Alex Horsley

Alex Horsley
The University of Manchester · Manchester Adult Cystic Fibrosis Centre

MA MBChB MRCP PhD

About

254
Publications
19,927
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4,942
Citations
Additional affiliations
March 2012 - present
The University of Manchester
Position
  • Senior Lecturer, Clinician Scientist
January 2007 - December 2008
The University of Edinburgh

Publications

Publications (254)
Article
Background The next-generation cystic fibrosis transmembrane conductance regulator (CFTR) corrector VX-659, in triple combination with tezacaftor and ivacaftor (VX-659–tezacaftor–ivacaftor), was developed to restore the function of Phe508del CFTR protein in patients with cystic fibrosis. Methods We evaluated the effects of VX-659–tezacaftor–ivacaf...
Article
Background: The development of ivacaftor represents a significant advance in therapeutics for patients with cystic fibrosis (CF) who carry the G551D mutation. Patients with an FEV1 < 40% predicted represent a considerable proportion of eligible patients but were excluded from phase 3 clinical trials, and the effectiveness of the drug in this popul...
Article
Hyperpolarised helium-3 ( ³ He) ventilation magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and multiple-breath washout (MBW) are sensitive methods for detecting lung disease in cystic fibrosis (CF). We aimed to explore their relationship across a broad range of CF disease severity and patient age, as well as assess the effect of inhaled lung volume on ventilatio...
Article
Background Clinical trials in cystic fibrosis (CF) have been hindered by the paucity of well characterised and clinically relevant outcome measures. Aim To evaluate a range of conventional and novel biomarkers of CF lung disease in a multicentre setting as a contributing study in selecting outcome assays for a clinical trial of CFTR gene therapy. M...
Article
Adult cystic fibrosis (CF) is notable for the wide heterogeneity in severity of disease expression, both between patients and within the lungs of individuals. Although CF airways disease appears to start in the small airways, in adults there is typically widespread bronchiectasis, increased airway secretions, and extensive obstruction and inflammat...
Preprint
Full-text available
Background In patients with COVID-19 requiring supplemental oxygen, dexamethasone reduces acute severity and improves survival, but longer-term effects are unknown. We hypothesised that systemic corticosteroid administration during acute COVID-19 would be associated with improved health-related quality of life (HRQoL) one year after discharge. Meth...
Preprint
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One in ten SARS-CoV-2 infections result in prolonged symptoms termed long COVID, yet disease phenotypes and mechanisms are poorly understood. We studied the blood proteome of 719 previously hospitalised adults with long COVID grouped by symptoms. Elevated markers of myeloid inflammation and complement activation were associated with long COVID; ele...
Article
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To assess how the presence of surfactant in lung airways alters the flow of mucus that leads to plug formation and airway closure, we investigate the effect of insoluble surfactant on the instability of a viscoplastic liquid coating the interior of a cylindrical tube. Evolution equations for the layer thickness using thin-film and long-wave approxi...
Article
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Post-COVID cognitive deficits, including ‘brain fog’, are clinically complex, with both objective and subjective components. They are common and debilitating, and can affect the ability to work, yet their biological underpinnings remain unknown. In this prospective cohort study of 1,837 adults hospitalized with COVID-19, we identified two distinct...
Article
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Background Increased serum interleukin (IL)-33 predicts poor outcomes in patients hospitalised with coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19). We examined the efficacy and safety of tozorakimab, a monoclonal antibody that neutralises IL-33, in improving outcomes in ACCORD-2 (EudraCT: 2020–001736-95). Methods ACCORD-2 was an open-label, phase 2a study in...
Article
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Objective Identify prevalence of self-reported swallow, communication, voice and cognitive compromise following hospitalisation for COVID-19. Design Multicentre prospective observational cohort study using questionnaire data at visit 1 (2–7 months post discharge) and visit 2 (10–14 months post discharge) from hospitalised patients in the UK. Lasso...
Preprint
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● PHOSP-COVID is a national UK multi-centre cohort study of patients who were hospitalised for COVID-19 and subsequently discharged. ● PHOSP-COVID was established to investigate the medium- and long-term sequelae of severe COVID-19 requiring hospitalisation, understand the underlying mechanisms of these sequelae, evaluate the medium- and long-term...
Preprint
Full-text available
To assess how the presence of surfactant in lung airways alters the flow of mucus that leads to plug formation and airway closure, we investigate the effect of insoluble surfactant on the instability of a viscoplastic liquid coating the interior of a cylindrical tube. Evolution equations for the layer thickness using thin-film and long-wave approxi...
Article
Background: Sleep disturbance is common following hospital admission both for COVID-19 and other causes. The clinical associations of this for recovery after hospital admission are poorly understood despite sleep disturbance contributing to morbidity in other scenarios. We aimed to investigate the prevalence and nature of sleep disturbance after d...
Article
Full-text available
Background: The risk factors for recovery from COVID-19 dyspnoea are poorly understood. We investigated determinants of recovery from dyspnoea in adults with COVID-19 and compared these to determinants of recovery from non-COVID-19 dyspnoea. Methods: We used data from two prospective cohort studies: PHOSP-COVID (patients hospitalised between Mar...
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Background COVID-19 is associated with a dysregulated immune response but it is unclear how immune dysfunction contributes to the chronic morbidity persisting in many COVID-19 patients during convalescence (long COVID). Methods We assessed phenotypical and functional changes of monocytes in COVID-19 patients during hospitalization and up to 9 mont...
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Background: The scale of COVID-19 and its well documented long-term sequelae support a need to understand long-term outcomes including frailty. Methods: This prospective cohort study recruited adults who had survived hospitalisation with clinically diagnosed COVID-19 across 35 sites in the UK (PHOSP-COVID). The burden of frailty was objectively...
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Introduction Many adults hospitalised with COVID-19 have persistent symptoms such as fatigue, breathlessness and brain fog that limit day-to-day activities. These symptoms can last over 2 years. Whilst there is limited controlled studies on interventions that can support those with ongoing symptoms, there has been some promise in rehabilitation int...
Article
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Background Persistence of respiratory symptoms—particularly breathlessness—after acute COVID-19 infection has emerged as a significant clinical problem. We aimed to characterise and identify risk factors for patients with persistent breathlessness following COVID-19 hospitalisation. Methods PHOSP-COVID is a multi-centre prospective cohort study of...
Article
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Rationale Shared symptoms and genetic architecture between coronavirus disease (COVID-19) and lung fibrosis suggest severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) infection may lead to progressive lung damage. Objectives The UK Interstitial Lung Disease Consortium (UKILD) post–COVID-19 study interim analysis was planned to estimate t...
Conference Paper
Objectives Aspergillus fumigatus is the most frequently cultured fungal pathogen in sputum from cystic fibrosis (CF) patients. Elexacaftor-tezacaftor-ivacaftor (ETI) is a CFTR modulator which results in significant improvements in lung function. We aimed to investigate the effect of ETI therapy on the serological response to Aspergillus in adult CF...
Article
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Chronic lung infection is the leading cause of morbidity and early mortality for people with cystic fibrosis (pwCF). Microbiological surveillance to detect lung pathogens is recommended as best practise in CF patient care.
Article
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One mechanism for airway closure in the lung is the surface-tension-driven instability of the mucus layer which lines the airway wall. We study the instability of an axisymmetric layer of viscoplastic Bingham liquid coating the interior of a rigid tube, which is a simple model for an airway that takes into account the yield stress of mucus. An evol...
Article
Full-text available
Background The number of individuals recovering from severe COVID-19 is increasing rapidly. However, little is known about physical behaviours that make up the 24-h cycle within these individuals. This study aimed to describe physical behaviours following hospital admission for COVID-19 at eight months post-discharge including associations with acu...
Article
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Background The COVID-19 pandemic has presented substantial new challenges to clinical and research teams. Our objective was to analyse the experience of investigators and research delivery staff regarding the research response to COVID-19 in order to identify these challenges as well as solutions for future pandemic planning. Methods We conducted...
Article
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Background Indices of ventilation heterogeneity (VH) from multiple breath washout (MBW) have been shown to correlate well with VH indices derived from hyperpolarised gas ventilation MRI. Here we report the prediction of ventilation distributions from MBW data using a mathematical model, and the comparison of these predictions with imaging data. Me...
Article
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Given the large numbers of people infected and high rates of ongoing morbidity, research is clearly required to address the needs of adult survivors of COVID-19 living with ongoing symptoms (long COVID). To help direct resource and research efforts, we completed a research prioritisation process incorporating views from adults with ongoing symptoms...
Preprint
Full-text available
One mechanism for airway closure in the lung is the surface-tension-driven instability of the mucus layer which lines the airway wall. We study the instability of an axisymmetric layer of viscoplastic Bingham liquid coating the interior of a rigid tube, which is a simple model for an airway that takes into account the yield stress of mucus. An evol...
Preprint
Full-text available
Background There are currently no effective pharmacological or non-pharmacological interventions for Long-COVID. To identify potential therapeutic targets, we focussed on previously described four recovery clusters five months after hospital discharge, their underlying inflammatory profiles and relationship with clinical outcomes at one year. Metho...
Article
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Background: The impact of COVID-19 on physical and mental health and employment after hospitalisation with acute disease is not well understood. The aim of this study was to determine the effects of COVID-19-related hospitalisation on health and employment, to identify factors associated with recovery, and to describe recovery phenotypes. Methods...
Article
Full-text available
Background The impact of COVID-19 on physical and mental health and employment after hospitalisation with acute disease is not well understood. The aim of this study was to determine the effects of COVID-19-related hospitalisation on health and employment, to identify factors associated with recovery, and to describe recovery phenotypes. Methods...
Preprint
Full-text available
Background: Indices of ventilation heterogeneity (VH) from multiple breath washout (MBW) have been shown to correlate well with VH indices derived from hyperpolarised gas ventilation MRI. Here we report the prediction of ventilation distributions from MBW data using a mathematical model, and the comparison of these predictions with imaging data. Me...
Article
Background: Cystic fibrosis (CF) is characterized by neutrophilic inflammation in the airways. Leukotriene B4 (LTB4) is a neutrophil chemoattractant and has been implicated in CF pathogenesis. Acebilustat, a novel, synthetic, small-molecule leukotriene A4 hydrolase inhibitor, reduces LTB4 production. We report findings from a randomized placebo-co...
Article
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Background: Lung clearance index (LCI) is a valuable research tool in cystic fibrosis (CF) but clinical application has been limited by technical challenges and uncertainty about how to interpret longitudinal change. In order to help inform clinical practice, this study aimed to assess feasibility, repeatability and longitudinal LCI change in chil...
Article
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The immune response to SARS-CoV-2 is critical in controlling disease, but there is concern that waning immunity may predispose to reinfection. We analyzed the magnitude and phenotype of the SARS-CoV-2-specific T cell response in 100 donors at 6 months following infection. T cell responses were present by ELISPOT and/or intracellular cytokine staini...
Article
Background/Aims Patients infected with severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) may develop acute respiratory inflammation, due to an exaggerated immune response and some develop chronic complications. Neutrophils play a major role in the pathology of inflammatory diseases and have been shown to contribute to lung and vascular...
Article
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Introduction: In the early stages, lung involvement in cystic fibrosis (CF) can be silent, with disease progression occurring in the absence of clinical symptoms. Irreversible airway damage is present in the early stages of disease; however, reliable biomarkers of early damage due to inflammation and infection that are universally applicable in day...
Preprint
Full-text available
Background The impact of COVID-19 on physical and mental health, and employment following hospitalisation is poorly understood. Methods PHOSP-COVID is a multi-centre, UK, observational study of adults discharged from hospital with a clinical diagnosis of COVID-19 involving an assessment between two- and seven-months later including detailed symptom...
Preprint
Full-text available
Background Most individuals with COVID-19 will recover without sequelae, but some will develop long-term multi-system impairments. The definition, duration, prevalence and symptoms associated with long COVID, however, have not been established. Methods Public Health England (PHE) initiated longitudinal surveillance of clinical and non-clinical heal...
Article
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In this review, the Paediatric Assembly of the European Respiratory Society (ERS) presents a summary of the highlights and most relevant findings in the field of paediatric respiratory medicine presented at the virtual ERS International Congress 2020. Early Career Members of the ERS and Chairs of the different Groups comprising the Paediatric Assem...
Article
Background Antibody waning after SARS-CoV-2 infection may result in reduction in long-term immunity following natural infection and vaccination, and is therefore a major public health issue. We undertook prospective serosurveillance in a large cohort of healthy adults from the start of the epidemic in England. Methods Clinical and non-clinical hea...
Article
Introduction Isolation of Exophiala species from sputum samples has become increasingly reported in Cystic Fibrosis (CF). However, the clinical significance of Exophiala spp. with regards to the paediatric CF population is unknown. Methods A case control study was undertaken to compare CF children with and without chronic Exophiala spp. in their s...
Article
Full-text available
Background Azithromycin has been proposed as a treatment for COVID-19 on the basis of its immunomodulatory actions. We aimed to evaluate the safety and efficacy of azithromycin in patients admitted to hospital with COVID-19. Methods In this randomised, controlled, open-label, adaptive platform trial (Randomised Evaluation of COVID-19 Therapy [RECO...
Article
Introduction Xenon-129 (129Xe) ventilation magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) is sensitive to detect early cystic fibrosis (CF) lung disease and response to treatment. 129Xe-MRI could play a significant role in clinical trials and patient management. Here we present data on the repeatability of imaging measurements and their sensitivity to longitudin...
Article
Full-text available
Background: Severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) infection carries a substantial risk of severe and prolonged illness; treatment options are currently limited. We assessed the efficacy and safety of inhaled nebulised interferon beta-1a (SNG001) for the treatment of patients admitted to hospital with COVID-19. Methods: We d...
Preprint
Full-text available
The immune response to SARS-CoV-2 is critical in both controlling primary infection and preventing re-infection. However, there is concern that immune responses following natural infection may not be sustained and that this may predispose to recurrent infection. We analysed the magnitude and phenotype of the SARS-CoV-2 cellular immune response in 1...
Preprint
Full-text available
The immune response to SARS-CoV-2 is critical in both controlling primary infection and preventing re-infection. However, there is concern that immune responses following natural infection may not be sustained and that this may predispose to recurrent infection. We analysed the magnitude and phenotype of the SARS-CoV-2 cellular immune response in 1...
Preprint
Full-text available
Background There is considerable debate about the rate of antibody waning after SARS-CoV-2 infection, raising questions around long-term immunity following both natural infection and vaccination. We undertook prospective serosurveillance in a large cohort of healthy adults from the start of the epidemic in England. Methods The serosurveillance coh...
Article
Purpose of review: Early stage lung disease has long been synonymous with infancy and childhood. As diagnosis happens earlier and conventional management improves, we are seeing larger proportions of people with cystic fibrosis (CF) in adolescence and even adulthood with well preserved lung health. The availability of highly effective cystic fibro...
Preprint
Full-text available
Background Early clinical reports have suggested that the prevalence of thrombotic complications in the pathogenesis of COVID-19 may be as high as 30% in intensive care unit (ICU)-admitted patients and could be a major factor contributing to mortality. However, mechanisms underlying COVID-19-associated thrombo-coagulopathy, and its impact on patien...
Article
Background The importance of exercise in the management of people with CF is well recognised, yet the effect of exercise on lung function is not well understood. FEV1 is insensitive to the detection of small changes in lung function. Ventilation MRI and LCI are both more sensitive to mild lung disease than FEV1 and may be better suited to assess th...
Article
Full-text available
This paper introduces a linear operator for the purposes of quantifying the spectral properties of transport within resistive trees, such as airflow in lung airway networks. The operator, which we call the Maury matrix, acts only on the terminal nodes of the tree and is equivalent to the adjacency matrix of a complete graph summarizing the relation...
Article
Introduction ¹²⁹ Xe ventilation MRI is sensitive to detect early CF lung disease and response to treatment. ¹²⁹ Xe-MRI could play a significant role in clinical trials and patient management. Here we present data on the repeatability of imaging measurements and their sensitivity to longitudinal change. Methods 29 children and adults with CF and a...
Conference Paper
Full-text available
Objectives: Culture-based microbiology is used to inform treatment of lung infection in CF by growing key pathogens, such as P. aeruginosa (Pa), on selective growth media. Molecular microbiology, based on PCR, is known to be more sensitive and detects a wider range of organisms in cross-sectional comparisons. Here we compared molecular- and culture...
Preprint
Full-text available
This paper introduces a linear operator for the purposes of quantifying the spectral properties of transport within resistive trees, such as airflow in lung airway networks. The operator, which we call the Maury matrix, acts only on the terminal nodes of the tree and is equivalent to the adjacency matrix of a complete graph summarising the relation...
Article
Background: Chronic pulmonary infection is a hallmark of lung disease in cystic fibrosis. Infections dominated by organisms of the Burkholderia cepacia complex, a group of at least 18 closely-related species of gram-negative bacteria, are particularly difficult to treat. These infections may be associated with a fulminant necrotising pneumonia. Bu...
Article
Full-text available
In this article, the Group Chairs and the Early Career Members of the Paediatric Assembly of the European Respiratory Society (ERS) highlight some of the most interesting findings in the field of paediatrics presented at the 2019 ERS International Congress, which was held in Madrid, Spain. The main findings from each group are summarised at the end...