Aleksandr Peet

Aleksandr Peet
University of Tartu · Department of Pediatrics (ARLA)

About

53
Publications
8,322
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2,772
Citations
Citations since 2017
32 Research Items
2467 Citations
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20172018201920202021202220230100200300400
20172018201920202021202220230100200300400
20172018201920202021202220230100200300400

Publications

Publications (53)
Article
Aims/introduction: We aimed to assess the distribution of transcription factor 7-like 2 gene TCF7L2 (rs7903146) polymorphism and to find possible associations between TCF7L2 and the characteristics of type 1 diabetes. Materials and methods: We studied 190 newly diagnosed type 1 diabetes patients (median age 12.7 years, range 2.0-72.5) and 246 co...
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The potential impact of the composition of maternal breast milk is poorly known in children who develop celiac disease (CD). The aim of our study was to compare the microbiota composition and the concentrations of immune markers in breast milk from mothers whose offspring carried the genetic predisposition to CD, and whether they did or did not dev...
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Insulin pumps offer standard (SB), square and dual-wave boluses (DWB). Few recommendations exist on how to use these dosing options. Several studies suggest that the DWB is more effective for high-fat or high-carbohydrate meals. Our objective was to test whether time in range (TIR) improves in children with type 1 diabetes (T1D) using the universal...
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The incidence of type 1 diabetes (T1D) is increasing throughout the world. This trend may be explained by the accelerator hypothesis. Our study investigated growth, its biochemical markers, and their associations with the development of diabetes-associated autoantibodies (DAAB) in 219 children with genetic risk for T1D. Subjects were divided into r...
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The aims of the 2021 European Training Requirements (ETR) in Paediatric Endocrinology and Diabetes (PED) are to (1) provide standards to harmonize training programmes in PED between different European countries, (2) establish clearly defined standards of knowledge and skills required to practice PED at the tertiary care level, (3) foster the develo...
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Background Decreased exposure to microbial agents in industrialized countries and urban living areas is considered as a risk factor of developing immune-mediated diseases, such as allergies and asthma. Epithelial surfaces in the gastrointestinal and respiratory tracts and in the skin constitute the primary areas in contact with the environmental mi...
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Early childhood infections have been implicated in the development of immune-mediated diseases, such as allergies, asthma, and type 1 diabetes. We set out to investigate the immunomodulatory effects of early viral infections experienced before the age of one year on the peripheral regulatory T cell population (Treg) and circulating cytokines in a b...
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Background The need for screening for autoimmune thyroid disease in children who have HLA-conferred susceptibility to type 1 diabetes (T1D), but have not yet been diagnosed with T1D, has not been thoroughly studied. The aim of this study was to describe the prevalence of positive thyroid peroxidase antibodies and its effect on thyroid function in c...
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Background: Allergic diseases are more common in Finland than in Estonia, which-according to the biodiversity hypothesis-could relate to differences in early microbial exposures. Methods: We aimed at defining possible microbial perturbations preceding early atopic sensitisation. Stool, nasal, and skin samples of 6-month-old DIABIMMUNE study part...
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Recent studies suggest that the cross-talk between the gut microbiota and human immune system during the first year of life is an important regulator of the later development of atopic diseases. We explored the changes in the gut microbiota, blood regulatory T cells, and atopic sensitization in a birth-cohort of Estonian and Finnish children follow...
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The appearance of type 1 diabetes (T1D)-associated autoantibodies is the first and only measurable parameter to predict progression toward T1D in genetically susceptible individuals. However, autoantibodies indicate an active autoimmune reaction, wherein the immune tolerance is already broken. Therefore, there is a clear and urgent need for new bio...
Article
Imprinting disorders (ImpDis) represent a small group of rare congenital diseases primarily affecting growth, development, and the hormonal and metabolic systems. The aim of present study was to identify the prevalence of the ImpDis in Estonia, to describe trends in the live birth prevalence of these disorders between 1998 and 2016, and to compare...
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Aim Infections in early childhood are common reasons to seek medical attention. This study compares the prevalence of infections, and the use of antibiotics and antipyretic‐analgesics, in children from Finland, Estonia, and Russian Karelia. Methods Children with a genetically increased risk for type 1 diabetes (N=797) were observed from birth up t...
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Type 1 diabetes (T1D) results from autoimmune destruction of insulin‐producing beta cells in pancreatic islets. Various immune cell populations are involved in disease development and natural course. However, to our knowledge, so far there are no comprehensive comparative investigations of all main immune cell populations and their most important s...
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Background: The prevalence of atopy is associated with a Western lifestyle, as shown by studies comparing neighboring regions with different socioeconomic backgrounds. Atopy might reflect various conditions differing in their susceptibility to environmental factors. Objective: We sought to define phenotypes of atopic sensitization in early childho...
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Aim Our aim was to compare the presence of various common viruses (rhinovirus, enterovirus, adenovirus, Epstein‐Barr virus, cytomegalovirus, norovirus, parechovirus) in stool and nasal swab samples as well as virus‐specific antibodies in serum samples between children who developed coeliac disease and controls. Methods A case‐control study was est...
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Previous data about the role of viruses in the development of allergic IgE sensitization are contradictory. The aim of this study was to determine the possible associations between exposure to different viruses (rhinovirus, enterovirus, norovirus and parechovirus) during the first year of life and IgE sensitization. Viruses were analyzed from stool...
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Children develop rapidly during the first years of life, and understanding the sources and associated levels of variation in the serum proteome is important when using serum proteins as markers for childhood diseases. The aim of this study was to establish a reference model for the evolution of a healthy serum proteome during early childhood. Label...
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High titer autoantibodies produced by B lymphocytes are clinically important features of many common autoimmune diseases. APECED patients with deficient autoimmune regulator (AIRE) gene collectively display a broad repertoire of high titer autoantibodies, including some which are pathognomonic for major autoimmune diseases. AIRE deficiency severely...
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Significance Type 1 diabetes (T1D) is a major autoimmune disease with increasing incidence in recent years. In this study, we found that the intestinal viromes of cases were less diverse than those of controls. We identified eukaryotic viruses and bacteriophage contigs that are associated with the presence or absence of autoimmunity. These viruses...
Article
Background: The etiology of type 1 diabetes (T1D) is largely unknown. Infections and microbial exposures are believed to play a role in the pathogenesis and in the development of islet autoimmunity in genetically susceptible individuals. Objective: To assess the relationships between early childhood infections, islet autoimmunity, and progressio...
Article
Background: During the last several decades the prevalence of coeliac disease (CD) has increased worldwide. Aim: To compare the cumulative incidence of CD between Estonian and Finnish children and to identify the risk factors. Materials and methods: Children were recruited as part of the DIABIMMUNE Study. In the birth cohort (BC) 258 children...
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Full-text available
Colonization of the fetal and infant gut microbiome results in dynamic changes in diversity, which can impact disease susceptibility. To examine the relationship between human gut microbiome dynamics throughout infancy and type 1 diabetes (T1D), we examined a cohort of 33 infants genetically predisposed to T1D. Modeling trajectories of microbial ab...
Article
According to the hygiene hypothesis, the increasing incidence of autoimmune diseases in western countries may be explained by changes in early microbial exposure, leading to altered immune maturation. We followed gut microbiome development from birth until age three in 222 infants in Northern Europe, where early-onset autoimmune diseases are common...
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The production of several cytokines could be dysregulated in type 1 diabetes (T1D). In particular, the activation of T helper (Th) type 1 (Th1) cells has been proposed to underlie the autoimmune pathogenesis of the disease, although roles for inflammatory processes and the Th17 pathway have also been shown. Nevertheless, despite evidence for the ro...
Article
Type-1 diabetes (T1D) is a heterogeneous autoimmune disease, and there are pathogenetic differences between young- and adult-onset T1D patients. We hypothesized that the expression of genes involved in costimulatory immune system pathways in peripheral blood are differently regulated in young- and adult-onset T1D. Study group I consisted of 80 chil...
Article
OBJECTIVE: This study aimed at investigating the role of IGF-I and IGF binding protein 3 (IGFBP-3) in the development of β-cell autoimmunity. METHODS: Five hundred sixty-three subjects with HLA-conferred susceptibility to type 1 diabetes were monitored for signs of seroconversion to positivity for insulin and/or GAD, IA-2, and ZnT8 autoantibodies...
Article
Colonization of the fetal and infant gut microbiome results in dynamic changes in diversity, which can impact disease susceptibility. To examine the relationship between human gut microbiome dynamics throughout infancy and type 1 diabetes (T1D), we examined a cohort of 33 infants genetically predisposed to T1D. Modeling trajectories of microbial ab...
Article
A 17-year-old girl with McCune-Albright syndrome (MAS) was suspected of having central hypothyroidism based on an inappropriately normal thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH) and low free thyroxine (fT4). She was clinically euthyroid and her pituitary appeared normal on MRI. Treatment of hypothyroidism with levothyroxine resulted in suppression of TSH...
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Upregulation of IL-17 immunity and detrimental effects of IL-17 on human islets have been implicated in human type 1 diabetes. In animal models, the plasticity of Th1/Th17 cells contributes to the development of autoimmune diabetes. In this study, we demonstrate that the upregulation of the IL-17 pathway and Th1/Th17 plasticity in peripheral blood...
Article
Vitamin D has immunomodulatory properties, such as regulation of FOXP3 expression and regulatory T-cell activity. Our aim was to investigate whether plasma 25-hydroxyvitamin D [25(OH)D] concentrations associate with the development of β-cell autoimmunity and the transcriptional activity of FOXP3 or vitamin D3 convertase gene (CYP27B1) in CD4+ memor...
Article
Type 1 diabetes (T1D) is an autoimmune disease that is thought to be triggered by environmental factors in genetically susceptible individuals. Enteroviruses have been mentioned as the most probable induction component of the disease. Nevertheless, the literature is controversial regarding the association of T1D with viral infection and first-line...
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Coffin-Siris Syndrome (CSS, MIM 135900) is a rare genetic disorder, and mutations in ARID1B were recently shown to cause CSS. In this study, we report a novel ARID1B mutation identified by whole-exome sequencing in a patient with clinical features of CSS. We identified a novel heterozygous frameshift mutation c.1584delG in exon 2 of ARID1B (NM_0207...
Article
AIMS/HYPOTHESIS: An association between increased length/height and weight gain and risk of type 1 diabetes (T1D) has been reported in children. We set out to investigate the potential contribution of T1D human leukocyte antigen (HLA) risk genotypes to this association in two countries with a contrasting disease incidence. METHODS: In Estonia and F...
Article
Type-1 diabetes (T1D) is caused by T-cell mediated autoimmune reaction directed against the insulin-secreting beta cells. We hypothesized that in addition to antigen/MHC recognition the co-stimulatory B7 and CD28 pathway is also strongly affected in T1D. CD80, CD86, CD28, CTLA4, ICOS and CD25 mRNA expression was characterized in 49 newly diagnosed...
Article
Maturity-onset diabetes of the young type 2 (MODY2) is an autosomal dominant inherited disease caused by heterozygous inactivating mutations in the glucokinase (GCK) gene and is characterized by mild noninsulin-dependent fasting hyperglycemia. It is treated with diet only, and complications are extremely rare. We present a report of a family with M...
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Human leukocyte antigen (HLA) genotypes associated with increased risk for type 1 diabetes mellitus (T1D) have been reported to be associated with increased birth weight. We set out to investigate the association between HLA haplotypes conferring risk for T1D and birth weight and search for possible differences in the strength of these associations...
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Birth trauma, but not postnatal trauma, has been recognized as a cause of cerebral infarction in newborns. We report a case of cerebral infarction in a 27-day-old girl after a car accident. During the car accident, the child was properly restrained to the child's safety seat. The patient was admitted to the hospital for observation because of prono...
Article
This is a follow-up report of a girl, 5 years 4 months old, with classic symptoms of chronic paroxysmal hemicrania from the age of 2 years 3 months who had a complete response to indomethacin therapy. The patient suffered from frequent episodes of severe unilateral headaches for 1 year and 10 months before the diagnosis of chronic paroxysmal hemicr...

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