Alejandro Suarez Mascareño

Alejandro Suarez Mascareño
Instituto de Astrofísica de Canarias | IAC · Department of Astrophysics Research

PhD

About

135
Publications
8,180
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1,360
Citations
Introduction
Additional affiliations
March 2020 - present
Instituto de Astrofísica de Canarias
Position
  • PostDoc Position
February 2019 - February 2020
Instituto de Astrofísica de Canarias
Position
  • PostDoc Position
November 2016 - January 2019
University of Geneva
Position
  • PostDoc Position
Education
September 2012 - September 2014
Universidad de La Laguna
Field of study
  • Astronomy
October 2004 - November 2011
University of Oviedo
Field of study
  • Physics

Publications

Publications (135)
Article
Full-text available
We investigate the activity induced signals related to rotation and magnetic cycles in late type stars (FGKM). We analyse the Ca II H&K, the H α and the radial velocity time-series of 55 stars using the spectra from the HARPS public database and the light-curves provided by the ASAS survey. We search for short term and long term periodic signals in...
Article
Full-text available
We report the discovery of a super-Earth orbiting at the inner edge of the habitable zone of the star GJ 625 based on the analysis of the radial-velocity (RV) time series from the HARPS-N spectrograph, consisting in 151 HARPS-N measurements taken over 3.5 yr. GJ 625 b is a planet with a minimum mass M sin $i$ of 2.82 $\pm$ 0.51 M$_{\oplus}$ with an...
Article
Full-text available
We report the discovery of a system of two super-Earths orbiting the moderately active K-dwarf HD 176986. This work is part of the RoPES RV program of G- and K-type stars, which combines radial velocities (RVs) from the HARPS and HARPS-N spectrographs to search for short-period terrestrial planets. HD 176986 b and c are super-Earth planets with mas...
Preprint
Full-text available
We aim to confirm the presence of Proxima b using independent measurements obtained with the new ESPRESSO spectrograph, and refine the planetary parameters taking advantage of its improved precision. We analysed 63 spectroscopic ESPRESSO observations of Proxima taken during 2019. We obtained radial velocity measurements with a typical radial veloci...
Article
Full-text available
Current theories of planetary evolution predict that infant giant planets have large radii and very low densities before they slowly contract to reach their final size after about several hundred million years. These theoretical expectations remain untested so far as the detection and characterization of very young planets is extremely challenging...
Preprint
Atmospheric studies at high spectral resolution have shown the presence of molecules, neutral and ionised metals, and hydrogen in the transmission spectrum of ultra-hot Jupiters, and have started to probe the dynamics of their atmospheres. We analyse the transmission spectrum of MASCARA-1b, one of the densest ultra-hot Jupiters orbiting a bright (V...
Preprint
Dynamical scalar fields in an effective four-dimensional field theory are naturally expected to couple to the rest of the theory's degrees of freedom, unless some new symmetry is postulated to suppress these couplings. In particular, a coupling to the electromagnetic sector will lead to spacetime variations of the fine-structure constant, $\alpha$....
Preprint
Full-text available
The detection and characterization of an increasing variety of exoplanets has been in part possible thanks to the continuous development of high-resolution, stable spectrographs, and using the Doppler radial-velocity (RV) method. The Cross Correlation Function (CCF) method is one of the traditional approaches for RV extraction. More recently, templ...
Preprint
Full-text available
We investigated the presence of planetary companions around the nearby (7.6 pc) and bright ($V=9$ mag) early-type M dwarf Gl 514, analysing 540 radial velocities collected over nearly 25 years with the HIRES, HARPS, and CARMENES spectrographs. The data are affected by time-correlated signals at the level of 2-3 ms$^{-1}$ due to stellar activity, th...
Preprint
Full-text available
The spectrograph ESPRESSO obtained updated limits on the variation of the fine-structure constant, $\alpha$, through measurements along the line of sight of a bright quasar with unprecedented precision and accuracy. These impose new constraints on cosmological models with a varying $\alpha$. We assume such a model where the electromagnetic sector i...
Preprint
We present the complete Bayesian statistical analysis of the HArps-n red Dwarf Exoplanet Survey (HADES), which monitored the radial velocities of a large sample of M dwarfs with HARPS-N at TNG, over the last 6 years. The targets were selected in a narrow range of spectral types from M0 to M3, $0.3$ M$_\odot < M_\star < 0.71$ M$_\odot$, in order to...
Preprint
Full-text available
Proxima Centauri is the closest star to the Sun. This small, low-mass, mid M dwarf is known to host an Earth-mass exoplanet with an orbital period of 11.2 days within the habitable zone, as well as a long-period planet candidate with an orbital period of close to 5 years. We report on the analysis of a large set of observations taken with the ESPRE...
Article
Transiting planets at young ages are key targets for improving our understanding of the evolution of exo-atmospheres. We present results of a new X-ray observation of V 1298 Tau with XMM-Newton, aimed to determine more accurately the high-energy irradiation of the four planets orbiting this pre-main-sequence star, and the possible variability due t...
Article
Context. Proxima Centauri is the closest star to the Sun. This small, low-mass, mid M dwarf is known to host an Earth-mass exoplanet with an orbital period of 11.2 days within the habitable zone, as well as a long-period planet candidate with an orbital period of close to 5 yr. Aims. We report on the analysis of a large set of observations taken wi...
Preprint
In this paper we introduce CaRM, a semi-automatic code for the retrieval of broadband transmission spectra of transiting planets through the chromatic Rossiter-McLaughlin method. We applied it to HARPS and ESPRESSO observations of two exoplanets to retrieve the transmission spectrum and we analyze its fitting transmission models. We used the strong...
Preprint
The strong intervening absorption system at redshift 1.15 towards the very bright quasar HE 0515$-$4414 is the most studied absorber for measuring possible cosmological variations in the fine-structure constant, $\alpha$. We observed HE 0515$-$4414 for 16.1$\,$h with the Very Large Telescope and present here the first constraint on relative variati...
Preprint
Transiting planets at young ages are key targets for improving our understanding of the evolution of exo-atmospheres. We present results of a new X-ray observation of V1298 Tau with XMM-Newton, aimed to determine more accurately the high-energy irradiation of the four planets orbiting this pre-main-sequence star, and the possible variability due to...
Preprint
Full-text available
Current theories of planetary evolution predict that infant giant planets have large radii and very low densities before they slowly contract to reach their final size after about several hundred million years. These theoretical expectations remain untested to date, despite the increasing number of exoplanetary discoveries, as the detection and cha...
Preprint
Full-text available
Comparisons of the alignment of exoplanets with a common host star can be used to distinguish among concurrent evolution scenarios. However, multi-planet systems usually host mini-Neptunes and super-Earths, whose size make orbital architecture measurements challenging. We introduce the Rossiter-McLaughlin effect Revolutions technique, which can acc...
Preprint
Multiband photometric transit observations or low-resolution spectroscopy (spectro-photometry) are normally used to retrieve the broadband transmission spectra of transiting exoplanets in order to assess the chemical composition of their atmospheres. In this paper, we present an alternative approach for recovering the broadband transmission spectra...
Article
Context. The ESPRESSO spectrograph is a new powerful tool developed to detect and characterize extrasolar planets. Its design allows an unprecedented radial velocity precision (down to a few tens of cm s ⁻¹ ) and long-term thermomechanical stability. Aims. We present the first stand-alone detection of an extrasolar planet by blind radial velocity s...
Preprint
Full-text available
The ESPRESSO spectrograph is a new powerful tool to detect and characterize extrasolar planets. Its design allows unprecedented radial velocity precision (down to a few tens of cm/s) and long-term thermo-mechanical stability. We present the first standalone detection of an extrasolar planet by blind radial velocity search using ESPRESSO and aim at...
Article
In recent years, the advent of a new generation of radial velocity instruments has allowed us to detect planets with increasingly lower mass and to break the one Earth-mass barrier. Here we report a new milestone in this context by announcing the detection of the lowest-mass planet measured so far using radial velocities: L 98-59 b, a rocky planet...
Article
We report on precise Doppler measurements of L231-32 (TOI-270), a nearby M dwarf (d = 22 pc, M⋆ = 0.39 M⊙, R⋆ = 0.38 R⊙), which hosts three transiting planets that were recently discovered using data from the Transiting Exoplanet Survey Satellite (TESS). The three planets are 1.2, 2.4, and 2.1 times the size of Earth and have orbital periods of 3.4...
Preprint
Full-text available
The advent of a new generation of radial velocity instruments has allowed us to break the one Earth-mass barrier. We report a new milestone in this context with the detection of the lowest-mass planet measured so far using radial velocities: L 98-59 b, a rocky planet with half the mass of Venus. It is part of a system composed of three known transi...
Preprint
Context. It is now well-established that small, rocky planets are common around low-mass stars. However, the detection of such planets is challenged by the short-term activity of the host stars. Aims. The HArps-N red Dwarf Exoplanet Survey (HADES) program is a long-term project at the Telescopio Nazionale Galileo aimed at the monitoring of nearby,...
Preprint
Full-text available
Current theories of planetary evolution predict that infant giant planets have large radii and very low densities before they slowly contract to reach their final size after about several hundred million years 1, 2. These theoretical expectations remain untested to date, despite the increasing number of exoplanetary discoveries, as the detection an...
Article
Context. Transiting sub-Neptune-type planets, with radii approximately between 2 and 4 R⊕, are of particular interest as their study allows us to gain insight into the formation and evolution of a class of planets that are not found in our Solar System. Aims. We exploit the extreme radial velocity (RV) precision of the ultra-stable echelle spectrog...
Preprint
Context. The high number of super-Earth and Earth-like planets in the habitable zone (HZ) detected around M-dwarf stars in the last years has revealed these stellar objects to be the key for planetary radial velocity (RV) searches. Aims. Using the HARPS-N spectrograph within The HArps-n red Dwarf Exoplanet Survey (HADES) we reach the precision need...
Article
Context. M-dwarfs have proven to be ideal targets for planetary radial velocity (RV) searches due to their higher planet-star mass contrast, which favors the detection of low-mass planets. The abundance of super-Earth and Earth-like planets detected around this type of star motivates further such research on hosts without reported planetary compani...
Preprint
M-dwarfs have proven to be ideal targets for planetary radial velocity (RV) searches due to their higher planet-star mass contrast. The HADES and CARMENES programs aim to carry out extensive searches of exoplanetary systems around this type of stars in the northern hemisphere, allowing us to address statistically the properties of the planets orbit...
Preprint
Full-text available
[Abridged] We exploit the extreme radial velocity (RV) precision of the ultra-stable echelle spectrograph ESPRESSO on the VLT to unveil the physical properties of the transiting sub-Neptune TOI-130 b, uncovered by TESS orbiting the nearby, bright, late F-type star HD 5278 (TOI-130) with a period $P_{\rm b}=14.3$. We use 43 ESPRESSO high-resolution...
Preprint
Full-text available
Determining the architecture of multi-planetary systems is one of the cornerstones of understanding planet formation and evolution. Resonant systems are especially important as the fragility of their orbital configuration ensures that no significant scattering or collisional event has taken place since the earliest formation phase when the parent p...
Preprint
We observed two transits of the iconic gas giant HD 209458b between 380 and 780 nm, using the high-resolution ESPRESSO spectrograph. The derived planetary transmission spectrum exhibits features at all wavelengths where the parent star shows strong absorption lines, for example, NaI, MgI, FeI, FeII, CaI, VI, H$\alpha$, and KI. We interpreted these...
Preprint
We report on precise Doppler measurements of L231-32 (TOI-270), a nearby M dwarf ($d=22$ pc, $M_\star = 0.39$ M$_\odot$, $R_\star = 0.38$ R$_\odot$), which hosts three transiting planets that were recently discovered using data from the Transiting Exoplanet Survey Satellite (TESS). The three planets are 1.1, 2.3, and 2.0 times the size of Earth and...
Article
Full-text available
Determining the architecture of multi-planetary systems is one of the cornerstones of understanding planet formation and evolution. Resonant systems are especially important as the fragility of their orbital configuration ensures that no significant scattering or collisional event has taken place since the earliest formation phase when the parent p...
Article
Context. Most of our current knowledge on planet formation is still based on the analysis of main sequence, solar-type stars. Conversely, detailed chemical studies of large samples of M dwarfs hosting planets are still missing. Aims. Correlations exist between the presence of different types of planets around FGK stars and metallicity, individual c...
Article
Context. The detection and characterization of exoplanet atmospheres is currently one of the main drivers pushing the development of new observing facilities. In this context, high-resolution spectrographs are proving their potential and showing that high-resolution spectroscopy will be paramount in this field. Aims. We aim to make use of ESPRESSO...
Preprint
Full-text available
Observations of metal absorption systems in the spectra of distant quasars allow to constrain a possible variation of the fine-structure constant throughout the history of the Universe. Such a test poses utmost demands on the wavelength accuracy and previous studies were limited by systematics in the spectrograph wavelength calibration. A substanti...
Preprint
Aims. We report on ESPRESSO high-resolution transmission spectroscopic observations of two primary transits of the highly-irradiated, ultra-hot Jupiter-size planet WASP-76b. We investigate the presence of several key atomic and molecular features of interest that may reveal the atmospheric properties of the planet. Methods. We extracted two transmi...
Article
Context. The study of exoplanet atmospheres is essential for understanding the formation, evolution, and composition of exoplanets. The transmission spectroscopy technique is playing a significant role in this domain. In particular, the combination of state-of-the-art spectrographs at low- and high-spectral resolution is key to our understanding of...
Article
Full-text available
Aims. We study the 2D spectral line profile of the High Accuracy Radial Velocity Planet Searcher (HARPS), measuring its variation with position across the detector and with changing line intensity. The characterization of the line profile and its variations are important for achieving the precision of the wavelength scales of 10 ⁻¹⁰ or 3.0 cm s ⁻¹...
Preprint
The detection and characterization of exoplanet atmospheres is currently one of the main drivers pushing the development of new observing facilities. In this context, high-resolution spectrographs are {proving} their potential and showing that high-resolution spectroscopy will be paramount in this field. We aim to make use of ESPRESSO high-resoluti...
Preprint
Full-text available
Aims. We study the 2D spectral line profile of HARPS (High Accuracy Radial Velocity Planet Searcher), measuring its variation with position across the detector and with changing line intensity. The characterization of the line profile and its variations are important for achieving the precision of the wavelength scales of 10^{-10} or 3.0 cm/s neces...
Article
This paper reports on the detailed characterization of the K2-111 planetary system with K2, WASP, and ASAS-SN photometry, as well as high-resolution spectroscopic data from HARPS-N and ESPRESSO. The host, K2-111, is confirmed to be a mildly evolved (log g = 4.17), iron-poor ([Fe/H] = −0.46), but alpha-enhanced ([α/Fe]=0.27), chromospherically quiet...
Preprint
WASP-121b is one of the most studied Ultra-hot Jupiters: many recent analyses of its atmosphere report interesting features at different wavelength ranges. In this paper we analyze one transit of WASP-121b acquired with the high-resolution spectrograph ESPRESSO at VLT in 1-telescope mode, and one partial transit taken during the commissioning of th...
Article
Context. The general theory of relativity predicts the redshift of spectral lines in the solar photosphere as a consequence of the gravitational potential of the Sun. This effect can be measured from a solar disk-integrated flux spectrum of the Sun’s reflected light on Solar System bodies. Aims. The laser frequency comb (LFC) calibration system att...
Preprint
Most of our current knowledge on planet formation is still based on the analysis of main-sequence, solar-type stars. Conversely, detailed chemical studies of large samples of M-dwarf planet hosts are still missing. We develop for the first time a methodology to determine stellar abundances of elements others than iron for M dwarf stars from high-re...
Preprint
Full-text available
The study of exoplanet atmospheres is essential to understand the formation, evolution and composition of exoplanets. The transmission spectroscopy technique is playing a significant role in this domain. In particular, the combination of state-of-the-art spectrographs at low- and high-spectral resolution is key to our understanding of atmospheric s...
Preprint
Full-text available
This paper reports on the detailed characterisation of the K2-111 planetary system with K2, WASP, and ASAS-SN photometry as well as high-resolution spectroscopic data from HARPS-N and ESPRESSO. The host, K2-111, is confirmed to be a mildly evolved ($\log g=4.17$), iron-poor ([Fe/H]$=-0.46$), but alpha-enhanced ([$\alpha$/Fe]$=0.27$), chromospherica...
Preprint
ESPRESSO is the new high-resolution spectrograph of ESO's Very-Large Telescope (VLT). It was designed for ultra-high radial-velocity precision and extreme spectral fidelity with the aim of performing exoplanet research and fundamental astrophysical experiments with unprecedented precision and accuracy. It is able to observe with any of the four Uni...
Preprint
The General Theory of Relativity predicts the redshift of spectral lines in the solar photosphere, as a consequence of the gravitational potential of the Sun. This effect can be measured from a solar disk-integrated flux spectrum of the Sun's reflected light on solar system bodies. The laser frequency comb (LFC) calibration system attached to the H...
Preprint
Full-text available
The bright star $\pi$ Men was chosen as the first target for a radial velocity follow-up to test the performance of ESPRESSO, the new high-resolution spectrograph at the ESO's Very-Large Telescope (VLT). The star hosts a multi-planet system (a transiting 4 M$_\oplus$ planet at $\sim$0.07 au, and a sub-stellar companion on a $\sim$2100-day eccentric...
Article
Context. An accurate characterization of the known exoplanet population is key to understanding the origin and evolution of planetary systems. Determining true planetary masses through the radial velocity (RV) method is expected to experience a great improvement thanks to the availability of ultra-stable echelle spectrographs. Aims. We took advanta...
Preprint
Full-text available
We characterized the transiting planetary system orbiting the G2V star K2-38 using the new-generation echelle spectrograph ESPRESSO. We carried out a photometric analysis of the available K2 photometric light curve of this star to measure the radius of its two known planets. Using 43 ESPRESSO high-precision radial velocity measurements taken over t...
Article
Full-text available
Laser frequency combs (LFCs) are well on their way to becoming the next-generation calibration sources for precision astronomical spectroscopy1,2,3,4,5,6. This development is considered key in the hunt for low-mass rocky exoplanets around solar-type stars whose discovery with the radial-velocity method requires cm s–1 Doppler precision⁷. In order t...
Article
Full-text available
Context. The discovery of Proxima b marked one of the most important milestones in exoplanetary science in recent years. Yet the limited precision of the available radial velocity data and the difficulty in modelling the stellar activity calls for a confirmation of the Earth-mass planet. Aims. We aim to confirm the presence of Proxima b using indep...
Article
Full-text available
Ultra-hot giant exoplanets receive thousands of times Earth’s insolation1,2. Their high-temperature atmospheres (greater than 2,000 kelvin) are ideal laboratories for studying extreme planetary climates and chemistry3–5. Daysides are predicted to be cloud-free, dominated by atomic species6 and substantially hotter than nightsides5,7,8. Atoms are ex...
Preprint
Full-text available
Ultra-hot giant exoplanets receive thousands of times Earth's insolation. Their high-temperature atmospheres (>2,000 K) are ideal laboratories for studying extreme planetary climates and chemistry. Daysides are predicted to be cloud-free, dominated by atomic species and substantially hotter than nightsides. Atoms are expected to recombine into mole...
Preprint
Full-text available
Laser frequency combs (LFCs) are well on their way to becoming the next-generation calibration sources for precision astronomical spectroscopy. This development is considered key in the hunt for low-mass rocky exoplanets around solar-type stars whose discovery with the radial-velocity method requires cm/s Doppler precision. In order to prove such p...