Alessandro Giuliani

Alessandro Giuliani
Istituto Superiore di Sanità | ISS · Department of Environment and Primary Prevention

Ph.D.
Research Director at Istituto Superiore di Sanità (Italian NIH) Environment and Health Department (Ambiente e Salute)

About

676
Publications
200,557
Reads
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11,396
Citations
Citations since 2017
223 Research Items
5365 Citations
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Introduction
Multidimensional Statistics, Attractor-like hypotheses in cell regulation, exploiting graph theory so to find a 'structural formula' for proteins, recurrence quantification analysis, the relevance of shape in biology and chemistry, laws of form. QSAR studies, soft mathematical and statistical modeling.
Additional affiliations
February 2018 - October 2018
Sapienza University of Rome
Position
  • Professor
Description
  • Introduction to Biomedical Statistics
February 2015 - present
Pontifical Urbaniana University, Vatican
Position
  • Professor
Description
  • Ethical Dimension of scientific activity, Epistemology
January 2011 - June 2014
AISAL
Position
  • Lessons in Statistics
Description
  • Periodic three-day intensive courses on the use of statistics in biomedicine.
Education
October 1977 - June 1982
Sapienza University of Rome
Field of study
  • Biology

Publications

Publications (676)
Article
We propose a novel model-free univariate strategy for functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) studies based upon recurrence quantification analysis (RQA). RQA is an auto-regressive method, which identifies recurrences in signals without any a priori assumptions. The performance of RQA is compared to that of univariate statistics based on a gen...
Article
Full-text available
Gene Regulatory Networks (GRNs) have become a major focus of interest in recent years. A number of reverse engineering approaches have been developed to help uncover the regulatory networks giving rise to the observed gene expression profiles. However, this is an overspecified problem due to the fact that more than one genotype (network wiring) can...
Article
The ergodic hypothesis, which assumes the independence of each cell of the ensemble from all the others, is a necessary prerequisite to attach single cell based explanations to the grand averages taken from population data. This was the prevailing view about the interpretation of cellular biology experiments that typically are performed on colonies...
Article
Modeling systems at multiple interacting scales is probably the most relevant task for pursuing a physically motivated explanation of biological regulation. In a new study, Smart and Zilman develop a convincing, albeit preliminary, model of the interplay between the cell microscale and the macroscopic tissue organization in biological systems.
Article
Full-text available
The structure of proteins impacts directly on the function they perform. Mutations in the primary sequence can provoke structural changes with consequent modification of functional properties. SARS-CoV-2 proteins have been extensively studied during the pandemic. This wide dataset, related to sequence and structure, has enabled joint sequence-struc...
Article
Full-text available
The biological complexity of cancer represents a tremendous clinical challenge, resulting in the frequent failure of current treatment protocols. In the rapidly evolving scenario of a growing tumor, anticancer treatments impose a drastic perturbation not only to cancer cells but also to the tumor microenvironment, killing a portion of the cells and...
Article
Full-text available
Complex functioning of the genome in the cell nucleus is controlled at different levels: (a) the DNA base sequence containing all relevant inherited information; (b) epigenetic pathways consisting of protein interactions and feedback loops; (c) the genome architecture and organization activating or suppressing genetic interactions between different...
Article
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This work investigates how interpersonal interactions among individuals could affect the dynamics of awareness raising. Even though previous studies on mathematical models of awareness in the decision making context demonstrate how the level of awareness results from self-observation impinged by optimal decision selections and external uncertaintie...
Article
The temporal correlation structure between the profiles of all-causes mortality relative to Italian regions highlighted a largely, unexpected result. Notwithstanding the elimination of well-known seasonal effects, the time series of fluctuations in death rates with respect to the 2015-2019, showed a very high mutual correlation among the 20 Italian...
Article
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Background According to the literature, patients requesting bariatric surgery have a higher prevalence of psychiatric comorbidities compared to severely obese patients who do not seek the surgical procedure for their desired weight loss. This study was designed with the aim of analyzing the relationship between the components of psychological distr...
Article
Full-text available
All-cause mortality is a very coarse grain, albeit very reliable, index to check the health implications of lifestyle determinants, systemic threats and socio-demographic factors. In this work, we adopt a statistical-mechanics approach to the analysis of temporal fluctuations of all-cause mortality, focusing on the correlation structure of this ind...
Preprint
Full-text available
An essay on different episemological views on variability
Article
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In this work, we face the time-honored problem of the contraposition/integration of analytical and intuitive knowledge, and the impact of such interconnection on the onset of awareness resulting from human decision-making processes. Borrowing the definitions of concepts like intuition, tacit knowledge, uncertainty, metacognition, and emotions from...
Article
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Background Circulating tumor cells (CTCs) are responsible for the metastatic dissemination of colorectal cancer (CRC) to the liver, lungs and lymph nodes. CTCs rarity and heterogeneity strongly limit the elucidation of their biological features, as well as preclinical drug sensitivity studies aimed at metastasis prevention. Methods We generated or...
Article
Full-text available
Abstract: The expression of gametogenesis-related (GG) genes and proteins, as well as whole genome duplications (WGD), are the hallmarks of cancer related to poor prognosis. Currently, it is not clear if these hallmarks are random processes associated only with genome instability or are programmatically linked. Our goal was to elucidate this via a...
Preprint
Full-text available
All-cause mortality is a very coarse grain, albeit very reliable, index to check the health implications of lifestyle determinants, systemic threats and socio-demographic factors. In this work we adopt a statistical-mechanics approach to the analysis of temporal fluctuations of all-cause mortality, focusing on the correlation structure of this inde...
Book
Full-text available
The purpose of our studies is to elucidate the nature of massive control of the whole genome expression with a particular emphasis on cell-fate change. The whole genome expression is coordinated by the emergence of a critical point (CP: a peculiar set of biphasic genes) with the genome acting as an integrated dynamical system. In response to stimul...
Article
Full-text available
The urban overheating phenomenon in Mediterranean cities is a societal challenge with vast implications for the protection of public health. An additional analysis of the pilot TEMP randomized 2 × 2 cross-over trial was set up, using wearable sensor-based skin temperature measurements (n = 14). The study objectives were to: (i) assess the recurrenc...
Article
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The Mediterranean Sea hosts a population of fin whale (Balaenoptera physalus), the only species of Mysticete regularly occurring in the basin. Observed and inferred mortality suggests that the population is likely declining. Accordingly, understanding the causes of mortality and assessing the health status is pivotal to the survival of this endange...
Article
Full-text available
Bariatric surgery (BS) is an effective intervention for severe obesity and associated comorbidities. Although several studies have addressed the clinical and metabolic effects of BS, an integrative analysis of the complex body response to surgery is still lacking. We conducted a longitudinal data study with 36 patients with severe obesity who were...
Article
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Background MRI studies reported that ALS patients with bulbar and spinal onset showed focal cortical changes in corresponding regions of the motor homunculus. We evaluated the capability of brain 2-[¹⁸F]FDG-PET to disclose the metabolic features characterizing patients with pure bulbar or spinal motor impairment. Methods We classified as pure bulb...
Preprint
Full-text available
The structure of proteins impacts directly on the function they perform.Mutations in the primary sequence can provoke structural changes with consequent modification of functional properties. SARS-CoV-2 viral proteins have been extensively studied during the pandemic. Thus, a considerable body of data related to sequence and structure is available,...
Article
Full-text available
Purpose The identification of prognostic tools in amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) would improve the design of clinical trials, the management of patients, and life planning. We aimed to evaluate the accuracy of brain 2-[¹⁸F]fluoro-2-deoxy-D-glucose-positron-emission tomography (2-[¹⁸F]FDG-PET) as an independent predictor of survival in ALS. Me...
Article
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The molecular revolution could lead drug discovery from chance observation to the rational design of new classes of drugs that could simultaneously be more effective and less toxic. Unfortunately, we are witnessing some failure in this sense, and the causes of the crisis involve a wide range of epistemological and scientific aspects. In pharmacolog...
Article
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The complex network paradigm occupies a twilight epistemological status in between data analysis and causal, content based, modelling of complex systems. This status is mirrored by the title of the topic “Prediction and Explanation in Biomedicine using Network-Based Approaches” putting together “prediction” (data analysis perspective) and “explanat...
Article
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Quiescent cancer cells (QCCs) are a common feature of solid tumors, representing a major obstacle to the long-term success of cancer therapies. We isolated QCCs ex vivo from non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) and colorectal cancer (CRC) xenografts with a label-retaining strategy and compared QCCs gene expression profiles to identify a shared “quies...
Article
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Editorial on the Research Topic Pituitary adenomas: Targeted therapy Pituitary adenomas (PAs) are typically slowly progressing tumors of the anterior pituitary gland. They represent a wide spectrum of clinical behavior including invasion, regrowth, and persistence of hormone hypersecretion, causing significant morbidity and mortality. Clinical hete...
Article
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Activation of G-protein-coupled receptors (GPCRs) is mediated by molecular switches throughout the transmembrane region of the receptor. In this work, we continued along the path of a previous computational study wherein energy transport in the β2 Adrenergic Receptor (β2-AR) was examined and allosteric switches were identified in the molecular stru...
Article
Motivation Protein Contact Network (PCN) is a powerful method for analysing the structure and function of proteins, with a specific focus on disclosing the molecular features of allosteric regulation through the discovery of modular substructures. The importance of PCN analysis has been shown in many contexts, such as the analysis of SARS-CoV-2 Spi...
Article
Full-text available
Ten good outcome and ten poor outcome psychotherapy cases were compared to investigate whether or not the temporal stability and flexibility of their process variables can predict their outcomes. Each participant was monitored daily using the Therapy Process Questionnaire (TPQ), which has 43 items and seven sub-scales, and responses over time were...
Article
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The actual "pandemic" times, beside their burden of sorrow in terms of both victims, destruction of societal links and economic consequences, are an unprecedented occasion to give a closer look to the status of biomedical research. Beside the undoubted technological advances, the general impression is alarming: the fragmentation of science culture...
Article
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hMTH1 protects against mutation during oxidative stress. It degrades 8-oxodGTP to exclude potentially mutagenic oxidized guanine from DNA. hMTH1 expression is linked to ageing. Its downregulation in cultured cells accelerates RAS-induced senescence, and its overexpression in hMTH1-Tg mice extends lifespan. In this study, we analysed the effects of...
Article
Full-text available
The convergence between a statistical mechanics and biological approach in elucidating some basic features of cell differentiation opens new avenues of research in gene expression regulation and holds some promises in terms of a re-differentiation approach to a cancer cure. The message emerging from two recent papers by the authors of the present c...
Article
Full-text available
At the center of the SARS-CoV2 infection, the spike protein and its interaction with the human receptor ACE2 play a central role in the molecular machinery of SARS-CoV2 infection of human cells. Vaccine therapies are a valuable barrier to the worst effects of the virus and to its diffusion, but the need of purposed drugs is emerging as a core targe...
Chapter
The multilevel organization of nature is self-evident: proteins do interact among them to give rise to an organized metabolism and the same hierarchical organization is in action for gene expression, tissue and organ architectures, and ecological systems.The still more common approach to such state of affairs is to think that causally relevant even...
Article
Full-text available
ABSTRACT: At the center of the SARS-CoV2 infection, the spike protein and its interaction with the human receptor ACE2 play a central role in the molecular machinery of SARS-CoV2 infection of human cells. Vaccine therapies are a valuable barrier to the worst effects of the virus and to its diffusion, but the need of purposed drugs is emerging as a...
Research
Full-text available
The present study investigated the effect of weak electromagnetic fields on bacteria in order to attempt a kill with resonant electromagnetic fields; Escherichia coli was chosen as a model organism for this study as it has the characteristics and speed of reproduction of 20 microns as a model. to study the effect of weak electric fields on bacteria...
Article
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A0939 Plasmatic exosome number and size distinguish prostate cancer patients from healthy individuals: A prospective clinical study Eur Urol Suppl 2022;81(S 1):S1376 Maggi M.1, Logozzi M.2, Mizzoni D.2, Di Raimo R.2, Giuliani A.2 , Sciarra A.1, Fais S.2 1Sapienza Rome University, Dept.of Urology, Rome, Italy, 2National Institute of Health (ISS), D...
Preprint
Full-text available
Protein Contact Network (PCN) is a powerful tool for analysing the structure and function of proteins. In particular, PCN has been used for disclosing the molecular features of allosteric regulation through PCN clustering. Such analysis is relevant in many applications, such as the recent study of SARS-CoV-2 Spike Protein. Despite its relevance, me...
Book
The book provides a new conceptual framework to explain the interaction of complex systems, specifically humans and their environment. It proposes that human physiology and the environment do not “connect” with each other in a direct, unidirectional manner, like a beaker pouring water into a cup. Rather, the authors propose the Biodynamic Interface...
Chapter
Chapter 1 outlines the axioms of the biodynamic interface conjecture, each of which are detailed in subsequent chapters. It is shown that in order to properly identify and characterize any dynamic system, it is necessary to identify more than a few isolated “things” making up the pattern. Rather, one must know the sequence of events and the organiz...
Chapter
In both Chapters 2 and 3, biodynamic interfaces are treated as independent entities. That is obviously not the case—biodynamic interfaces are connected to each other and, as always, it is important to place time at the center of these connections. Chapter 4 shows that these connections are not like networks of roads that are static; instead, they a...
Chapter
Environmental medicine and related fields have developed from a structural perspective that assigns a static, anatomical “thingness” to our physiology and our environment. This viewpoint arises from a reductionist school of thought and foundational biomedical discoveries such as the discovery that human organs are made up of cells organized as tiss...
Chapter
Chapter 6 summarizes the work described in the book. It places Environmental Biodynamics in context of the broader field of general systems theory. It argues that to realize the full potential of Environmental Biodynamics, environmental medicine must refocus the examination of the interaction of environment and health from an emphasis on measuring...
Chapter
Chapter 3 introduce the first central principle of Environmental Biodynamics—that complex systems cannot interact directly, nor exist in isolation. It also introduces the corollary principle that although the interface is composed of constant change (i.e., processes) it retains a quantifiable topography—the shape of change—driven by stochastic, det...
Chapter
Chapter 5 examines the dynamic nature of interfaces and starts examining their characteristics. The authors posit that just as we might derive a multitude of dimensions to describe biological structure, so too are there many dimensions that describe the functional dynamics in how biological systems vary over time . Current environmental epidemiolog...
Article
Full-text available
Abstract: Metabolism and physiology frequently follow non-linear rhythmic patterns which are reflected in concepts of homeostasis and circadian rhythms, yet few biomarkers are studied as dynamical systems. For instance, healthy human development depends on the assimilation and metabolism of essential elements, often accompanied by exposures to non-...
Preprint
Full-text available
The purpose of our studies is to elucidate the nature of massive control of whole genome expression with a particular emphasis on cell-fate change. Whole genome expression is coordinated by the emergence of a critical point (CP: a peculiar set of bi-phasic genes) through the genome-engine. In response to stimuli, the genome expression self-organize...
Article
Full-text available
The study of gene expression variability, especially for cancer and cell differentiation studies, has become important. Here, we investigate transcriptome-wide scatter of 23 cell types and conditions across different levels of biological-complexity. We focused on genes that act like toggle-switches between pairwise replicates of the same cell type,...
Article
Full-text available
There is a urgent need for valuable strategy in early and less invasive diagnosis for cancer. Preliminary data have shown that the plasmatic levels of exosomes increase in cancer condition. This study investigates the relevance of plasmatic levels and size distribution of exosomes in 42 individuals with no signs of urological disease (CTR) as compa...
Article
Full-text available
With the aim of investigating analogies and differences between psychotherapeutic processes, ten good-outcome and ten poor-outcome cases were selected from a sample of patients treated at the University Hospital of Psychiatry, Salzburg, Austria, and the Department of Psycho-Traumatology of the Clinic St. Irmingard, Prien am Chiemsee, Germany. They...
Article
Full-text available
The human DNA molecule is a 2 meters long polymer collapsed into the micrometer space of the cell nucleus. This simple consideration rules out any 'Maxwell demon'-like explanation of regulation in which a single regulatory molecule (e.g., a transcription factor) finds autonomously its way to the particular target gene whose expression must be repre...
Article
Full-text available
OBJECTIVE: The quality of the embryo is crucial for the outcome of in vitro fertilization; however, the ability to accurately distinguish embryos with the highest reproductive potential from others is not entirely reliable. Most of the methods of classification of embryos in Assisted Reproductive Technologies (ART) are subjective and in clinical pr...
Article
Full-text available
Candida gut colonization and yeast biofilm production capacity were investigated, by means of XTT reduction assay, in Clostridioides difficile infected (CDI) patients, in non-CDI diarrheic patients, and in healthy donors in two different time periods (2013–2015 and 2018–2019 respectively). Candida gut colonization was significantly ( p < 0.001) ass...
Article
The deregulation of PI3K/Akt signaling is among the most causes in inducing the acquisition of a metastatic phenotype in breast cancer cells, leading to Epithelial-Mesenchymal Transition (EMT). Inhibition of the PI3K/Akt pathway is known to be beneficial in the clinical setting. However, the activation of secondary pathways and toxicity profiles of...
Chapter
The multi-level organization of nature is self-evident: proteins do interact among them to give rise to an organized metabolism while in the same time each protein (a single node of such interaction network) is itself a network of interacting amino-acid residues allowing coordinated motion of the macromolecule and systemic effect as allosteric beha...
Article
Full-text available
Open systems can only exist by self-organization as pulsing structures exchanging matter and energy with the outer world. This review is an attempt to reveal the organizational principles of the heterochromatin supra-intra-chromosomal network in terms of nonlinear thermodynamics. The accessibility of the linear information of the genetic code is re...
Article
Full-text available
To investigate through the prototype methodology as well as the interaction structures methodology which are the factors involved in the psychotherapeutic progress in the treatment of a patient with chronic diseases and somatic symptoms. 62 of the total 120 videotaped sessions were analysed by independent judges using the Psychotherapy Process Q-Se...
Article
Full-text available
The multi-level organization of nature is self-evident: proteins do interact among them to give rise to an organized metabolism, while in the same time each protein (a single node of such interaction network) is itself a network of interacting amino-acid residues allowing coordinated motion of the macromolecule and systemic effect as allosteric beh...
Article
Full-text available
Europe is experiencing a third wave of COVID-19 due to the spread of highly transmissible SARS-CoV-2 variants. A number of positive and negative factors constantly shape the rates of COVID-19 infections, hospitalization, and mortality. Among these factors, the rise in increasingly transmissible variants on one side and the effect of vaccinations on...
Article
The actual reproducibility crisis of biological sciences [1] asks for seriously facing the relational character of biological matter. This focus reshaping is advocated by many scientists and stems from the 'Middle Way' [2] approach, i.e. the mesoscopic description of complex systems, adopting as privileged level of observation the one that maximize...
Article
Full-text available
Few field tests have assessed the effects of predator-induced stress on prey fitness, particularly in large carnivore-ungulate systems. Because traditional measures of stress present limitations when applied to free-ranging animals, new strategies and systemic methodologies are needed. Recent studies have shown that stress and anxiety related behav...
Book
Full-text available
Con saggi di Alessandro Giuliani, Pier Christian Verde e...Vladimir Nabokov Da un punto di vista clinico il lavoro dello psicologo può essere descritto in termini di osservazione del materiale psichico del paziente, ascolto dello stesso attraverso il filtro della mente del clinico, e sua restituzione in seduta. “Osservazione, Ascolto ed Interpreta...
Chapter
Complex systems are characterized by deterministic laws (which often may be hidden) and randomness. A tool to analyse those systems is recurrence quantification analysis (RQA). RQA does not rely on any sort of assumption of stationarity and is not sensitive to singularities and transitions. It could be applied to both numeric and symbolic data, and...