Alessandro Lonardo

Alessandro Lonardo
INFN - Istituto Nazionale di Fisica Nucleare | INFN · Rome I

Technologist

About

155
Publications
20,506
Reads
How we measure 'reads'
A 'read' is counted each time someone views a publication summary (such as the title, abstract, and list of authors), clicks on a figure, or views or downloads the full-text. Learn more
2,584
Citations
Citations since 2016
54 Research Items
1931 Citations
20162017201820192020202120220100200300
20162017201820192020202120220100200300
20162017201820192020202120220100200300
20162017201820192020202120220100200300
Additional affiliations

Publications

Publications (155)
Article
Full-text available
A bstract A sample of 2 . 8 × 10 ⁴ K ⁺ → π ⁺ μ ⁺ μ − candidates with negligible background was collected by the NA62 experiment at the CERN SPS in 2017–2018. The model-independent branching fraction is measured to be (9 . 15 ± 0 . 08) × 10 − 8 , a factor three more precise than previous measurements. The decay form factor is presented as a function...
Article
In the near future, Exascale systems will need to bridge three technology gaps to achieve high performance while remaining under tight power constraints: energy efficiency and thermal control; extreme computation efficiency via HW acceleration and new arithmetic; methods and tools for seamless integration of reconfigurable accelerators in heterogen...
Article
Searches for lepton number violating K+→π−e+e+ and K+→π−π0e+e+ decays have been performed using the complete dataset collected by the NA62 experiment at CERN in 2016–2018. Upper limits of 5.3×10−11 and 8.5×10−10 are obtained on the decay branching fractions at 90% confidence level. The former result improves by a factor of four over the previous be...
Preprint
Full-text available
A new FPGA-based low-level trigger processor has been installed at the NA62 experiment. It is intended to extend the features of its predecessor due to a faster interconnection technology and additional logic resources available on the new platform. With the aim of improving trigger selectivity and exploring new architectures for complex trigger co...
Preprint
Full-text available
The APEnet+ board delivers a point-to-point, low-latency, 3D torus network interface card. In this paper we describe the latest generation of APEnet NIC, APEnet v5, integrated in a PCIe Gen3 board based on a state-of-the-art, 28 nm Altera Stratix V FPGA. The NIC features a network architecture designed following the Remote DMA paradigm and tailored...
Article
Full-text available
A bstract The NA62 experiment reports the branching ratio measurement $$ \mathrm{BR}\left({K}^{+}\to {\pi}^{+}\nu \overline{\nu}\right)=\left({10.6}_{-3.4}^{+4.0}\left|{}_{\mathrm{stat}}\right.\pm {0.9}_{\mathrm{syst}}\right)\times {10}^{-11} $$ BR K + → π + ν ν ¯ = 10.6 − 3.4 + 4.0 stat ± 0.9 syst × 10 − 11 at 68% CL, based on the observation of 2...
Article
Full-text available
A bstract A search for the K ⁺ → π ⁺ X decay, where X is a long-lived feebly interacting particle, is performed through an interpretation of the K ⁺ → $$ {\pi}^{+}\nu \overline{\nu} $$ π + ν ν ¯ analysis of data collected in 2017 by the NA62 experiment at CERN. Two ranges of X masses, 0–110 MeV /c ² and 154–260 MeV /c ² , and lifetimes above 100 ps...
Article
The NA62 experiment at CERN reports searches for K+→μ+N and K+→μ+νX decays, where N and X are massive invisible particles, using the 2016–2018 data set. The N particle is assumed to be a heavy neutral lepton, and the results are expressed as upper limits of O(10−8) of the neutrino mixing parameter |Uμ4|2 for N masses in the range 200–384 MeV/c2 and...
Article
Full-text available
A bstract The NA62 experiment at the CERN SPS reports a study of a sample of 4 × 10 ⁹ tagged π ⁰ mesons from K ⁺ → π ⁺ π ⁰ ( γ ), searching for the decay of the π ⁰ to invisible particles. No signal is observed in excess of the expected background fluctuations. An upper limit of 4 . 4 × 10 − 9 is set on the branching ratio at 90% confidence level,...
Article
Full-text available
A bstract The NA62 experiment reports an investigation of the $$ {K}^{+}\to {\pi}^{+}\nu \overline{\nu} $$ K + → π + ν ν ¯ mode from a sample of K ⁺ decays collected in 2017 at the CERN SPS. The experiment has achieved a single event sensitivity of (0 . 389 ± 0 . 024) × 10 − 10 , corresponding to 2.2 events assuming the Standard Model branching rat...
Article
Full-text available
A search for heavy neutral lepton (N) production in K+→e+N decays using the data sample collected by the NA62 experiment at CERN in 2017–2018 is reported. Upper limits of the extended neutrino mixing matrix element |Ue4|2 are established at the level of 10−9 over most of the accessible heavy neutral lepton mass range 144–462 MeV/c2, with the assump...
Article
Full-text available
EuroEXA is a major European FET research initiative that aims to deliver a proof-of-concept of a next generation Exa-scalable HPC platform. EuroEXA leverages on previous projects results (ExaNeSt, ExaNoDe and ECOSCALE) to design a medium scale but scalable, fully working HPC system prototype exploiting state-of-the-art FPGA devices that integrate c...
Article
Full-text available
The L0TP+ initiative is aimed at the upgrade of the FPGA-based Level-0 Trigger Processor (L0TP) of the NA62 experiment at CERN for the post-LS2 data taking, which is expected to happen at 100% of design beam intensity, corresponding to about 3.3 × 10 ¹² protons per pulse on the beryllium target used to produce the kaons beam. Although tests perform...
Article
Full-text available
The NA62 experiment at CERN reports a search for the lepton number violating decays K+→π−e+e+ and K+→π−μ+μ+ using a data sample collected in 2017. No signals are observed, and upper limits on the branching fractions of these decays of 2.2×10−10 and 4.2×10−11 are obtained, respectively, at 90% confidence level. These upper limits improve on previous...
Article
Full-text available
A bstract The results of a search for π ⁰ decays to a photon and an invisible massive dark photon at the NA62 experiment at the CERN SPS are reported. From a total of 4.12 × 10 ⁸ tagged π ⁰ mesons, no signal is observed. Assuming a kinetic-mixing interaction, limits are set on the dark photon coupling to the ordinary photon as a function of the dar...
Article
Full-text available
The integrated low-level trigger and data acquisition (TDAQ) system of the NA62 experiment at CERN is described. The requirements of a large and fast data reduction in a high-rate environment for a medium-scale, distributed ensemble of many different sub-detectors led to the concept of a fully digital integrated system with good scaling capabilitie...
Article
Full-text available
The NA62 experiment at the CERN SPS reports the first search for K ⁺ →π ⁺ νν¯ using the decay-in-flight technique, based on a sample of 1.21×10 ¹¹ K ⁺ decays collected in 2016. The single event sensitivity is 3.15×10 ⁻¹⁰ , corresponding to 0.267 Standard Model events. One signal candidate is observed while the expected background is 0.152 events. T...
Preprint
Full-text available
We profile the impact of computation and inter-processor communication on the energy consumption and on the scaling of cortical simulations approaching the real-time regime on distributed computing platforms. Also, the speed and energy consumption of processor architectures typical of standard HPC and embedded platforms are compared. We demonstrate...
Article
Full-text available
The use of GPUs to implement general purpose computational tasks, known as GPGPU since fifteen years ago, has reached maturity. Applications take advantage of the parallel architectures of these devices in many different domains. Over the last few years several works have demonstrated the effectiveness of the integration of GPU-based systems in the...
Article
Full-text available
The Hamamatsu R12199-02 3-inch photomultiplier tube is the photodetector chosen for the first phase of the KM3NeT neutrino telescope. About 7000 photomultipliers have been characterised for dark count rate, timing spread and spurious pulses. The quantum efficiency, the gain and the peak-to-valley ratio have also been measured for a sub-sample in or...
Article
The ExaNeSt project started on December 2015 and is funded by EU H2020 research framework (call H2020-FETHPC-2014, n. 671553) to study the adoption of low-cost, Linux-based power-efficient 64-bit ARM processors clusters for Exascale-class systems. The ExaNeSt consortium pools partners with industrial and academic research expertise in storage, inte...
Article
Full-text available
The deployment of the next generation computing platform at ExaFlops scale requires to solve new technological challenges mainly related to the impressive number (up to 10^6) of compute elements required. This impacts on system power consumption, in terms of feasibility and costs, and on system scalability and computing efficiency. In this perspect...
Article
Full-text available
Efficient brain simulation is a scientific grand challenge, a parallel/distributed coding challenge and a source of requirements and suggestions for future computing architectures. Indeed, the human brain includes about 10^15 synapses and 10^11 neurons activated at a mean rate of several Hz. Full brain simulation poses Exascale challenges even if s...
Article
Full-text available
We measured the impact of long-range exponentially decaying intra-areal lateral connectivity on the scaling and memory occupation of a distributed spiking neural network simulator compared to that of short-range Gaussian decays. While previous studies adopted short-range connectivity, recent experimental neurosciences studies are pointing out the r...
Article
Full-text available
A search for heavy neutral lepton production in K+ decays using a data sample collected with a minimum bias trigger by the NA62 experiment at CERN in 2015 is reported. Upper limits at the 10−7 to 10−6 level are established on the elements of the extended neutrino mixing matrix |Ue4|2 and |Uμ4|2 for heavy neutral lepton mass in the ranges 170–448 Me...
Article
Full-text available
In this paper we present new results on upper limits for the search of Heavy Neutral Leptons (HNL) with data collected by NA48/2 (2003-2004), NA62-RK (2007) and NA62 (2015) CERN experiments. The data collected with different trigger configuration allow to search for both long and short living heavy neutrinos in the mass range below the kaon mass. I...
Article
Full-text available
In this paper we present the status of the 3rd generation design of the APEnet board (V5) built upon the 28nm Altera Stratix V FPGA; it features a PCIe Gen3 x8 interface and enhanced embedded transceivers with a maximum capability of 12.5Gbps each. The network architecture is designed in accordance to the Remote DMA paradigm. The APEnet+ V5 prototy...
Article
Full-text available
With processor architecture evolution, the HPC market has undergone a paradigm shift. The adoption of low-cost, Linux-based clusters extended the reach of HPC from its roots in modelling and simulation of complex physical systems to a broader range of industries, from biotechnology, cloud computing, computer analytics and big data challenges to man...
Article
Full-text available
Energy consumption is today one of the most relevant issues in operating HPC systems for scientific applications. The use of unconventional computing systems is therefore of great interest for several scientific communities looking for a better tradeoff between time-to-solution and energy-to-solution. In this context, the performance assessment of...
Article
Full-text available
NA62 is a fixed-target experiment at the CERN SPS dedicated to measurements of rare kaon decays. Such measurements, like the branching fraction of the K⁺ → π⁺ ν decay, have the potential to bring significant insights into new physics processes when comparison is made with precise theoretical predictions. For this purpose, innovative techniques have...
Article
Among the meson decays, K→πνν‾ are the cleanest environment, from the theoretical point of view, where to search for new physics effects. The NA62 Experiment at CERN SPS aims to measure the BR(K+→π+νν‾) with a 10% precision by the end of 2018. It has been commissioned with technical runs in 2014 and 2015, and some preliminary results of the detecto...
Article
Full-text available
In the deep sea, the sense of time is dependent on geophysical fluctuations, such as internal tides and atmospheric-related inertial currents, rather than day-night rhythms. Deep-sea neutrino telescopes instrumented with light detecting Photo-Multiplier Tubes (PMT) can be used to describe the synchronization of bioluminescent activity of abyssopela...
Article
NaNet is a framework for the development of FPGA-based PCI Express (PCIe) Network Interface Cards (NICs) with real-time data transport architecture that can be effectively employed in TRIDAQ systems. Key features of the architecture are the flexibility in the configuration of the number and kind of the I/O channels, the hardware offloading of the n...
Article
This project aims to exploit the parallel computing power of a commercial Graphics Processing Unit (GPU) to implement fast pattern matching in the Ring Imaging Cherenkov (RICH) detector for the level 0 (L0) trigger of the NA62 experiment. In this approach, the ring-fitting algorithm is seedless, being fed with raw RICH data, with no previous inform...
Article
The parallel computing power of commercial Graphics Processing Units (GPUs) is exploited to perform real-time ring fitting at the lowest trigger level using information coming from the Ring Imaging Cherenkov (RICH) detector of the NA62 experiment at CERN. To this purpose, direct GPU communication with a custom FPGA-based board has been used to redu...
Article
Full-text available
A commercial Graphics Processing Unit (GPU) is used to build a fast Level 0 (L0) trigger system tested parasitically with the TDAQ (Trigger and Data Acquisition systems) of the NA62 experiment at CERN. In particular, the parallel computing power of the GPU is exploited to perform real-time fitting in the Ring Imaging CHerenkov (RICH) detector. Dire...
Article
Full-text available
The KM3NeT research infrastructure, currently under construction in the Mediterranean Sea, will host neutrino telescopes for the identification of neutrino sources in the Universe and for studies of the neutrino mass hierarchy. These telescopes will house hundreds of thousands of photomultiplier tubes that will have to be operated in a stable and r...
Article
Full-text available
Studying atmospheric neutrino oscillations in the few-GeV range with a multi-megaton detector promises to determine the neutrino mass hierarchy. This is the main science goal pursued by the future KM3NeT/ORCA water Cherenkov detector in the Mediterranean Sea. In this paper, the processes that limit the obtainable resolution in both energy and direc...
Article
Full-text available
Over the last few years the GPGPU (General-Purpose computing on Graphics Processing Units) paradigm represented a remarkable development in the world of computing. Computing for High-Energy Physics is no exception: several works have demonstrated the effectiveness of the integration of GPU-based systems in high level trigger of different experiment...
Article
Full-text available
In the framework of the KM3Net European project, the production stage of a large volume underwater neutrino telescope has started. The forthcoming installation includes 8 towers and 24 strings, that will be installed 100 km off-shore Capo Passero (Italy) at 3500 m depth. The KM3NeT tower, whose layout is strongly based on the NEMO Phase-2 prototype...
Article
Full-text available
A GPU-based low level (L0) trigger is currently integrated in the experimental setup of the RICH detector of the NA62 experiment to assess the feasibility of building more refined physics-related trigger primitives and thus improve the trigger discriminating power. To ensure the real-time operation of the system, a dedicated data transport mechanis...
Article
Full-text available
The main objectives of the KM3NeT Collaboration are i) the discovery and subsequent observation of high-energy neutrino sources in the Universe and ii) the determination of the mass hierarchy of neutrinos. These objectives are strongly motivated by two recent important discoveries, namely: 1) The high-energy astrophysical neutrino signal reported b...
Article
Full-text available
The KM3NeT-Italia underwater neutrino detection unit, the tower, consists of 14 floors. Each floor supports 6 Optical Modules containing front-end electronics needed to digitize the PMT signal, format and transmit the data and 2 hydrophones that reconstruct in real-time the position of Optical Modules, for a maximum tower throughput of more than 60...
Article
Full-text available
In March 2013, the Nemo Phase-2 tower was successfully deployed at 80 km off-shore Capo Passero (Italy) at 3500 m depth. The tower operated continuously until August 2014. We present the results of the atmospheric muon analysis from the data collected in 411 days of live time. The zenith-angle distribution of atmospheric muons was measured and resu...
Article
General-purpose computing on GPUs is emerging as a new paradigm in several fields of science, although so far applications have been tailored to employ GPUs as accelerators in offline computations. With the steady decrease of GPU latencies and the increase in link and memory throughputs, time is ripe for real-time applications using GPUs in high-en...
Article
Full-text available
NaNet-10 is a four-ports 10GbE PCIe Network Interface Card designed for low-latency real-time operations with GPU systems. To this purpose the design includes an UDP offload module, for fast and clock-cycle deterministic handling of the transport layer protocol, plus a GPUDirect P2P/RDMA engine for low-latency communication with NVIDIA Tesla GPU de...
Article
Full-text available
In the attempt to develop an interconnection architecture optimized for hybrid HPC systems dedicated to scientific computing, we designed APEnet+, a point-to-point, low-latency and high-performance network controller supporting 6 fully bidirectional off-board links over a 3D torus topology. The first release of APEnet+ (named V4) was a board based...
Article
Full-text available
Recent experimental neuroscience studies are pointing out the role of long-range intra-areal connectivity that can be modeled by a distance dependent exponential decay of the synaptic probability distribution. This short report provides a preliminary measure of the impact of exponentially decaying lateral connectivity compared to that of shorter-ra...
Article
General-purpose computing on GPUs (Graphics Processing Units) is emerging as a new paradigm in several fields of science, although so far applications have been tailored to the specific strengths of such devices as accelerator in offline computation. With the steady reduction of GPU latencies, and the increase in link and memory throughput, the use...
Article
Full-text available
This short report describes the scaling, up to 1024 software processes and hardware cores, of a distributed simulator of plastic spiking neural networks. A previous report demonstrated good scalability of the simulator up to 128 processes. Herein we extend the speed-up measurements and strong and weak scaling analysis of the simulator to the range...
Article
In the next decade, a growing number of scientific and industrial applications will require power-efficient systems providing unprecedented computation, memory, and communication resources. A promising paradigm foresees the use of heterogeneous many-tile architectures. The resulting computing systems are complex: they must be protected against seve...
Article
Full-text available
A prototype detection unit of the KM3NeT deep-sea neutrino telescope has been installed at 3500m depth 80km offshore the Italian coast. KM3NeT in its final configuration will contain several hundreds of detection units. Each detection unit is a mechanical structure anchored to the sea floor, held vertical by a submerged buoy and supporting optical...
Article
Full-text available
The rare decay K+ → π+ v v is an excellent process to study the physics of flavour because of its very clean nature. The strong suppression to the Standard Model (SM) contributions and the remarkable theoretical precision of the SM rate makes this decay sensitive to possible new degrees of freedom. The NA62 experiment has been designed and built to...
Article
Full-text available
The NEMO Phase-2 tower is the first detector which was operated underwater for more than one year at the "record" depth of 3500 m. It was designed and built within the framework of the NEMO (NEutrino Mediterranean Observatory) project. The 380 m high tower was successfully installed in March 2013 80 km offshore Capo Passero (Italy). This is the fir...
Article
Full-text available
This short note regards a comparison of instantaneous power, total energy consumption, execution time and energetic cost per synaptic event of a spiking neural network simulator (DPSNN-STDP) distributed on MPI processes when executed either on an embedded platform (based on a dual socket quad-core ARM platform) or a server platform (INTEL-based qua...