# Alessio LomuscioImperial College London | Imperial · Department of Computing

Alessio Lomuscio

PhD

## About

207

Publications

10,092

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5,969

Citations

Citations since 2016

## Publications

Publications (207)

We introduce a model for agent-environment systems where the agents are implemented via feed-forward ReLU neural networks and the environment is non-deterministic. We study the verification problem of such systems against CTL properties. We show that verifying these systems against reachability properties is undecidable. We introduce a bounded frag...

We introduce a semantics for reasoning about probabilistic multi-agent systems in which the number of participants is not known at design-time. We define the parameterised model checking problem against PLTL specifications for this semantics, and observe that this is undecidable in general. Nonetheless, we develop a partial decision procedure for i...

Abstraction-based methods for the verification of ReLU-based neural networks suffer from rapid degradation in their effectiveness as the neural network’s depth increases. We propose OSIP, an abstraction method based on symbolic interval propagation in which the choice of the ReLU relaxation at each node is determined via optimisation. We present an...

Neural networks are being increasingly used for efficient decision making in the aircraft domain. Given the safety-critical nature of the applications involved, stringent safety requirements must be met by these networks. In this work we present a formal study of two neural network-based systems developed by Boeing. The Venus verifier is used to an...

We formally introduce and solve the synthesis problem for LTL goals in the case of multiple, even contradicting, assumptions about the environment. Our solution concept is based on ``best-effort strategies'' which are agent plans that, for each of the environment specifications individually, achieve the agent goal against a maximal set of environme...

We propose a novel, complete algorithm for the verification and analysis of feed-forward, ReLU-based neural networks. The algorithm, based on symbolic interval propagation, introduces a new method for determining split-nodes which evaluates the indirect effect that splitting has on the relaxations of successor nodes. We combine this with a new effi...

We introduce an efficient and tight layer-based semidefinite relaxation for verifying local robustness of neural networks. The improved tightness is the result of the combination between semidefinite relaxations and linear cuts. We obtain a computationally efficient method by decomposing the semidefinite formulation into layerwise constraints. By l...

We study the semantics of knowledge in strategic reasoning. Most existing works either implicitly assume that agents do not know one another’s strategies, or that all strategies are known to all; and some works present inconsistent mixes of both features. We put forward a novel semantics for Strategy Logic with Knowledge that cleanly models whose s...

We introduce an efficient method for the complete verification of ReLU-based feed-forward neural networks. The method implements branching on the ReLU states on the basis of a notion of dependency between the nodes. This results in dividing the original verification problem into a set of sub-problems whose MILP formulations require fewer integralit...

We present a method for reasoning about fault-tolerance in unbounded robotic swarms. We introduce a novel semantics that accounts for the probabilistic nature of both the swarm and possible malfunctions, as well as the unbounded nature of swarm systems. We define and interpret a variant of probabilistic linear-time temporal logic on the resulting e...

We consider an agent that operates with two models of the environment: one that captures expected behaviors and one that captures additional exceptional behaviors. We study the problem of synthesizing agent strategies that enforce a goal against environments operating as expected while also making a best effort against exceptional environment behav...

We investigate the problem of verifying the strategic properties of multi-agent systems equipped with machine learning-based perception units. We introduce a novel model of agents comprising both a perception system implemented via feed-forward neural networks and an action selection mechanism implemented via traditional control logic. We define th...

Model checking multi-agent systems, in which agents are distributed and thus may have different observations of the world, against strategic behaviours is known to be a complex problem in a number of settings. There are traditionally two ways of ameliorating this complexity: imposing a hierarchy on the observations of the agents, or restricting age...

We study the problem of verifying multi-agent systems under the assumption of bounded recall. We introduce the logic CTLKBR, a bounded-recall variant of the temporal-epistemic logic CTLK. We define and study the model checking problem against CTLK specifications under incomplete information and bounded recall and present complexity upper bounds. We...

We introduce an efficient method for the verification of ReLU-based feed-forward neural networks. We derive an automated procedure that exploits dependency relations between the ReLU nodes, thereby pruning the search tree that needs to be considered by MILP-based formulations of the verification problem. We augment the resulting algorithm with meth...

We introduce an efficient method for the verification of
ReLU-based feed-forward neural networks. We derive an
automated procedure that exploits dependency relations between the ReLU nodes, thereby pruning the search tree that
needs to be considered by MILP-based formulations of the
verification problem. We augment the resulting algorithm
with meth...

We introduce a logic to reason about strategic abilities in finite games under imperfect information. We interpret Alternating-time Temporal Logic on interpreted systems with final states, where agents only have partial observability of the system’s global state. We consider the model checking problem in this setting. We prove that the complexity r...

We introduce agent-environment systems where the agent is stateful and executing a ReLU recurrent neural network. We define and study their verification problem by providing equivalences of recurrent and feed-forward neural networks on bounded execution traces. We give a sound and complete procedure for their verification against properties specifi...

We investigate the verification of Multi-agent Systems against strategic properties expressed in Alternating-time Temporal Logic under the assumptions of imperfect information and perfect recall. To this end, we develop a three-valued semantics for concurrent game structures upon which we define an abstraction method. We prove that concurrent game...

We study open multi-agent systems in which unboundedly many agents may leave
and join the system at run-time. We introduce a semantics, based on interpreted
systems, to capture the openness of the system and show how an indexed variant
of temporal-epistemic logic can be used to express specifications on them. We
define the verification problem and...

We address the problem of verifying neural-based perception systems implemented by convolutional neural networks. We define a notion of local robustness based on affine and photometric transformations. We show the notion cannot be captured by previously employed notions of robustness. The method proposed is based on reachability analysis for feed-f...

We investigate the general problem of establishing whether a swarm satisfies an emergent property. We put forward a formal model for swarms that accounts for their nature of unbounded collections of agents following simple local protocols. We formally define the decision problem of determining whether a swarm satisfies an emergent property. We intr...

We study parameterised verification of robot swarms against temporal-epistemic specifications. We relax some of the significant restrictions assumed in the literature and present a counter abstraction approach that enable us to verify a potentially much smaller abstract model when checking a formula on a swarm of any size. We present an implementat...

A key problem in verification of multi-agent systems by model checking concerns the fact that the state-space of the system grows exponentially with the number of agents present. This often makes practical model checking unfeasible whenever the system contains more than a few agents. In this paper we put forward a technique to establish a cutoff re...

We study the problem of analysing the security for an unbounded number of concurrent
sessions of a cryptographic protocol. Our formal model accounts for an arbitrary number of gents involved in a protocol-exchange which is subverted by a Dolev-Yao attacker. We define the parameterised model checking problem with respect to security requirements exp...

We define a class of parameterised infinite state multi-agent systems (MAS) that is unbounded in both the number of agents composing the system and the domain of the variables encoding the agents. We analyse their verification problem by combining and extending existing techniques in parameterised model checking with predicate abstraction procedure...

We investigate the parameterised model checking problem for specifications expressed in alternating-time temporal logic. We introduce parameterised concurrent game structures representing infinitely many games with different number of agents. We introduce a parametric variant of ATL to express properties of the system irrespectively of the number o...

We introduce Strategy Logic with Knowledge, a novel formalism to reason about knowledge and strategic ability in memoryless multi-agent systems with incomplete information. We exemplify its expressive power; we define the model checking problem for the logic and show that it is PSpace-complete. We propose a labelling algorithm for solving the verif...

We introduce a parameterised semantics for reasoning about swarms as unbounded collections of agents in a probabilistic setting. We develop a method for the formal identification of emergent properties, expressed in a fragment of the probabilistic logic PCTL. We introduce algorithms for solving the related decision problems and show their correctne...

We develop a logic-based technique to analyse finite interactions in multi-agent systems. We introduce a semantics for Alternating-time Temporal Logic (for both perfect and imperfect recall) and its branching-time fragments in which paths are finite instead of infinite. We study validities of these logics and present optimal algorithms for their mo...

We study the problem of determining the robustness of a multi-agent system of unbounded size against specifications expressed in a temporal-epistemic logic. We introduce a procedure to synthesise automatically the maximal ratio of faulty agents that may be present at runtime for a specification to be satisfied in a multi-agent system. We show the p...

We introduce parameterised data-aware multi-agent systems, a formalism to reason about the temporal-epistemic properties of arbitrarily large collections of homogeneous agents, each operating on an infinite data domain. We show that their parameterised verification problem is semi-decidable for classes of interest. This is demonstrated by separatel...

We develop a technique to evaluate the fault-tolerance of a multi-agent system whose number of agents is unknown at design time. We present a method for injecting a variety of non-ideal behaviours, or faults, studied in the safety-analysis literature into the abstract agent templates that are used to generate an unbounded family of multi-agent syst...

We define the logic LDLK, a formalism for specifying multi-agent systems. LDLK extends LDL with epistemic modalities, including common knowledge, for reasoning about the evolution of knowledge states of the agents in the system. We study the complexity of verifying a multi-agent system against LDLK specifications and show this to be in PSPACE. We g...

We study a class of synchronous, perfect-recall multi-agent systemswith imperfect information and broadcasting (i.e., fully observableactions). We define an epistemic extension of strategy logic withincomplete information and the assumption of uniform and coherentstrategies. In this setting, we prove that the model checking problem,and thus rationa...

We analyse the verification problem for synchronous, perfect recall multi-agent systems with imperfect information against a specification language that includes strategic as well as epistemic operators. While the general problem is known to be undecidable we show that if the agents' actions are public then verification is decidable, and we establi...

We define a class of parameterised infinite state multi-agent systems (MAS) that is unbounded in both the number of agents composing the system and the domain of the variables encoding the agents. We analyse their verification problem by combining and extending existing techniques in parameterised model checking with predicate abstraction procedure...

We put forward an abstraction technique, based on a three-value semantics, for the verification of epistemic properties of agents participating in a multi-agent system. First we introduce a three-value interpretation of epistemic logic, based on a notion of order defined on the information content of the local states of each agent. Then, we use the...

We present an automated technique that combines fault injection with model checking to verify fault tolerance, recoverability, and diagnosability in multi-agent systems. We define a general method for mutating a multi-agent systems model representing correct behaviour by injecting faults into it, and specification patterns based on temporal-epistem...

We study the problem of verifying role-based multi-agent systems, where the number of components cannot be determined at design time. We give a semantics that captures parameterised, generic multi-agent systems and identify three notable classes that represent different ways in which the agents may interact among themselves and with the environment...

Artifact-centric systems are a recent paradigm to model and implement business workflows. They describe data, processes, internal and external agents and include mechanisms for data hiding and access control. GSM is a language for the implementation of artifact-centric systems. Since GSM programs have infinitely many states, their verification is c...

Strategy Logic (SL) has recently come to the fore as a useful specification language to reason about multi-agent systems. Its one-goal fragment, or SL[1G], is of particular interest as it strictly subsumes widely used logics such as ATL*, while maintaining attractive complexity features. In this paper we put forward an automata-based methodology fo...

We study parameterised verification of robot swarms against temporal-epistemic specifications. We relax some of the significant restrictions assumed in the literature and present a counter abstraction approach that enable us to verify a potentially much smaller abstract model when checking a formula on a swarm of any size. We present an implementat...

Strategy Logic (SL) has recently come to the fore as a useful specification language to reason about multi-agent systems. Its one-goal fragment, or SL [1G], is of particular interest as it strictly subsumes widely used logics such as ATL*, while maintaining attractive complexity features. In this paper we put forward an automata-based methodology f...

We introduce MCMAS-SLK, a BDD-based model checker for the verification of
systems against specifications expressed in a novel, epistemic variant of
strategy logic. We give syntax and semantics of the specification language and
a introduce a labelling algorithm for epistemic and strategy logic modalities.
We provide details of the checker which can...

We investigate a class of first-order temporal-epistemic logics for reasoning
about multi-agent systems. We encode typical properties of systems including
perfect recall, synchronicity, no learning, and having a unique initial state
in terms of variants of quantified interpreted systems, a first-order extension
of interpreted systems. We identify s...

Artifact systems are a novel paradigm for implementing service oriented computing. Business artifacts include both data and process descriptions at interface level thereby providing more sophisticated and powerful service inter-operation capabilities. In this paper we put forward a technique for the practical verification of business artifacts in t...

We define a family of epistemic extensions of Halpern-Shoham logic for reasoning about temporal-epistemic properties of multi-agent systems. We exemplify their use and study the complexity of their model checking problem. We show a range of results ranging from PTIME to PSPACE-hard depending on the logic considered.

Artifact-Centric Systems are a novel paradigm in service-oriented computing. In the present contribution we show that model checking bounded, non-uniform artifact-centric systems is undecidable. We provide a partial model checking procedure for artifact-centric systems against the universal fragment of a first-order version of the logic CTL. We obt...

http://drops.dagstuhl.de/opus/volltexte/2013/4174/

A key problem in verification of multi-agent systems by model checking
concerns the fact that the state-space of the system grows exponentially with
the number of agents present. This makes practical model checking unfeasible
whenever the system contains more than a few agents. In this paper we put
forward a technique to establish a cutoff result,...

Artifact systems are a novel paradigm for specifying and implementing
business processes described in terms of interacting modules called artifacts.
Artifacts consist of data and lifecycles, accounting respectively for the
relational structure of the artifacts' states and their possible evolutions
over time. In this paper we put forward artifact-ce...

Concurrency and message reordering are two main causes for the state-explosion in distributed systems with asynchronous communication. We study this domain by analysing ABS, an executable modelling language for object-based distributed systems and present a symbolic model checking methodology for verifying ABS programs against temporal-epistemic sp...

The GSM framework provides a methodology for the development of artifact-centric systems, an increasingly popular paradigm in service-oriented computing. In this paper we tackle the problem of verifying GSM programs in a multi-agent system setting. We provide an embedding from GSM into a suitable multi-agent systems semantics for reasoning about kn...

We present a methodology for the automated verification of quantum protocols
using MCMAS, a symbolic model checker for multi-agent systems The method is
based on the logical framework developed by D'Hondt and Panangaden for
investigating epistemic and temporal properties, built on the model for
Distributed Measurement-based Quantum Computation (DMC...

We present a methodology for the automatic verification of multi-agent systems against temporal-epistemic specifications derived from higher-level languages defined over convergent equational theories. We introduce a modality called rewriting knowledge that operates on local equalities. We discuss the conditions under which its interpretation can b...

We investigate parameter synthesis in the context of temporal-epistemic logic. We introduce CTLPK, a parametric extension to the branching time temporal-epistemic logic CTLK with free variables representing groups of agents. We give algorithms for automatically synthesising the groups of agents that make a given parametric formula satisfied. We dis...

Business artifacts allow to manage operations of business processes by capturing the key concepts and relevant information to guide their work flow. The Guard-Stage- Milestone (GSM) meta-model is a novel formalism for designing business artifacts that features declarative description of the intended behaviour without requiring an explicit specifica...

We consider the problem of synthesizing an agent protocol satisfying LTL specifications for multiple, partially-observable environments. We present a sound and complete procedure for solving the synthesis problem in this setting and show it is computationally optimal from a theoretical complexity standpoint. While this produces perfect-recall, henc...

We report on a novel approach to (semi-)automatically compile and verify contract-regulatedservice compositions. We specify web services and the contracts governing them as WSBPEL behaviours. We compile WSBPEL behaviours into the specialised system description languageISPL, to be used with the model checker MCMAS to verify behaviours automatically....

Marek Sergot’s technical contributions range over different subjects. He has developed a series of novel ideas and formal methods bridging different research domains, such as artificial intelligence, computational logic, philosophical logic, legal theory, artificial intelligence and law, multi-agent systems and bioinformatics.
By combining his bac...

We explore the paradigm of artifact-centric systems from a knowledge-based perspective. We provide a semantics based on interpreted-systems to interpret a first-order temporal-epistemic language with identity in a multi-agent setting. We consider the model checking problem for this language and provide abstraction results. We isolate a natural subc...

Artifact systems are a novel paradigm for specifying and implementing business processes described in terms of interacting modules called artifacts. Artifacts consist of data and lifecycle models, accounting for the relational structure of the artifact state and its possible evolutions over time. We consider the problem of verifying artifact system...

We report the results obtained during the veri-
ﬁcation of Autosub6000, an autonomous underwater vehicle used for deep oceanic exploration.
Our starting point is the Simulink/Matlab engineering model of the submarine, which is discretised by a compiler into a representation suitable for model checking. We assess the ability of the vehicle to functi...

We investigate the problem of locally monitoring contract regulated behaviours in agent-based web services. We encode contract clauses in service specifications by using extended timed automata. We propose a non intrusive local monitoring framework along with an API to monitor the fulfillment (or violation) of contractual obligations. A key feature...

We investigate quantified interpreted systems, a computationally grounded semantics for a first-order temporal epistemic logic on linear time. We report a completeness result for the monodic fragment of a language that includes LTL modalities as well as distributed and common knowledge. We exemplify possible uses of the formalism by analysing messa...

We introduce a novel automata-theoretic approach for the verification of multi-agent systems. We present epistemic alternating tree automata, an extension of alternating tree automata, and use them to represent specifications in the temporal-epistemic logic CTLK. We show that model checking a memory-less interpreted system against a CTLK property c...

We present a formal investigation of artifact-based systems, a relatively novel framework in service oriented computing, aimed at laying the foundations for verifying these systems through model checking. We present an infinite-state, computationally grounded semantics for these systems that allows us to reason about temporal-epistemic specificatio...

We present an algorithm based on temporal-epistemic model checking combined with fault injection to analyse automatically
the diagnosability of faults by agents in the system. We describe an implementation built on the multi-agent systems model
checker MCMAS and a dedicated compiler for injecting faults into an MCMAS program. A diagnosability repor...

We investigate assume-guarantee reasoning for global specifications consisting of conjunctions of local specifications. We
present a sound and complete assume-guarantee rule that permits reasoning about individual modules for local specifications
and draws conclusions on global specifications. We illustrate our approach with an example from the fie...

We investigate the problem of the verification of multiagent systems by means of parallel algorithms. We present algorithms for CTLK, a logic combining branching time temporal logic with epistemic modalities. We report on an implementation of these algorithms and present the experimental results obtained. The results point to a significant speed-up...

We present an automatic data-abstraction technique for the verification of the universal fragment of the temporal-epistemic
logic CTLK. We show the correctness of the methodology and present an implementation operating on ISPL models, the input files
for MCMAS, a model checker for multi-agent systems. The experimental results point to the attractiv...