Alessio Varesano

Alessio Varesano
Italian National Research Council | CNR · Institute of Industrial Intelligent Technologies and Systems for Advanced Manufacturing (STIIMA)

Researcher

About

77
Publications
17,856
Reads
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2,370
Citations
Introduction
Textile materials and processes. Textile functionalization. Antibacterial finishing. Electrospinning. Nanofibres. Electrically conductive polymers. Polypyrrole.
Additional affiliations
June 2019 - present
Italian National Research Council
Position
  • Researcher
March 2007 - June 2019
Italian National Research Council
Position
  • Researcher

Publications

Publications (77)
Article
Cysteine-S-sulfonated keratin, protein extracted from wool fibers by sulfitolysis, is a natural polyelectrolyte typically used in biomedical materials like scaffolds and smart biointerfaces. In order to extend and tune its properties, a study of the content of secondary structures, thermostability, biocidal activity and in vitro tests of cell viabi...
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The development of asymmetric membranes—i.e., matching two fibrous layers with selected composition and morphological properties to mimic both the epidermis and dermis—currently represents one of the most promising strategies to support skin regeneration during the wound healing process. Herein, a new asymmetric platform fabricated by a sequential...
Article
Full-text available
Protein-based nanofibres are commonly used in the biomedical field to support cell growth. For this study, the cell viability of wool keratin-based nanofibres was tested. Membranes were obtained by electrospinning using formic acid, hexafluoroisopropanol, and water as solvents. For aqueous solutions, polyethylene oxide blended with keratin was empl...
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In this paper, we exhibit how to construct a template for capturing antimicrobial capacity data of nanomaterials or nanoenabled products. The template promotes the principles of making data scientifically findable, accessible, interoperable and reusable (FAIR), encouraging scientists to reuse it. The template construction roadmap entails the follow...
Article
Protein-based nanomaterials are gaining growing interest in biomedical field. The present paper evaluates the physico-chemical properties of electrospun nanofibers resulting from the combination of gelatin with keratin (from wool) and sericin (from silk) to validate their use for in vitro interaction studies. We demonstrated that that presence of s...
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Polypyrrole (PPy) nanoparticles (NPs) are used for the coating of materials, such as textiles, with biomedical applications, including wound care and tissue engineering, but they are also promising antibacterial agents. In this work, PPy NPs were used for the spray-coating of textiles with antimicrobial properties. The functional properties of the...
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In response to the nowadays battle against SARS-CoV-2, we designed a new class of high performant filter media suitable to advance the facemask technology and provide new efficient widespread solutions against virus propagation. By means of the electrospinning technology we developed filter media based on polyvinyl alcohol (PVA) nanofibers doped wi...
Article
Wool is sensitive toward the effect of alkaline solutions which are usually used in the dissolution of wool fibers to regenerate keratin. In this investigation, the effect of different alkalis on the chemical composition and the secondary structure of wool was studied. Wool was treated with equivalent amounts of alkali metal hydroxides (lithium, so...
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Electrospinning is gaining increasing interest in the biomedical field as an eco-friendly and economic technique for production of random and oriented polymeric fibers. The aim of this review was to give an overview of electrospinning potentialities in the production of fibers for biomedical applications with a focus on the possibility to combine b...
Article
This paper explores the possibility of dyeing textile fabrics with halochromic dyes. Five different halochromic dyes were tested: bromocresol purple, m‐cresol purple, chlorophenol red, curcumin and bromothymol blue. Preliminary dyeing was carried out on wool, polyacrylonitrile, polyester, polyamide 6.6, cotton and cellulose acetate at 100°C for 40...
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Electrospinning is the leading technology to fabricate fibrous scaffolds that mimic the architecture of the extracellular matrix of natural tissues. In order to improve the biological response, a consolidated trend involves the blending of synthetic polymers with natural proteins to form protein-rich fibers that include selected biochemical cues ab...
Article
Coupling of keratin with titanium surfaces is here realized both through thick coatings and molecular functionalization. This coupling has the final aim both of chemical and mechanical protection of the titanium surfaces and of improving interaction of titanium implants with soft tissues in transmucosal and percutaneous implants. Wool-derived kerat...
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Full-text available
: Biomolecules and extracts from natural products are gaining increasing interest due to their beneficial properties for human health, low toxicity, environmental compatibility and sustainability. In this work, keratin, chitosan and peppermint essential oil have been used for the preparation of coatings on titanium substrates for biomedical implant...
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Chitosan was grafted on the surface of a cotton gauze (20 mg chitosan g−1 cotton, 50 mg chitosan g−1 cotton, and 100 mg chitosan g−1 cotton) to improve its stability in aqueous solutions. The adsorption of hexavalent chromium ions from water on the grafted chitosan was evaluated to determine, by means of linear and nonlinear models, the kinetic and...
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This review is devoted to discuss the unique characteristics of multi-jet electrospinning technique, compared to other spinning techniques, and its utilization in spinning of natural as well as synthetic polymers. The advantages and inadequacies of the current commercial chemical spinning methods; namely wet spinning, melt spinning, dry spinning, a...
Article
The technological quest for flexible devices to be interfaced with the biological world has driven the recent reinvention of bioderived polymers as multifunctional active and passive constituent elements for electronic and photonic devices to use in the biomedical field. Keratin is one of the most important structural proteins in nature to be used...
Article
Keratin proteins extracted from wool fibers by sulfitolysis were electrospun for the production of active nanofiber membranes (NFMs). The keratin NFMs were composited with nylon woven fabric for improving their mechanical properties as a filtration material. The prepared membranes were characterized in terms of morphology, pore size, contact angle,...
Article
The use of bioactive proteins such as keratin has been successfully explored to improve the biological interface of scaffolds with cells during the tissue regeneration. In this work, it is optimized the fabrication of nanofibers combining wool keratin extracted by sulfitolysis, with polycaprolactone (PCL) in order to design bicomponent fibrous matr...
Article
Antimicrobial textiles can contribute to the fighting against antibiotic resistance pathogenic microorganisms. Polypyrrole is a conjugated polymer that exerts a biocidal action thanks to positive charges on its backbone chain produced during it synthesis. In this work, dispersions of stable polypyrrole nanoparticles were produced by chemical oxidat...
Chapter
Electrospinning is a versatile and promising technology for the production of polymer-based nanofibres. Composite nanofibres suitable for filtration of air and water have been developed by merging biopolymer processing and sol-gel techniques using electrospinning technology. A fine control of large-scale nanofibre formation is required to achieve r...
Chapter
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This work aims to develop methodologies and tools to support the design and management of sustainable processes for the production of biodegradable polyhydroxyalcanoates (PHAs) biopolymers. PHAs are linear polyesters produced in nature by bacteria through aerobic fermentation of many carbon sources, completely biodegradable and biocompatible. We ca...
Chapter
Keratin is a high-sulphur content protein, highly abundant in nature since it is the major component of feathers, hair, wool, horns and nails. In recent years, keratin-based materials have received great consideration due to its unique features in terms of ability to absorb heavy metals and other toxic compounds, thus resulting particularly useful...
Article
Two different commercial bleaching products containing hypochlorite were used on different fabrics (plain-weave cotton, knitted cotton, plain-weave polyester-cotton and knitted lycra-cotton) to verify possible fibres damages. Bleaching products differ each other for the alkaline formulation. In particular, one of them has an alkaline bleaching form...
Article
Biomaterials surface modification represents a very attractive tool to modulate host tissue response. Surface modifications of titanium for bone contact applications have been widely investigated, while only few papers can be found regarding modifications aimed at soft tissue contact. However, soft tissue healing represents a crucial step for percu...
Chapter
Filtration is simple, versatile, and economical means to recruit and confine sub-micrometric or nanometric particles and ions, that is, aerosol, water, and air pollutants—in order to provide a highly efficient process for air/water cleaning. Indeed, the growing amount of toxic particles with a large specific surface area, mainly related to increasi...
Article
Cotton gauzes coated with chitosan have been tested as water filter for biological disinfection against Gram-positive bacteria. The present study develops the previous ones, aiming to the stability evaluation of ultraviolet-cured chitosan coating of cotton gauzes in order to optimize the chitosan amount applied to the substrate, lowering the add-on...
Chapter
This chapter summarizes the most recent research about antimicrobial electrospun nanofibers produced with natural-based polymers and products thereof (i.e., proteins, cellulose, chitosan).In recent years, nanofibrous mats derived from natural polymers have attracted increasing attention for biomedical applications thanks to their biocompatibility,...
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Peri-implantitis is a severe condition affecting the success of transmucosal dental implants: tissue healing is severely limited by the inflammatory processes that come about to control homeostasis in the surrounding...
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Metal ions are frequently incorporated into crystalline materials to improve their electrochemical properties and to confer new physicochemical properties. Naturally-occurring phosphate apatite, which is formed geologically and in biomineralization processes, has extensive potential applications and is therefore an attractive functional material. I...
Article
Wool keratin (natural resource) and citric acid (effective preservative) were mixed in water to produce a transparent film for application in active packaging. This film showed excellent biocidal effect, high elongation value (600%) and little loss of keratin after immersion in water. The capability of citric acid to bind keratin macromolecules by...
Chapter
Full-text available
The use of antimicrobial compounds in textiles has grown dramatically over the last decades. The potential application field is wide. It ranges from industrial textiles exposed to weather such as awnings, screens and tents; upholstery used in large public areas such as hospitals, hotels and stations; fabrics for transports; protective clothing and...
Article
The method based on the ultra-performance liquid chromatography coupled with electrospray mass spectrometry (UPLC/ESI–MS) instrument was used for the identification and quantification of the most commercial Bovidae fibres (wool, cashmere and yak). In the present paper, this method was developed and validated by the authors and confirmed by many ana...
Article
Blends of wool keratin and polyamide 6 (PA6) have shown interesting adsorbent properties in filtration. In this work, the miscibility of keratin and PA6 was studied for the first time through rheological measurements of diluted blend solutions. In particular, the immiscibility between the two polymers in different blend proportions was observed by...
Article
Curcuma powder was used to dye cotton and polyamide 6,6 fabrics in order to produce textile-based optical pH sensors. Both fabrics showed a bright yellow color after dyeing and demonstrated color changes (towards red) when contacted with basic solutions. Color change and sensitivity differ for cotton and for polyamide. Curcuma-dyed cotton shows col...
Article
Periimplantitis and epithelial downgrowth are nowadays the main conditions associated to transmucosal dental implants. Gingival fibroblasts can play an important role in periimplantitis because they are the promoters of the inflammatory process and eventual tissue homeostasis and destruction. Moreover, the related inflammatory state is commonly dri...
Article
Electrospinning is here used for the first time to prepare nanofibers including a host/guest complex in a keratin/poly(ethylene oxide) matrix. The host is a lipid binding protein and the guest is an insoluble bactericidal molecule, irgasan, bound within the protein internal cavity. The obtained nanofibers, characterized by scanning electron microsc...
Article
Antibacterial activity against Gram-negative bacteria of polypyrrole-coated fabrics has been demonstrated in the past. In this work, biocidal efficacy of polypyrrole has been evaluated against Gram-positive bacteria on textiles with different polypyrrole loading. Excellent bacterial reduction (≥99%) was found on cotton fabrics containing more than...
Article
Polypyrrole is widely used as coating to produce electrically conductive textiles. Counter-ions (i.e. doping agents) were embedded in polypyrrole to improve electrical conductivity. Good electrical performances are required for several applications, such as microwave attenuation/electro-magnetic interference shielding, heat generation, electro-stat...
Article
Few polymers with practical and technological appeal can be electrospun into nanofibers from water solutions. The production of polymer nanofibers from water solution is considered green, up-scalable and versatile. From this point of view, the use of nanoparticles in the form of water colloidal suspension instead of nano-powder should be more affor...
Article
In this study, we aimed to examine to study the effects of heating treatments on wool-derived keratin nanofibers obtained by electrospinning. Interestingly, the keratin nanofibers did not lose their nanofibrous shape at high temperatures. On the contrary, the diameter of keratin nanofibers significantly decreased after heating. Even the chemical st...
Article
Differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) was studied as an alternative qualitative method to identify different textile animal hair fibres. Differentiation of speciality or luxury fibres (such as cashmere) from other animal cheaper fibres (such as sheep’s wool or yak) is essential to repress adulteration of textile products. Moreover, DSC analysis c...
Article
Nanofiber-coated fabrics have potential uses in filters and protective clothing. One major challenge is to ensure good adhesion of nanofibers to the fabrics achieving satisfactory durability against abrasion for practical use. This work is aimed to study adhesion mechanisms and their improvement between nanofibers and textile substrates; to achieve...
Article
Communicable diseases can be transmitted by contaminated water. Water decontamination process is fundamental to eliminate microorganisms. In this work, cotton gauzes were coated with chitosan using an UV-curing process or cationized by introduction of quaternary ammonium groups and tested, in static and dynamic conditions, as water filter for biolo...
Article
Two different production ways of antibacterial cotton fabrics by means of triclosan inclusion into a β-cyclodextrin cavity have been compared. On the one hand, triclosan has been dissolved into an aqueous solution of a β-cyclodextrin derivative with the aim of including the antibacterial agent into the cavity before grafting the β-cyclodextrin on a...
Article
Hydrophobic polypyrrole-coated fabrics with improved electrical conductivity were produced embedding oleic acid as counter-ion. Hydrophobisation of polypyrrole was carried out by means of an ion exchange process after deposition of polypyrrole on cotton fabrics. The fabrics coated with oleic acid-doped polypyrrole showed contact angle of 111°, drop...
Article
In this work, adhesion of different nanofiber mats to a polypropylene nonwoven was studied. In particular, low-temperature oxygen plasma treatment was investigated as a potential interface engineering tool to use for enhancing adhesion between polypropylene nonwoven and nanofibers. Poly(ethylene oxide) (PEO) and polyamide-6 (PA6) nanofibrous mats w...
Article
This paper describes application and evaluation of polypyrrole as an antibacterial polymer. Polypyrrole was produced embedding two doping agents: chloride and dicyclohexyl sulfosuccinate ions. Stability of the antibacterial efficacy of polypyrrole deposited on cotton fabrics was assessed before and after three different kinds of washing (namely, la...
Article
In recent years, there has been growing attention on intrinsically conducting polymers, such as polypyrrole (PPy) because of the wide range of possible applications. Adhesion to other materials is a pending problem that could be tackled by enhancing the chemical affinity of the surface toward PPy coating. In this work, low‐temperature plasma pretre...
Article
In this study, nanofibre mats for chemical adsorption of heavy metals were prepared by electrospinning blends of hydrolyzed keratin (HK) and polyamide 6 (PA6) in formic acid. Viscosity measurements of the spinning solutions and morphological analyses of the fracture sections of the same polymer blends cast into films, suggested intermolecular inter...
Article
Full-text available
Researches concerning the development of polymer biocides represent a great challenge for both academic world and industry. This review will cover most recent advances in antimicrobial polymers for textile coating and finishing. Methods of synthesis, application and grafting of such polymers on textile substrates will be illustrated. Biocidal perfo...
Article
Electrospun polyamide‐6 membranes containing titanium dioxide (TiO2) photocatalyst were prepared and characterized. By tailoring the electrospinning parameters it was possible to obtain membranes having two different thicknesses, namely 5 and 20 µm, in which TiO2 particles were homogeneously dispersed. As a comparison, hybrid films made with polyam...
Article
Electrospinning is a simple and versatile process for producing small-diameter fibres (nanofibres). However, in spite of the many potential applications of electrospun nanofibres, further process developments are still necessary to achieve a decisive productivity breakthrough for electrospinning plants. Increasing knowledge of multi-jet electrospin...
Article
Solvent-based preliminary treatments were carried out on polyamide fabrics to be coated with a thin layer of electrically conducting doped polypyrrole, with the aim of improving the adhesion of the conducting layer to the fibre substrate. Polyamide fabrics were treated with dilute formic acid, pure tetrachloroethylene and ethanol/water at different...
Article
Large amount of protein wastes, such as fibre by-products from the wool textile industry and poor quality wools from stock-farming and butchery, are currently disposed of. Their pooling and processing would allow the production of innovative bio-plastics suitable for novel large-scale uses (compostable films for agriculture and packaging, filaments...
Article
Multi-jet electrospinning systems can be designed to increase both productivity and cover area for large-scale nanofibre production. In this work several multi-jet electrospinning setups were tested. A solution of 7 wt% PEO was electrospun varying the number of nozzles between 2 and 16. Tests showed that the divergence angle between jets can be red...
Article
Electrically conductive fabrics were produced by deposition of a thin film of doped polypyrrole on the surface of cotton fibres. In situ oxidative chemical polymerisation were carried out in aqueous solutions of pyrrole, oxidant and doping agents, at room temperature. Polypyrrole-coated fibres were characterized by Light Microscopy, SEM, EDX, FTIR...
Article
Antistatic treatments lower the electrical resistivity of textiles and facilitate charge dissipation avoiding high potential electrical discharges. Moreover, low surface resistivity gives textiles electro-conducting, soil release, thermal and electromagnetic shielding properties. A new way of producing electrically conducting textiles consists of t...
Article
Electro-conducting doped polypyrrole was deposited by in situ oxidative polymerisation on PET non-wovens. Thermal properties were evaluated by means of DSC and TG in nitrogen and air. Flame resistance tests reveal that coated PET fibres resist to direct contact with fire. By thermal analysis, it was found that PPy reduces the temperature at which t...
Article
Keratin proteins are the major component of hair, feathers, wool and horns and represent an important source of renewable raw materials for many applications. Regenerated keratin has useful properties such as biocompatibility and biodegradability. Moreover, keratin materials can absorb heavy metal ions, formaldehyde and other VOCs. In this work, re...
Article
Graessley's theory has been applied to keratin/PEO concentrated aqueous solutions giving qualitative insight to the rheology of these polymer blends in electrospinning. The shear rate dependent viscosity of different blends was compared with that of pure polymer solutions. The characteristic time τη was calculated by the minimum value of at the beg...
Article
Submicron size fibers (so-called nanofibers) are easily produced with an electrospinning apparatus from polymer solutions of poly(ethylene oxide), poly(vinyl alcohol), and polyamide-6. Electrospinning seems the most powerful tool for fabricating polymer nanofibers. Fibers were directly deposited in the form of random fiber webs with high area-to-vo...
Article
Full-text available
Protein material resulting from chemical free steam explosion of wool was mixed in different proportion with polyamide 6 in formic acid. The viscosity of the blend solutions decreases with the increase of the protein amount in the blend. Nanofibres produced by electrospinning of these polymer blends show an increase of the filament diameters with i...
Article
Blends of poly(ethylene oxide) (PEO) and keratin were prepared with the aim of obtaining bio-compatible materials suitable for film and fibre production. Aqueous keratin solutions, prepared by keratin extraction from wool with urea, m-bisulphite and sodium dodecyl sulphates (SDS), filtration and dialysis, were added with different amounts of PEO an...
Article
Electrospinning is a well-known process for producing sub-micron scale polymer filaments through an electrostatic field. This paper presents a very simple “confined” air-driven electrospinning system, in which polyamide nanofibres are produced in the form of continuous crimped filaments. The reported system consists of a vertical cylinder with a we...
Article
Research on the electrospinning of nanofibers has increased in recent years because of the number of potential applications in different areas, ranging from technical textiles (e.g., filters, composite reinforcements, and protective fabrics) to biomedical commodities and devices such as bandages, membranes, bioactive surfaces, and porous substrates...
Article
PET non-wovens were treated with intrinsically electro-conducting polypyrrole (PPy) produced by chemical oxidative in situ polymerization from pyrrole aqueous solution, using Fe3+ or S2O 82- as oxidant, and different dopants. The resulting materials have different electrical performances and thermal properties depending on the thickness of the PPy...
Article
Full-text available
Zeolite crystals are embedded in nanofibers (see image) electrospun from dye-doped polymer solutions containing the highly fluorescent zeolite L crystals. Dye-loaded zeolites, integrated into nanowires with diameters in the range of 150 to 600 nm, are well oriented along the fiber axis, forming very bright nanometric light sources with visible pola...
Article
A wool fiber sample was submitted to chemical-free steam explosion in view of potential exploitation of keratin-based industrial and farm wastes. Fiber keratin was converted into a dark-yellow sludge that was submitted to phase separation by filtration, centrifugation, and precipitation of the soluble materials from the supernatant liquid. The resu...