirlik at kirlik@illinois.edu
Conference Paper
Full-text available
Despite the contributions of automation to aviation safety and efficiency, the problems associated with technology-centered rather than human-centered automation are well known: decreased pilot situation awareness, deterioration of manual piloting skills, difficulties pilots experience when trying to jump into the loop when needed, and so forth. We...
Article
Full-text available
Unlabelled: Accurate comprehension and analysis of complex sociotechnical systems is a daunting task. Empirically examining, or simply envisioning the structure and behaviour of such systems challenges traditional analytic and experimental approaches as well as our everyday cognitive capabilities. Computer-based models and simulations afford poten...
Conference Paper
Full-text available
This paper presents an interface system display which is conceived to improve pilot situation awareness with respect to a flight envelope protection system developed for a mid-sized transport aircraft. The new display is designed to complement existing cockpit displays, and to augment them with information that relates to both aircraft state and th...
Conference Paper
Full-text available
This paper presents an interface system display which is conceived to improve pilot situation awareness with respect to a flight envelope protection system developed for a mid-sized transport aircraft. The new display is designed to complement existing cockpit displays, and to augment them with information that relates to both aircraft state and th...
Article
Full-text available
Expanding and improving design knowledge is a vital part of higher education due to the growing demand for employees who can think both critically and creatively. However, developing effective methods for assessing what students have learned in design courses is one of the most elusive challenges of design education due to the subjective nature of...
Conference Paper
An immersive flight simulator has been developed at the University of Illinois at Urbana- Champaign using NASA's Transport Class Model aircraft dynamics in an effort to streamline the design and testing process of a flight control law incorporating flight envelope protection and loss-of-control prediction and prevention systems. A modular simulator...
Conference Paper
In an effort to improve the overall safety of the current and future air transportation system, researchers have been investigating the causes and series of events that can potentially lead to aircraft loss of control (LoC) as well as methods to prevent the occurrence of such events. Motivated by this challenging problem, this paper presents prelim...
Article
The Sociotechnical Systems (STS) approach has had an enormous influence on both research and practice within occupational safety and has been applied across a range of domains including construction, healthcare, transportation and manufacturing. This panel will discuss the outcomes from a Hopkinton Conference on STS and Safety held at the Liberty M...
Article
Evidence from psychological studies of both novice and expert forecasters often show that people are overconfident in their ability to make accurate judgmental predictions about future events. In contrast, evidence from much cognitive engineering research appears to show that experienced performers are reasonably well adapted to their task environme...
Article
Full-text available
DOI: 10.2514/1.C031690 Highly complex and coupled nature of the National Airspace System makes it challenging to understand the safety implications of changes to its operations. A comprehensive assessment of the hazards associated with the introduction of new technologies must involve modeling of interactions among aircraft behavior, supporting inf...
Article
This handbook collects and organizes contemporary cognitive engineering research, drawing on the original research of more than 60 contributing experts. Coverage of human factors, human-computer interaction, and the conceptual foundations of cognitive engineering is extensive, addressing not only cognitive engineering in broader organizations and c...
Article
Three versions of a prototype ground controller interface were tested for their effect on aircraft departure sequencing in a simulation of Dallas/Forth-Worth International Airport. Two versions featured automated decision aids and a third served as a baseline with no decision aid. The two decision aids performed fundamentally different functions, w...
Article
Full-text available
One potentially useful concept that arises in the elicitation and aggregation of probabilistic forecasts is Hammond’s (1996) distinction between coherence and correspondence. A study was conducted to test the commonly held assumption that coherence competency, a judge’s ability to reason correctly according to the prescriptions demanded by the prob...
Article
Full-text available
The purpose of this article is to describe how research at the intersection of cognition, technology, and work can be generalized beyond the source context of scientific inquiry and confirmation. Special emphasis is given to resolve confusion about the use of terms such as “ecological validity” and the “real world.” The ultimate goal is to foster a...
Article
Full-text available
ABSTRACT A recent trend in cognitive modeling is to couple cognitive architectures with computer models or simulations of dynamic environments,to study interactive behavior and embedded,cognition. Progress in this area is made difficult by the fact that cognitive architectures traditionally have been motivated by data from discrete experimental tri...
Chapter
This chapter presents a contemporary overview of human factors psychology, including its origins, core problems, methodological approaches, and overviews of state-of-the-art research in three key areas likely to be relevant to industrial/organizational psychology. These include: human-automation interaction, or HAI; situation awareness, or SA; and...
Chapter
Full-text available
This chapter presents a contemporary overview of human factors psychology, including its origins, core problems, methodological approaches, and overviews of state-of-the-art research in three key areas likely to be relevant to industrial/organizational psychology. These include: human-automation interaction, or HAI; situation awareness, or SA; and...
Chapter
Full-text available
This chapter presents a contemporary overview of human factors psychology, including its origins, core problems, methodological approaches, and overviews of state-of-the-art research in three key areas likely to be relevant to industrial/organizational psychology. These include: human-automation interaction, or HAI; situation awareness, or SA; and...
Chapter
This chapter presents a contemporary overview of human factors psychology, including its origins, core problems, methodological approaches, and overviews of state-of-the-art research in three key areas likely to be relevant to industrial/organizational psychology. These include: human-automation interaction, or HAI; situation awareness, or SA; and...
Chapter
This chapter presents a contemporary overview of human factors psychology, including its origins, core problems, methodological approaches, and overviews of state-of-the-art research in three key areas likely to be relevant to industrial/organizational psychology. These include: human-automation interaction, or HAI; situation awareness, or SA; and...
Chapter
Full-text available
This chapter presents a contemporary overview of human factors psychology, including its origins, core problems, methodological approaches, and overviews of state-of-the-art research in three key areas likely to be relevant to industrial/organizational psychology. These include: human-automation interaction, or HAI; situation awareness, or SA; and...
Conference Paper
Full-text available
The Next Generation Air Transportation System (NextGen) seeks to reduce gridlock at airports by, among other things, creating a more efficient surface taxi management system. Addressing this situation creates a difficult evaluation problem; how can new scheduling methods be tested? Present methods generally involve either expensive human-in-the-loo...
Article
In this paper, we explore the relationship between confidence and basic knowledge information collected prior to a forecast and forecast performance (i.e. achievement). Forecasters were asked at the beginning of the 2008 Major League Baseball season to predict end-of-year performance in five statistical categories for both hitters and pitchers. At...
Article
Full-text available
Proper Bayesian reasoning is critical in a variety of domains that require practitioners to make predictions about the probability of events contingent upon earlier actions or events. However, much research on judgment has shown that people who are unfamiliar with Bayes’ Theorem often reason quite poorly with conditional probabilities due to variou...
Chapter
Cognitive heuristics are fundamental to human judgment and decision making. Often described as rules of thumb that are used in lieu of optimal procedures (e.g., when resources are limited, or knowledge is incomplete), cognitive heuristics may also be understood as essential psychological mechanisms that guide information search and produce decision...
Article
This book coins the term "human-tech" to describe a more encompassing and ambitious approach to the study of Human-Technology Interaction (HTI) than is now evident in any of its participating disciplines, such as human factors, human-computer interaction, cognitive science and engineering, industrial design, informatics or applied psychology. Obser...
Article
This chapter presents the reprinted article "The Earth is spherical (p < 0.05): Alternative methods of statistical inference" by Kim J. Vicente and Gerard L. Torenvliet. The chapter argues that "the statistical analysis techniques that are most familiar to, and most frequently used by, ergonomics scientists and practitioners have important limitati...
Article
Full-text available
This chapter presents the reprinted article "Toward Jeffersonian Research Programmes in Ergonomics Science" by Kim Vicente. Here, Vicente presents and advocates a Humantech research approach and agenda grounded in the tenets of Jeffersonian and representative democracy. The key message in this chapter is that a Human-tech research approach necessar...
Article
This chapter presents the reprinted article "A Theoretical Note on the Relationship Between Work Domain Analysis and Task Analysis" by John R. Hajdukiewicz and Kim J. Vicente. This chapter attempts to clarify the distinction between task analysis and work domain analysis, yet show how they interrelate. It does a nice job of making the distinction b...
Article
This chapter presents the reprinted article " Human Factors Engineering That Makes a Difference: Leveraging a Science of Societal Change" by Kim Vicente. This chapter suggests that human-technology interaction (HTI) researchers and practitioners must take an activist approach toward changing the world. The latter sections of the chapter refers to e...
Article
This chapter presents the reprinted article "Toward theory-driven, quantitative performance measurement in ergonomics science: The abstraction hierarchy as a framework for data analysis" by Xinyao Yu, Elfreda Lau, Kim J. Vicente, and Michael W. Carter. The article focuses on the effects of various interface designs on the strategies people used to...
Article
This chapter presents the reprinted article "The Walkerton E. coli outbreak: a test of Rasmussen's framework for risk management in a dynamic society" by Kim J. Vicente and Klaus Christoffersen. The chapter provides a very detailed application of a risk management framework developed by Jens Rasmussen. The chapter uses this framework to mine a case...
Chapter
This chapter reviews research on human-tech. This book's author began his research career in the discipline of human factors engineering in the mid 1980s. This was an era of increasing disillusionment, especially among those with design orientations, with the received view that dominated the prevailing culture of his field: that human factors was b...
Chapter
Full-text available
The study of model-based reasoning (MBR) is one of the most interesting recent developments at the intersection of psychology and the philosophy of science. Although a broad and eclectic area of inquiry, one central axis by which MBR connects these disciplines is anchored at one end in theories of internal reasoning (in cognitive science), and at t...
Conference Paper
Understanding the safety implications of any changes to the operations of National Airspace presents a host of challenges due to the highly complex and coupled nature of this system. The system's current state might not be the most efficient, but its safety features are well established and grounded in years of relatively successful experience. Tec...
Chapter
Full-text available
The origins of bounded rationality in the pioneering research of Herbert A. Simon are presented, and the influence of these original ideas are traced forward to examine how they have influenced a wide variety of contemporary lines of psychological research on both, the capabilities and mechanisms of human judgment and decision making. Keywords: b...
Article
Full-text available
In this chapter we provide a Brunswikian perspective on human interaction with everyday technologies such as traffic lights, automotive devices (e. g., warning systems), and also advanced technologies such as flight control systems in modern airliners. We apply this perspective toward suggesting a framework for evaluating interface designs and for...
Article
Recent times have seen an explosion of research on the intersection between rules, models, heuristics, and ecological task structure. Many groups have worked to connect loose strategies and findings into a more cohesive theory of judgment, specifying the particular ecologies under which various strategies work well or not. However, the majority of...
Article
Full-text available
Using a cognitive task (mental calculation) and a perceptual-motor task (stylized golf putting), we examined differential proficiency using the CWS index and several other quantitative measures of performance. The CWS index (Weiss \& Shanteau, 2003) is a coherence criterion that looks only at internal properties of the data without incorporating an...
Article
Full-text available
Recent psychological research aimed at determining whether dynamic event perception is direct or mediated by cue-based inference convincingly demonstrates evidence of both modes of perception or apprehension. This work also shows that noise is involved in attaining any perceptual variable, whether it perfectly (invariantly) specifies or imperfectly...
Article
Full-text available
Expert judgment has been conceived in contrasting ways. The naturalistic decision making (NDM) paradigm has put forth a largely instance-based account, viewing experts as relying on a storehouse of cases, such as in the recognition-primed decision (RPD) model. Cognitive psychology has instead advanced largely heuristic-or rule-based accounts, such...
Article
Full-text available
In this paper we present a concept and interface design aimed at combining expert human judgment with computational support. The goal of this design is to leverage the strengths and simultaneously compensate for the weaknesses of both the expert and a computational model. In order to test the design, we created a task modeled after fantasy baseball...
Article
As in many areas in Human Factors, human performance modeling has a long history in the aviation community. The real-time dynamism and safety criticality of the domain calls for the most advanced tools possible, and also provides a strong testbed for any modeling formalism Recent work has demonstrated significant advances in this field in the last...
Article
Full-text available
Computer-based decision support systems are increasingly used to aid human decision makers in dynamic, uncertain, time-stressed and high-stakes contexts. The decision of whether, and if so, when to evacuate New Orleans as Hurricane Katrina approached landfall is a prime example. An evaluation of the "HURREVAC" decision support system (DSS) used dur...
Article
This discussion panel will consider whether the time is right for a cognitive engineering textbook and what the ideal specifications for such a text would be. Courses in this area are typically taught using either one of various books focused on a particular approach or perspective, or else multiple books or articles that aim at somewhat broader co...
Conference Paper
A recent trend in cognitive modeling is to couple cognitive architectures with computer models or simulations of dynamic environments, such as flight simulators, to study interactive behavior and embedded cognition. Progress in this area is made difficult by the fact that cognitive architectures traditionally have been motivated by data from discre...
Article
Full-text available
Human factors requires modeling techniques that capture how cognition and behavior are sensitive to environmental design. As such, techniques such as Anderson's rational analysis and Brunswik's lens model framework should be of interest to human performance modelers because they provide ways to analyze tasks and behavior as adaptive to environmenta...