Alessandro Allegra

Alessandro Allegra
Università degli Studi di Messina | UNIME · Dipartimento di Medicina Clinica e Sperimentale

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273
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Publications (273)
Article
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Aquaporins are transmembrane molecules regulating the transfer of water and other compounds such as ions, glycerol, urea, and hydrogen peroxide. Their alteration has been reported in several conditions such as cancer. Tumor progression might be enhanced by aquaporins in modifying tumor angiogenesis, cell volume adaptation, proteases activity, cell–...
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Redox adaptation is essential for human health, as the physiological quantities of non-radical reactive oxygen species operate as the main second messengers to regulate normal redox reactions by controlling several sensors. An abnormal increase reactive oxygen species, called oxidative stress, induces biological injury. For this reason, variations...
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Liquid biopsy is one of the fastest emerging fields in cancer evaluation. Circulating tumour cells and tumour-originated DNA in plasma have become the new targets for their possible employ in tumour diagnosis, and liquid biopsy can define tumour burden without invasive procedures. Multiple Myeloma, one of the most frequent hematologic tumors, has b...
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Cold atmospheric plasma is an ionized gas produced near room temperature; it generates reactive oxygen species and nitrogen species and induces physical changes, including ultraviolet, radiation, thermal, and electromagnetic effects. Several studies showed that cold atmospheric plasma could effectively provoke death in a huge amount of cell types,...
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The immune system is made up by an extremely composite group of cells, whose regulated and harmonious activity is fundamental to maintain health. The mast cells are an essential effector of inflammatory response which is characterized by a massive release of mediators accumulated in cytoplasmic secretory granules. However, beyond the effects on imm...
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Alarmins are endogenous, constitutively expressed, chemotacting and immune activating proteins or peptides released because of non-programmed cell death (i.e. infections, trauma, etc). They are considered endogenous damage-associated molecular patterns (DAMPs), able to induce a sterile inflammation. In the last years, several studies highlighted a...
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The microenvironment of the tumor cells is central to its phenotypic modification. One of the essential elements of this milieu is thermal regulation. An augment in local temperature has been reported to augment the tumor cell's responsiveness to chemo- and radiation treatment. Cold shock proteins are RNA/DNA binding proteins, identified by the exi...
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Unconventional T cells and innate lymphoid cells (ILCs) make up a heterogeneous set of cells that characteristically show prompt responses toward specific antigens. Unconventional T cells recognize non-peptide antigens, which are bound and presented by diverse non-polymorphic antigen-presenting molecules and comprise γδ T cells, MR1-restricted muco...
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In multiple myeloma, cells of the bone marrow microenvironment have a relevant responsibility in promoting the growth, survival, and drug resistance of multiple myeloma plasma cells. In addition to the well-recognized role of genetic lesions, microenvironmental cells also present deregulated epigenetic systems. However, the effect of epigenetic cha...
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Objective To evaluate the response to treatment with intravenous (IVIg) and subcutaneous (20%SCIg) immunoglobulin in our series of patients with Inflammatory idiopathic myopathies (IIM) by the means of artificial intelligence. Background IIM are rare diseases mainly involving the skeletal muscle with particular clinical, laboratory and radiologica...
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Circular RNAs (circRNAs) are a novel type of covalently closed RNAs involved in several physiological and pathological processes. They display tissue-specific expression and are constant, abundant, and highly conserved, making them perfect markers for diagnosis and prognosis. Several studies have proposed that circRNAs are also differentially produ...
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Exosomes are small membrane vesicles of endocytic origin containing cytokines, RNAs, growth factors, proteins, lipids, and metabolites. They have been identified as fundamental intercellular communication controllers in several diseases and an enormous volume of data confirmed that exosomes could either sustain or inhibit tumor onset and diffusion...
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Interleukin (IL)-33 is a key cytokine involved in type-2 immunity and allergic airway disease. At the level of lung epithelial cells, where it is clearly expressed, IL-33 plays an important role in both innate and adaptive immune responses in mucosal organs. It has been widely demonstrated that in the course of respiratory virus infections, the rel...
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Autologous hematopoietic stem cells transplantation (AHSCT) has been employed as treatment for severe systemic sclerosis (SSc) with high risk of organ failure. In the last 25 years overall survival and treatment-related mortality have improved, in accordance with a better patient selection and mobilization and conditioning protocols. This review an...
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Background: Immune cells and immune proteins play a pivotal role in host responses to pathogens, allergens and cancer. Understanding the crosstalk between allergic response and cancer, immune surveillance, immunomodulation, role of immunoglobulin E (IgE)-mediated functions and help to develop novel therapeutic strategies. Allergy and oncology show...
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Raised oxidative stress and abnormal redox status are typical features of multiple myeloma cells, and the identification of the intimate mechanisms that regulate the relationships between neoplastic cells and redox homeostasis may reveal possible new anti-myeloma therapeutic targets to increase the effectiveness of anti-myeloma drugs synergisticall...
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Effectual cell-to-cell communication is essential to the development and differentiation of organisms, the preservation of tissue tasks, and the synchronization of their different physiological actions, but also to the proliferation and metastasis of tumor cells. Tunneling nanotubes (TNTs) are membrane-enclosed tubular connections between cells tha...
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Cannabinoid receptors, which are widely distributed in the body, have been considered as possible pharmacological targets for the management of several tumors. Cannabinoid type 2 receptors (CB2Rs) belong to the G protein-coupled receptor family and are mainly expressed in hematopoietic and immune cells, such as B-cells, T-cells, and macrophages; th...
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The “cytokine storm” (CS) consists of a spectrum of different immune dysregulation disorders characterized by constitutional symptoms, systemic inflammation and multiorgan dysfunction triggered by an uncontrolled immune response. Particularly in respiratory virus infections, the cytokine storm plays a primary role in the pathogenesis of respiratory...
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Multiple myeloma (MM) is a hematological disease that is still not curable. The bone marrow milieu, with cellular and non-cellular elements, participate in the creation of a pro-tumoral environment enhancing growth and survival of MM plasma cells. Exosomes are vesicles oscillating in dimension between 50 nm and 100 nm in size that can be released b...
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Conventional chemotherapy has partial therapeutic effects against hematological malignancies and is correlated with serious side effects and great risk of relapse. Recently, immunotherapeutic drugs have provided encouraging results in the treatment of hematological malignancies. Several immunotherapeutic antibodies and cell therapeutics are in dyna...
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Secondary immunodeficiency is reported in most patients with hematological malignancies such as chronic lymphocytic leukemia and multiple myeloma. The aim of our review was to evaluate the existing literature data on patients with hematological malignancies, with regard to the effect of immunodeficiency on the outcome, the clinical and therapeutic...
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Myeloproliferative neoplasms (MPN) are traditionally regarded as a disease of older adults, though a not negligible fraction of cases occurs at a younger age, including women of childbearing potential. MPN in younger patients, indeed, offer several challenges for the clinical hematologist, that goes from difficulties in reaching a timely and accura...
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Rhodesain is a cysteine protease crucial for the survival of Trypanosoma brucei rhodesiense, the parasite able to induce the acute lethal form of Human African Trypanosomiasis. PS-1 is a synthetic peptidyl inhibitor of rhodesain, characterised by a picomolar binding affinity (Ki = 1.1 pM). Thus, considering the well-known antiparasitic properties o...
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Several neurotransmitters and neuropeptides were reported to join to or to cooperate with different cells of the immune system, bone marrow, and peripheral cells and numerous data support that neuroactive molecules might control immune system activity and hemopoiesis operating on lymphoid organs, and the primary hematopoietic unit, the hematopoieti...
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Trusted methods for identifying different Multiple Myeloma (MM) cells and their biological diversity due to their immunophenotypic variety are often little detailed and difficult to find in literature. In this work, we show that micro-Raman spectroscopy can be used to highlight if there is a certain degree of distinction or correlation between the...
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Multiple myeloma (MM) is a malignant disease based on differentiated plasma cells (PCs) in the bone marrow (BM). Flow cytometry and fluorescence microscopy, used to identify a large combination of clusters of differentiation (CDs), are applied for MM immunophenotyping. However, due to the heterogeneous MM immunophenotypes, more antibody panels are...
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Objective: Multiple Myeloma (MM) is a haematological disease resulting from the neoplastic transformation of plasma cells. The uncontrolled growth of plasma cells in the bone marrow and the delivery of several cytokines causes bone erosion that often does not regress, even in the event of disease remission. MM is characterised by a multi-step evol...
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Vitamin D (VD) is essential for bone homeostasis, but it is also involved in pleiotropic effects on various organs and tissues. In adults, VD deficiency can cause or exacerbate osteoporosis and induce osteomalacia. However, every tissue and cell in the body has a VD receptor, including the brain, heart, stomach, pancreas, skin, gonads, and immune c...
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The success of a vaccination campaign depends on the possibility of guaranteeing not only a wide distribution of effective vaccines, but also on their safety and acceptance by the population. Vaccine safety questions should be answered by correct, unbiased and evidence-based reports, and by addressing all possible problems including allergic reacti...
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Immune thrombocytopenia is a haematological, autoimmune disorder characterized by elevated platelet demolition due to the presence of antiplatelet autoantibodies derived from B cells and to an irregular, deficient process of platelets production in bone marrow. In this review, after a brief presentation of 'old' strategies used nowadays yet, we foc...
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The endocannabinoid system (ECS) is a composite cell-signaling system that allows endogenous cannabinoid ligands to control cell functions through the interaction with cannabinoid receptors. Modifications of the ECS might contribute to the pathogenesis of different diseases, including cancers. However, the use of these compounds as antitumor agents...
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Pruritus is one of the most common symptoms experienced by neoplastic patients. The pathogenesis of neoplastic itch is complex and multifactorial and could be due to an unbalanced production of humoral mediators by altered immune effector cells. IL-31 is a pro-inflammatory cytokine produced by CD4 + T helper cells. The aim of this review was to eva...
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Benzene carcinogenic ability has been reported, and chronic exposure to benzene can be one of the risk elements for solid cancers and hematological neoplasms. Benzene is acknowledged as a myelotoxin, and it is able to augment the risk for the onset of acute myeloid leukemia, myelodysplastic syndromes, aplastic anemia, and lymphomas. Possible mechan...
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Vitamin D is a steroid hormone that is essential for bone mineral metabolism and it has several other effects in the body, including anti-cancer actions. Vitamin D causes a reduction in cell growth by interrupting the cell cycle. Moreover, the active form of vitamin D, i.e., 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D, exerts various effects via its interaction with t...
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The Hippo/YES-associated protein (YAP) signaling pathway is a cell survival and proliferation-control system with its main activity that of regulating cell growth and organ volume. YAP operates as a transcriptional coactivator in regulating the onset, progression, and treatment response in numerous human tumors. Moreover, there is evidence suggesti...
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Objectives: Sirtuins comprise seven family elements (SIRT1-7) involved in various cell signalling pathways comprising cancer inhibition and tumorigenesis. The present study aims to evaluate SIRT2 and SIRT3 gene expression and potential redox reactions in patients with multiple myeloma (MM) at onset and its correlation with disease status, extent a...
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Chronic myeloid leukaemia has long been considered as a model of cancer caused by a single driver genetic lesion (BCR/ABL1 rearrangement), that codes for a unique, gain-of-function, deregulated protein. However, in the last decade high-throughput sequencing technologies have shed light on a more complex genetic landscape, in which additional mutati...
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The prognosis for newly diagnosed subjects with multiple myeloma (MM) has significantly progressed in recent years. However, most MM patients relapse and after several salvage therapies, the onset of multidrug resistance provokes the occurrence of a refractory disease. A continuous and bidirectional exchange of information takes place between the c...
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Multiple myeloma (MM) remains an incurable tumor due to the high rate of relapse that still occurs. Acquired drug resistance represents the most challenging obstacle to the extension of survival and several studies have been conducted to understand the mechanisms of this phenomenon. Mitochondrial pathways have been extensively investigated, demonst...
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Introduction In the past few years, treatment of multiple myeloma has undergone a deep change for the employment of novel treatment comprising proteasome inhibitors. Bortezomib is a first-line drug in therapy of multiple myeloma. The onset of peripheral neuropathy is a dose-limiting collateral effect of the drug. This neuropathy is a distal symmetr...
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Hypericum is a widely present plant, and extracts of its leaves, flowers, and aerial elements have been employed for many years as therapeutic cures for depression, skin wounds, and respiratory and inflammatory disorders. Hypericum also displays an ample variety of other biological actions, such as hypotensive, analgesic, anti-infective, anti-oxida...
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The use of viruses for tumour treatment has been imagined more than one hundred years ago, when it was reported that viral diseases were occasionally leading to a decrease in neoplastic lesions. Oncolytic viruses (OVs) seem to have a specific tropism for tumour cells. Previously, it was hypothesised that OVs’ antineoplastic actions were mainly due...
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Although pruritus may sometimes be a consequential situation to neoplasms, it more frequently emerges after commencing chemotherapy. In this review, we present our analysis of the chemotherapy treatments that most often induce skin changes and itching. After discussing conventional chemotherapies capable of inducing pruritus, we present our evaluat...
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Hundreds of trillions of bacteria are present in the human body in a mutually beneficial symbiotic relationship with the host. A stable dynamic equilibrium exists in healthy individuals between the microbiota, host organism, and environment. Imbalances of the intestinal microbiota contribute to the determinism of various diseases. Recent research s...
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Monoclonal gammopathy of undetermined significance (MGUS) is a pre-malignant abnormality of plasma cells, with increased serum levels of immunoglobulins. Patients with MGUS may evolve to multiple myeloma through a multistep process including deregulated gene expression. microRNAs are small non-coding RNA molecules involved in post-transcriptional r...
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Microbiota is considered an independent organ with the capability to modulate tumor growth and response to therapies. In the chemo-free era, the use of new immunotherapies, more selective and effective and less toxic, led to the extension of overall survival of patients, subject to their ability to not stop treatment. This has focused scientists’ a...
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Radiation therapy plays a critical role in the management of a wide range of hematologic malignancies. It is well known that the post-irradiation damages both in the bone marrow and in other organs are the main causes of post-irradiation morbidity and mortality. Tumor control without producing extensive damage to the surrounding normal cells, throu...
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The identification of effective and selective immunoproteasome inhibitors could greatly promote smart treatment of many autoimmune, inflammatory and tumor diseases. This paper explores the activity of some pyridone derivatives which are taking advantage of peptide mimicking moieties and other functional groups whose related effects are taken into c...
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Philadelphia-negative chronic myeloproliferative neoplasms (MPNs) have recently been revealed to be related to chronic inflammation, oxidative stress, and the accumulation of reactive oxygen species. It has been proposed that MPNs represent a human inflammation model for tumor advancement, in which long-lasting inflammation serves as the driving el...
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Urticaria is a condition involving both skin and mucosal tissues characterized by the presence of wheals and/or angioedema. The acute form has been related to allergic reactions to drugs or foods, interaction with chemicals, or infections. We reviewed the association of urticaria with coronavirus infections. This review was carried out by the use o...
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In October 2019, a viral infectious disease appeared in the city of Wuhan in China. A new betacoronavirus, SARS-CoV-2, has been recognized as the responsible pathogen in this infection. Although coronavirus disease is principally expressed as a pulmonary infection, critical SARS-CoV-2 infection is frequently complicated with coagulopathy, and throm...
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Objective: In 2019, an infection provoked by SARS-CoV-2 virus arose in Wuhan, China. Currently, there is still no definite and efficacious therapy for SARS-CoV-2 infection. Moreover, our understanding of the physiopathology of the infection, and risk elements for severity and mortality, is incomplete. Patients and methods: One largely neglected...
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Drug repositioning is a strategy to identify new uses for approved or investigational drugs that are used off-label outside the scope of the original medical indication. In this review we report the most relevant studies about drug repositioning in hematology, reporting the signalling pathways and molecular targets of these drugs, and describing t...
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The present is a comprehensive review of the immunopathology of Covid-19. The immune reaction to SARS-CoV-2 infection is characterized by differentiation and proliferation of a variety of immune cells with immune mediator production and release, and activation of other pathogen resistance mechanisms. We fully address the humoral and cellular immune...
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Bisphosphonates (BPs) are inhibitors of osteoclast-mediated bone resorption used for the treatment of multiple myeloma (MM) patients with osteolytic lesions. Bisphosphonate-induced osteonecrosis of the jaw (BONJ) is an infrequent drug-caused adverse event of these agents. Long noncoding RNAs (lncRNAs) are a set of more than 200 base pairs, noncodin...
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The human immune system has structures called checkpoints controlling the intensity and the duration of immune responses. In the last years, studies and research have been concentrating on creating new drugs recognized as Immune Checkpoint Inhibitors that have been launched in clinical practice to treat patients with several types of cancer, includ...
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In late December 2019, a new infectious viral disease appeared. A new betacoronavirus, severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-Cov-2), has been recognized as the pathogen responsible for this infection. Patients affected by tumors are more vulnerable to infection owing to poor health status, concomitant chronic diseases, and immunosup...
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Alternative treatments for neoplastic diseases with new drugs are necessary because the clinical effectiveness of chemotherapy is often reduced by collateral effects. Several natural substances of plant origin have been demonstrated to be successful in the prevention and treatment of numerous tumors. Rosmarinus officinalis L. is a herb that is cult...
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Natural killer (NK) cells represent innate effector cells potentially able to play a role during the immune response against multiple myeloma (MM). To better define the distribution and the specific properties of NK cell subsets during MM disease, we analyzed their features in the bone marrow and peripheral blood of newly diagnosed MM patients. Our...
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Ultraviolet radiation is one of the most pervasive environmental interactions with humans. Chronic ultraviolet irradiation increases the danger of skin carcinogenesis. Probably, oxidative stress is the most important mechanism by which ultraviolet radiation implements its damaging effects on normal cells. However, notwithstanding the data referring...
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The human microbiota is made up of the fungi, bacteria, protozoa and viruses cohabiting within the human body. An altered microbiota can provoke diseases such as cancer. The mechanisms by which a modified microbiota can intervene in the onset and progression of neoplastic diseases are manifold. For instance, these include the effects on the immune...