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Introduction In the heart, β-adrenergic receptor (β-AR) stimulation activates protein kinase A (PKA) and increases electrical conduction velocity (dromotropy). This process is mediated by connexin 43 (Cx43) that forms gap junction (GJ) channels and thus ensures a proper propagation of the electrical impulse, essential for sequential and coordinated...
A limited number of human cells can fuse to form multinucleated syncytia. In the differentiation of human placenta, mononuclear cytotrophoblasts fuse to form an endocrinologically active, non-proliferative, multinucleated syncytium. This syncytium covers the placenta and manages the exchange of nutrients and gases between maternal and fetal circula...
Communication between adjacent cells can occur via gap junctions (GJ) composed of connexin (Cx) hexamers that allow passage of small molecules. One of the most widely and highly expressed Cxs in human tissues is Cx43, shown to be regulated through phosphorylation by several kinases including PKA. Ezrin is a membrane associated protein that can serv...
Connexin 43 (Cx43), the predominant gap junction (GJ) protein, directly interacts with the A-kinase-anchoring protein (AKAP) Ezrin in human cytotrophoblasts and a rat liver epithelial cells (IAR20). The Cx43-Ezrin–protein kinase (PKA) complex facilitates Cx43 phosphorylation by PKA, which triggers GJ opening in cytotrophoblasts and IAR20 cells and...
Adaptability to stress is fundamental prerequisites for survival. Mitochondria are a key component of the stress response in all cells. For steroid-hormones-producing cells, including also Leydig cells of testes, the mitochondria are a key control point for the steroid biosynthesis and regulation. However, the mitochondrial biogenesis in steroidoge...