Aleksandar Stulhofer

Aleksandar Stulhofer
University of Zagreb · Department of Sociology, Sexology Unit

PhD

About

220
Publications
109,376
Reads
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3,962
Citations
Citations since 2016
102 Research Items
2967 Citations
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Introduction
Professor of Sociology at the Faculty of Humanities and Social Sciences, University of Zagreb, Croatia; Chair of the Sexology Unit; member of the Croatian Association for Sexual Therapy
Additional affiliations
April 1988 - present
University of Zagreb
Position
  • Professor (Full)

Publications

Publications (220)
Article
Full-text available
This qualitative study explores experiences of intimacy and sexuality during the first phase of the COVID-19 pandemic of 3357 participants from Croatia, the Czech Republic, the Netherlands, France, Germany, Portugal, Sweden, and Turkey. Data were collected through open-ended questions within a survey on sexuality during the pandemic. Based on a ref...
Chapter
In this chapter, the authors critically review the body of research on adolescents’ and emerging adults’ pornography use and its consequences. We start with a number of theoretical concepts—including social learning and comparison theories, sexual scripting, self-objectification theory, the confluence model, the value congruence model, cultivation...
Article
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Background and aims The purpose of this study was to examine the prevalence and correlates of indicators consistent with Compulsive Sexual Behavior Disorder (CSBD)—defined and operationalized according to the ICD-11 guidelines—in a large ( n = 4,633; 50.5% male; 49,5% female) probability-based German national sample. Methods Participants were aske...
Article
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Due to COVID-19 pandemic, different restrictive measures in terms of physical distancing and lockdowns have been introduced in most European countries, affecting all facets of social life. Currently, little is known about how partnered individuals perceive changes in their sexual life during this complex emergency. This study explored retrospective...
Article
Rationale Although there is some evidence that religious faith may offer protection against sexual risk taking in adolescence and emerging adulthood, no attempts have been made to systematically quantify the association. Objective Using data from studies conducted in the 2000–2020 period, this meta-analysis aimed to estimate the link between relig...
Article
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Background Impulsivity is regarded as a key factor underpinning hypersexuality like-conditions. However, impulsivity is a multifaceted construct, and existing research has not been capturing such complexity, which includes the effects of domain-general and domain-specific impulsivity in hypersexuality. Aim The aim of this study was to test the pre...
Article
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In longitudinal studies of pornography use, selective loss of participants who may be more vulnerable to the effects of pornography than their peers is a serious concern. To explore the potential for such selective dropout, we used data from two independent large-scale panel studies of adolescents’ pornography use. Of the three types of attrition—e...
Article
Objectives: The study explored characteristics associated with the self-assessed effects of pornography use on one’s personal sex life. Methods: Data were collected in a probability-based sample of Norwegian adults (n = 4,160). Results: Most participants (41.3%) did not believe that pornography affected their sex life. More participants reported po...
Article
Although online pornography use appears to be a mainstream activity, there is little information, particularly outside of the USA, about how consumers perceive its impact on their sexuality. Considering increasing concerns about pornography use, this lack of evidence has sociocultural and clinical ramifications - especially because the recently pro...
Article
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More frequent internet pornography use is often associated with decreased sexual satisfaction. However, individuals who use internet pornography more often can experience better relationship outcomes, depending on how they use it in the context of their relationship. Indeed, internet pornography use with the partner seems to be positively associate...
Article
Objective: Despite the high prevalence of adolescents’ pornography use and increasing societal concerns about it, the examination of problematic pornography use (PPU) among this population is still scarce, potentially due to the lack of well-validated, reliable measures. The aims of the present study were to validate a short, theory-based measure o...
Article
This study explores the European North-South differences in older partnered individuals' silencing of the sexual self and its links to relational and individual well-being. A web survey was conducted among partnered individuals aged 65 years or above in Norway and Croatia. There were 368 (women: 37.8%, response rate: 22%) and 359 (women: 34.5%, res...
Article
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Online sexual harassment (OSH) appears to be a relatively frequent phenomenon, particularly for older adolescents. It is also a gendered experience. Compared to their male peers, female adolescents are more likely to experience OSH and find it upsetting. This study sought to explore the role of resilience in explaining the association between onlin...
Article
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According to confluence model theorizing, pornography use contributes to sexual violence, but only among men who are predisposed to sexual aggression. Support for this assertion is limited to cross-sectional research, which cannot speak to the temporal ordering of assumed causes and consequences. To address this issue, we employed generalized linea...
Article
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A large number of partnered individuals regularly use or are in a relationship with someone who uses pornography. However, knowledge concerning the association between pornography use and partnered sexual health-sexual satisfaction, distress, and function-is fragmentary. The current study used an event-level dyadic design to examine the association...
Article
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Diljem svijeta vjerske zajednice i laička vjerski orijentirana udruženja potiču vjernike, osobito mlade, na aktivan angažman u promicanju i zaštiti religijskih vrijednosti. U Hrvatskoj se vjerski društveni angažman promovira i prakticira već desetljećima, no taj je iskaz religioznosti ostao posve neistraženim. U svrhu stvaranja pretpostavki za izuč...
Article
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There has been little comparative, cross-cultural research on sexual difficulties and associated distress, and factors associated with these, among older women. Therefore, the aim of this study was to investigate prevalence rates of sexual difficulties, distress related to these difficulties, and associated socio-demographic, relational, and health...
Article
Although considerable research has examined the antecedents of adolescents’ pornography use (PU), little data exist on the underlying mechanisms of problematic pornography use (PPU) in adolescence. To bridge this gap, the current longitudinal study examined the long-term associations between adolescent boys’ PU frequency, PPU, and theory-based pred...
Article
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There is evidence that emotional intimacy can buffer the distress associated with sexual difficulties. Considering that older adults are at an increased risk of chronic illness, many of which (including their medical treatment) can impact their sexual well-being, the link between intimacy and sexual distress may be particularly relevant for older c...
Article
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Even though sexual activity frequently takes place with another person, research rarely focuses on how partners influence each other’s sexual lives. This study used the sexual dyad to compare the concept of actual versus perceived discrepancy in sexual interest and explored how each is related to older partnered individuals’ sexual satisfaction. Fu...
Article
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To address growing concerns about the role of pornography use in adolescents’ sexual socialization, we explored the role of callousness, relative to pornography use, in male adolescents’ self-reported sexual aggressiveness. Two competing conceptualizations of this role were tested using data from a larger longitudinal research project on sexualized...
Article
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The manner in which individuals report their sexual attraction, self-label their sexual identity, or behave in sexual situations can vary over time, and particularly, adolescents may change their reported sexual attraction or sexual orientation identity over the course of their development. It is important to better understand the social factors th...
Article
Background Pornography use may become problematic for 1–6% of the people and may be associated with adverse consequences leading to treatment-seeking behavior. Although the identification of the central symptoms of problematic pornography use (PPU) may inform treatment strategies, no prior study has applied the network approach to examine the sympt...
Article
Sexting, the digital transmission of sexual messages and images, has become a topic of increased interest and concern. Drawing largely on cross-sectional studies, the literature on associations between sexting and psychosocial outcomes remains inconsistent. The current longitudinal study investigated associations between adolescent girls’ sexting a...
Article
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Sexual well-being is an important part of life for many people aged 60 and older. However, older adults often face barriers to seeking and receiving help for sexual difficulties. This study used data from a probability survey (n=3820) on sexuality and ageing to examine help-seeking in 60-75 year-olds in Norway, Denmark, Belgium, and Portugal. More...
Article
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Research on sex in later life has been concerned with documenting that older people continue to have sex and establishing the links between good health and sexual activity. Although sexual avoidance is common in clinical and nonclinical populations of older adults, little attention has been given to the motives for sexual avoidance. To address gaps...
Article
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Body image issues can affect all domains of sexual functioning. The aim of this study was to examine how, in a sociocultural context where physical and sexual attractiveness is equated with young and slim body ideals, appearance dissatisfaction and importance are related to sexual satisfaction in older adults in four European countries. A cross-sec...
Article
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The ways in which the discrepancy between one’s own interest in sex and that of one’s partner may affect personal sexual satisfaction has rarely been systematically studied, especially among older adults. Previous research among younger adults indicates that a discrepancy in sexual desire can be detrimental in terms of several relationship outcomes...
Article
Objectives: In spite of growing concerns about adolescents’ pornography use, research on problematic pornography use (PPU) in this population is scarce. Method: We examined the structure and prevalence of PPU symptoms across six months in 337 male Croatian adolescents. Results: Network analysis indicated that associations among PPU symptoms were hi...
Article
Although research in older individuals’ sexual health is steadily increasing, the nature of, and predictors related to, their distress about changes in sexual function have not been well studied. Using data from sexually active and partnered 1,047 Norwegian and Danish women and men aged 60-75 years, this study employed network analysis to explore t...
Article
There is growing public concern that sexually explicit material (SEM) negatively affects women, given that, more often than not, SEM promotes women’s sexual objectification, passivity and submission to male desire. Focusing on hyperfemininity and sexual agency, as possible respectively negative and positive outcomes of SEM use, using a sample of 55...
Article
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Sexual health research tends to focus on problematic aspects of sexuality. This also applies to research on sexuality in older men and women, where attention has been primarily on the negative impact of aging. To contribute to the emerging interest in positive (successful) sexual aging, we aimed to: (1) further validate a recently developed 5-dimen...
Article
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Introduction There is a lack of theoretical and empirical knowledge on how sexual desire functions and interacts in a relationship. Aim To present an overview of the current conceptualization and operationalization of sexual desire discrepancy (SDD), providing clinical recommendations on behalf of the European Society of Sexual Medicine. Methods...
Article
Divorce is associated with a range of negative psychological consequences, including increased symptoms of anxiety, depression, and somatization. The current study presents the results of a 1-year longitudinal randomized controlled trial study of the Cooperation After Divorce online intervention platform for adults going through a divorce. Particip...
Article
Background The ease of access to pornography has made its use common among adolescents. Although sexual and gender minority (SGM) (eg, gay, transgender) adolescents may be more prone to use pornography owing to sexual orientation–related information seeking and/or scarcity of potential romantic or sexual partners, relatively little attention has be...
Article
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Although there is now a substantial body of research suggesting a positive association between the exposure to sexualized content in the media and self-objectification/body surveillance, most of the studies have been cross-sectional, conducted in exclusively female samples, focused on the use of traditional media (e.g., printed magazines and TV), a...
Article
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Despite increasing concerns that pornography decreases adolescents’ well-being, existing empirical support for this position is largely limited to cross-sectional studies. To explore possible links between adolescent pornography use and psychological well-being more systematically, this study focused on parallel dynamics in pornography use, self-es...
Article
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Objectives Given the paucity of studies focusing on testosterone (T) and adolescent sexuality, and their conflicting findings, we aimed to empirically address two competing conceptualizations of the link between T and sexual behavior in adolescence: (1) the T as sexual motivator and (2) the T as competition-sensitive sexual motivator models. Metho...
Preprint
According to Confluence Model theorizing, pornography use contributes to sexual violence, but only among men who are predisposed to sexual aggression. Support for this assertion is limited to cross-sectional research, which cannot speak to the temporal ordering of assumed causes and consequences. To address this issue we employed generalized linear...
Article
The global popularity of online social networks (OSN) prompted concerns about adverse effects on adolescents' psychological well-being. To further the understanding of the relation between adolescents' use of OSN and life satisfaction, we used data from 701 female and 456 male Croatian high-school students collected over a period of 23 months. Mult...
Article
Full-text available
Different forms of sexual expression can be beneficial to health and quality of life of older adults. While research on sexual well-being and aging has focused primarily on negative dynamics, this approach may not fit well the sexual reality of aging men and women. We used data from a probability-based survey carried out in 2016 among men and women...
Article
The rising prevalence of (online) pornography use among, mostly male, adolescents revived social concerns regarding possible effects of pornography use on sexual aggressiveness. Given the paucity of longitudinal explorations of this link, this study focused on the following two research questions: (Q1) Is pornography use during middle to late adole...
Article
Although communication about sexuality is a significant pathway through which peers influence adolescent sexual development, little research has examined the role of peer networks in the use of sexualized media. We applied a social network approach to assess the role of close peers in adolescent pornography use and sexting in a sample of Croatian h...
Chapter
Little is known about possible impact of sexually explicit material (SEM) or pornography use on young people’s sexual socialization. The efforts so far have been characteristically brief (one-item measures assessing self-rated influence of pornography on one’s sex life were often used) and direct – thus vulnerable to normative expectations and soci...
Article
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The unprecedented accessibility and affordability of online sexually explicit material (SEM) has facilitated widespread use among adolescents and growing concerns over adverse reproductive health outcomes. Although SEM-induced risky sexual behavior is among key concerns, there is a paucity of longitudinal research addressing this issue. This study...
Article
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Adolescents are at increased risk for sexual victimization compared to other age groups and sexual abuse in adolescence is associated with negative health outcomes in adulthood. Sexual experiences are often conceptualized as either consensual or coercive so little is known about adolescents who are unsure whether their negative experience constitut...
Article
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Although the importance of sexuality and physical intimacy for well-being of older adults has been recognized, the role of sexuality in successful aging (SA) has been largely neglected. Building on our previous work, here we further validated a three-dimensional model of SA and examined its associations with sexual satisfaction and change in sexual...
Article
Viewing sexually explicit materials (SEM) has become a normal sexual experience for many adolescents, and there are those who perceive that SEM has impacted them in a positive manner. There are growing concerns among parents, educators, and medical professionals over adolescents’ use of SEM, however, which include fears that SEM distorts young peop...
Article
Pornography has been theorized to affect sexual satisfaction for decades, yet only two prospective studies, both conducted in the Netherlands, have explored this link among adolescents. Given the unprecedented availability of (online) sexually explicit content and the potential importance of its relationship to sexual satisfaction for young people,...
Article
Background: Among older men, comparable cross-cultural investigations of sexual problems and associated distress that also include a multitude of relevant explanatory variables of these sexual problem and related distress are rare in the research literature. Aims: To investigate prevalence rates of sexual problems and associated distress among o...
Article
Full-text available
The aim of this article was to describe partnered and non-partnered sexual activity and sexual satisfaction in older men and women from Norway, Denmark, Belgium, and Portugal, and to explore sociodemographic correlates of sexual activity and satisfaction. Data were collected in 2016 using postal, anonymous questionnaires in probability samples of t...
Article
A recent longitudinal study reported a negative association between the use of sexually explicit materials (SEM) and academic achievement among early adolescent Belgian boys. Given that academic achievement is related to the attainment of future educational and professional goals, these results suggest that SEM use may have long-term adverse outcom...
Article
Full-text available
Nezadovoljstvo tjelesnim izgledom u razdoblju adolescencije rizični je čimbenik za razvoj poremećaja hranjenja, niskog samopouzdanja i depresije. Dosadašnja istraživanja ukazuju na zaštitnu ulogu obiteljske komunikacije i podrške spram nezadovoljstva tjelesnim izgledom. Međutim, manje je poznato kakav je odnos između zadovoljstva tjelesnim izgledom...
Article
Content progression thesis (CPT), a direct application of conditioning theories to conceptualizing exposure to pornography, proposes that pornography use leads to viewing increasingly more extreme material due to the effect of satiation. To test this assumption, association between the frequency of pornography use and the preference for violent and...
Article
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Objectives: The aim of this biobehavioral longitudinal study was to assess the association between sexually explicit material (SEM) use and risky sexual behavior among Croatian adolescents (n = 577). Methods: The data were collected over the period of 15 months. Conditional dual-domain latent growth modeling was used. Results: Male adolescents’ ini...
Article
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The contemporary technological and communicational context in which adolescents row up is characterized by easy access to sexually explicit material (SEM), which brings up numerous concerns about possible negative effects of SEM use on their psychosocial development. Regarding various unwanted behavioral and emotional outcomes, the protective role...
Article
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Introduction: There are concerns that pornography use increases adolescents' sexual permissiveness, leading to sexual risk-taking. In contrast to most longitudinal explorations of the relationship between adolescent pornography use and sexual permissiveness, which were carried out in highly liberal and permissive societies, we aimed to re-assess t...
Article
Introduction: Despite the popularity and analytical relevance of the concept of successful aging, little efforts have been made to address its relationship to sexuality in older individuals. Aim: To explore the relationship between successful aging and the (retrospectively assessed) change in sexual interest and enjoyment in the past 10 years, u...
Article
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Cross-sectional evidence suggests that pornography use is related to lower mental well-being among adolescents but it remains unclear if changes in well-being are related to the dynamics of pornography use within this population. We examined the relationship between pornography use, subjective well-being, symptoms of depressions and anxiety, and se...
Article
Longitudinal survey design is the preferred method for the robust assessment of outcomes associated with socially undesirable or potentially harmful sexual behaviors. However, repeated measurement may induce the question–behavior effect (QBE)—the phenomenon where asking about a behavior changes the probability of engaging in the behavior in the fut...
Article
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The use of sexually explicit material (SEM) has become a part of adolescent sexual socialization, at least in the Western world. Adolescent and young people’s SEM use has been associated with risky sexual behaviors, which has recently resulted in policy debates about restricting access to SEM. Such development seems to suggest a crisis of the preve...
Article
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The versions of Figures 2-4 presented in the original version of this article were incomplete. In all three figures, structural paths were omitted. The article has been updated to provide the correct figures, which are also presented here.
Article
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Sexual agency (i.e., the ability to make decisions and assertions related to one’s own sexuality) is associated with sexual health enhancing outcomes. Given that young women are expected to act passively, rather than with agency when it comes to sexual encounters, the present study aimed to explore whether parental support, knowledge, and communica...
Article
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This study explores whether neo-sexist attitudes mediate the association between sexualized media use (including pornography) and rape myths. In a 3-wave panel of Croatian high-school students (136 male and 326 female adolescents), the mediation hypothesis was not confirmed. Moreover, the association between neo-sexism and rape myths was conformed...