Alejandro Lucia

Alejandro Lucia
European University of Madrid | UEM · Center for Research in Sport and Physical Activity

MD, PhD

About

846
Publications
371,053
Reads
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30,039
Citations
Citations since 2016
402 Research Items
19514 Citations
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201620172018201920202021202201,0002,0003,000
201620172018201920202021202201,0002,0003,000

Publications

Publications (846)
Article
Investigators recently described a study of mouse models of cancer, in which they found that contracting muscle fibers synthesize an anticancer myokine, interleukin-6.
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Objective To explore whether being physically active can decrease Alzheimer disease (AD) risk. Participants and Methods We conducted a meta-analysis of prospective observational cohort studies reporting the association between physical activity (PA) and incident AD. Relevant articles were identified by title and abstract in the electronic database...
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INTRODUCTION: The randomized controlled trial 'Physical Activity in Pediatric Cancer' (PAPEC) determined the effects of an in-hospital exercise intervention combining aerobic and muscle strength training on pediatric cancer patients with solid tumors undergoing neoadjuvant chemotherapy. METHODS: Participants were allocated to an exercise (n=24, 17...
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Introduction: We recently generated a knock-in mouse model (PYGM p.R50X/p.R50X) of McArdle disease (myophosphorylase deficiency). One mechanistic approach to unveil the molecular alterations caused by myophosphorylase deficiency, which is arguably the paradigm of 'exercise intolerance', is to compare the skeletal-muscle tissue of McArdle, heterozy...
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Introduction During the last decade, physical activity (PA) (or “exercise”) has been identified as one of the main modifiable factors that influence the development of Alzheimer’s disease (AD) pathophysiology. We performed an umbrella review to summarize the evidence on the association between PA/exercise and the risk of developing AD risk, and the...
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Physically active McArdle patients shown an exceptional fat oxidation capacity. Maximal fat oxidation rate occurs near‐maximal exercise capacity in these patients. McArdle patients’ exercise tolerance might rely on maximal fat oxidation rate capacity. Hyperpnoea patients might, however, cloud substrate oxidation measurements in some patients. An an...
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Lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) catalyzes the reversible conversion of L-lactate to pyruvate. LDH-A deficiency is an autosomal recessive disorder (glycogenosis type XI, OMIM#612933) caused by mutations in the LDHA gene. We present two young adult female patients presenting with intolerance to anaerobic exercise, episodes of rhabdomyolysis, and, in one...
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Objective To investigate the influence of road gradient on cycling power output in male professional cyclists, and to determine whether cyclist typology (i.e., flat or climbing specialist, respectively) moderates this influence. Design Observational study. Methods Ninety-eight professional cyclists (27 ± 6 years) were included in the analyses, of...
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Purpose: To compare the prevalence of myocardial fibrosis and coronary calcification in individuals who have performed very high levels of strenuous endurance exercise (SEE) (former male professional cyclists) and sex/age-matched controls. Methods: We used a cross-sectional (case-control) observational design, where cases were former finishers of...
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Background There is debate about the magnitude of geometrical remodeling [i.e., left ventricle (LV) cavity enlargement vs. wall thickening] in the heart of elite athletes, and no limits of normality have been yet established for different sports. We aimed to determine sex- and sport-specific normative values of LV dimensions in elite white adult at...
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Neuromuscular electrical stimulation (NMES) in combination with blood flow restriction (BFR) enhances muscle hypertrophy and force-generating capacity. The present study aimed to investigate the acute effects of BFR and NMES, both in isolation and in combination, on muscle thickness (MT) and fatigue in the lower body of 20 young healthy subjects. D...
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Purpose: To compare endurance, strength and body composition indicators between cyclists of three different competition age categories. Methods: Fifty-one male road cyclists classified as either junior ( n = 13, age 16.4 ± 0.5 years), under-23 [(U23), n = 24, 19.2 ± 1.3 years] or professional ( n = 14, 26.1 ± 4.8 years) were studied. Endurance (ass...
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Purpose: To determine the validity of field-derived mean maximum power (MMP) values for monitoring maximal cycling endurance performance. Methods: Twenty-seven male professional cyclists performed 3 timed trials (TTs) of 1-, 5-, and 20-minute duration that were used as the gold standard reference. Field-based power output data (3336 files; 124 [...
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TO THE EDITOR: Podlogar et al. (1) have nicely discussed cur- rent methods for classifying athletes in applied physiology studies attending to their training or performance level. We agree with them that relying on a single physiological marker such as maximum oxygen uptake is not without limi- tations and endorse the use of more performance-based...
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Purpose We assessed the occurrence of rhythm alterations in elite athletes with suspected risk using Holter monitoring, and the association of Holter-determined rhythm alterations with echocardiographic findings. Methods A large cohort of Spanish elite athletes ( N = 6,579, 34% female) underwent in-depth cardiological examination (including echoca...
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We analysed the association between self-reported sleep characteristics and the prevalence of major cardiovascular disease (CVD) risk factors attending to the potential effect of physical activity (PA) and weight status. A large cohort of Spanish workers (n = 527,662; 32% female, 44 ± 9yrs) participated in this cross-sectional study. We assessed pa...
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Physical exercise reduces blood pressure (BP) in patients with hypertension in general but more evidence is needed specifically for a high-risk phenotype associated with intensive medication, resistant hypertension (RH). In this systematic review and meta-analysis, we aimed to summarize current evidence of the exercise effects on BP in patients wit...
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Introduction The World Health Organization has introduced the term ‘intrinsic capacity’ (IC) as a marker of healthy ageing. However, controversy exists on the definition and assessment of IC. We aimed to review the definitions and methods used for the assessment of IC in older adults. In addition, we proposed a new IC scoring method. Methods A sys...
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Glycogen storage disease type V (GSDV, McArdle disease) is a rare genetic myopathy caused by deficiency of the muscle isoform of glycogen phosphorylase (PYGM). This results in a block in the use of muscle glycogen as an energetic substrate, with subsequent exercise intolerance. The pathobiology of GSDV is still not fully understood, especially with...
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The prevalence of diabetes and hypertension has steadily increased over the past few decades, with the latter remaining a leading cause of premature mortality worldwide.¹ The problem of both global trends is further aggravated by the fact that hypertension is even more prevalent in people with diabetes,² and the coexistence of both conditions is as...
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Background Professional athletes seem to have a lower overall mortality risk than the general population, but controversy exists about whether athletes in sports associated with repetitive head impacts have a higher risk of mortality from neurodegenerative diseases. Objective We aimed to determine the risk of mortality from neurodegenerative disea...
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Peripheral arterial disease (PAD) is a prevalent cardiovascular disease. The main hallmarks of this condition are atherosclerosis and myopathy in the lower limbs, with progressive deterioration of the functional capacity and quality of life of affected individuals. There is evidence supporting physical exercise as an effective alternative for the t...
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Obesity, and obesity-associated conditions such as hypertension, chronic kidney disease, type 2 diabetes, and cardiovascular disease, are important risk factors for severe Coronavirus disease-2019 (COVID-19). The common denominator is metaflammation, a portmanteau of metabolism and inflammation, which is characterized by chronically elevated levels...
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Purpose: Ambient temperature affects endurance exercise performance. However, most research has been conducted in a laboratory-based setting, and whether there are sex-specific trends remains unclear. The present study aimed to analyze the influence of ambient temperature on cycling performance in male and female professional cyclists using field-...
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Introduction: The long-term effects of exercise in patients with McArdle disease-the paradigm of 'exercise intolerance'-are unknown. This is an important question as the severity of the disease frequently increases with time. Purpose: To study the effects of a long-term exercise intervention on clinical and fitness-related outcomes in McArdle pa...
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We analyzed the effects of apoptosis-inducing factor (AIF) deficiency, as well as those of an exercise training intervention on autophagy across tissues (heart, skeletal muscle, cerebellum and brain), that are primarily affected by mitochondrial diseases, using a preclinical model of these conditions, the Harlequin (Hq) mouse. Autophagy markers wer...
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Background Exercise training can positively impact the immune system and particularly natural killer (NK) cells, at least in healthy people. This effect would be of relevance in the context of cancer given the prominent role of these cells in antitumor immunity. In this systematic review and meta-analysis, we aimed to summarize current evidence on...
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Purpose: The present study aimed to determine the influence of fatigue on the record power profile of professional male cyclists. We also assessed whether fatigue could differently affect cyclists of 2 competition categories. Methods: We analyzed the record power profile in 112 professional cyclists (n = 46 and n = 66 in the ProTeam [PT] and Wor...
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Purpose: Some power meters are available in both bilateral and unilateral versions. However, despite the popularity of the latter, their validity remains unknown. We aimed to analyze the validity of a unilateral pedal power meter for estimating actual ("bilateral") power output (PO). Methods: Thirty-three male cyclists were assessed at different...
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The health benefits of exercise are well-recognized and are observed across multiple organ systems. These beneficial effects enhance overall resilience, healthspan and longevity. The molecular mechanisms that underlie the beneficial effects of exercise, however, remain poorly understood. Since the discovery in 2000 that muscle contraction releases...
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Introduction Whether diabetes is associated with hypertension risk remains controversial, potentially owing to the confounding effect of lifestyle. This study aims to analyze the association between diabetes and hypertension in adults and the mediating impacts of lifestyle. Methods A cohort of Spanish workers (aged 18–64 years) insured by an occup...
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Purpose: To present normative data for the record power profile of male professional cyclists attending to team categories and riding typologies. Methods: Power output data registered from 4 professional teams during 8 years (N = 144 cyclists, 129,262 files, and 1062 total seasons [7 (5) per cyclist] corresponding to both training and competitio...
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Purpose: To describe the record power profile of professional female cyclists and to assess potential differences based on the type of rider. Methods: Power output data (32,028 files containing both training and competition sessions recorded) in 44 female professional cyclists during 1-6 years were analyzed. Cyclists were categorized as all-roun...
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Introduction: Acute altitude exposure influences exercise performance, although most research, especially regarding altitude natives, comes from laboratory data in non-athletes. Purpose: We analyzed the influence of altitude on real-world cycling performance in top-level professional cyclists attending to whether they were altitude natives or not....
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We aimed to determine whether voluntary exercise or surface neuromuscular electrical stimulation (NMES) could enhance recovery after a high-intensity functional training (HIFT) session compared with total rest. The study followed a crossover design. Fifteen male recreational CrossFit athletes (29 ± 8 years) performed a HIFT session and were randomi...
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Background Controversy exists on the actual occurrence of exercise-induced cardiac fatigue (EICF) with ultraendurance exercise, as well as on whether factors such as age or training status might predispose to this condition. The present study aimed to assess the occurrence of EICF among recreational ultramarathon runners, as well as to determine po...
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McArdle disease is an autosomal recessive disorder of muscle glycogen metabolism caused by pathogenic mutations in the PYGM gene, which encodes the skeletal muscle-specific isoform of glycogen phosphorylase. Clinical symptoms are mainly characterized by transient acute “crises” of early fatigue, myalgia and contractures, which can be accompanied by...
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Background Sleep is known to affect cardiovascular health, but some controversy exists on the independent association between different sleep characteristics (duration, restfulness, difficulties falling asleep) and specific risk factors for cardiovascular disease (CVD). We aimed to assess the association between self-reported sleep characteristics...
Preprint
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We propose a Bayesian network model to make inferences and predictions about cardiovascular risk. Both the structure and the probability tables in the underlying model are built using a large dataset collected in Spain from annual work health assessments, with uncertainty characterized through posterior distributions. We illustrate its use for publ...
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Childhood cancer survivors are at risk of developing important adverse effects, many of which persist for years after the end of treatment. The implementation of interventions aiming at attenuating tumor/treatment-associated adverse effects is therefore a major issue in pediatric oncology, and there is growing evidence that physical exercise could...
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Growing evidence supports the importance of lifestyle and environmental exposures—collectively referred to as the ‘exposome’—for ensuring immune health. In this narrative review, we summarize and discuss the effects of the different exposome components (physical activity, body weight management, diet, sun exposure, stress, sleep and circadian rhyth...
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Objective To determine the risk of mortality from mental disorders and suicide in professional sports associated with repeated head impacts. Methods A systematic search was performed in PubMed, Web of Science, Scopus, and SPORTDiscus (since inception to June 8, 2021) to find studies comparing the incidence of mortality from mental disorders or sui...
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Chronic exercise reduces clinic and ambulatory blood pressure (BP), but the short-term effects of an acute exercise bout on ambulatory BP have not been studied widely. We reviewed the literature regarding the short-term effects of acute exercise on ambulatory BP in patients with hypertension and considered moderating factors (medication status and...
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Background: The “second wind” (SW) phenomenon—commonly referring to both an initial period of marked intolerance to dynamic exercise (e.g., brisk walking) that is not followed by perceived improvement and disappearance of previous tachycardia (i.e., the actual “SW”) until 6–10 min has elapsed—is an almost unique feature of McArdle disease that limi...
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Background Left atrial (LA) remodelling and enlargement in athletes is a well-kown component of the athlete's heart. However, information about the correlation between of LA enlargement and atrial electrophysiological features in athletes is scarce. Purpose Our aim was to characterize LA enlargement, P-wave duration, and the prevalence of interatr...
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Durability and repeatability (i.e., the ability to sustain high power output values under fatigue and to endure repeated high-intensity efforts, respectively) are emerging as cycling performance determinants. We aimed to analyze whether these markers differ between professional cyclists of two competition levels (WorldTour [WT] and Proteam [PT]) du...
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Background Whether a high cardiorespiratory fitness (CRF) can attenuate the potential detrimental effect of childhood obesity on academic performance and particularly psychosocial functioning remains unclear. Objectives To analyse the academic performance/psychosocial functioning of schoolchildren attending to their CRF and weight status. Methods...
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Ketogenic diets (KD) have gained popularity in recent years among strength-trained individuals. The present review summarizes current evidence—with a particular focus on randomized controlled trials—on the effects of KD on body composition and muscle performance (strength and power output) in strength-trained individuals. Although long-term studies...
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Aims To assess the potential multi-domain benefits of exercise interventions on patients with Alzheimer’s disease (AD), as well as to determine the specific effects of different exercise modalities (aerobic, strength, or combined training). Methods A systematic search was conducted in PubMed and Web of Science until March 2021 for randomized contr...
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Introduction and objectives: There are scarce data on left atrial (LA) enlargement and electrophysiological features in athletes. Methods: Multicenter observational study in competitive athletes and controls. LA enlargement was defined as LA volume indexed to body surface area ≥ 34mL/m2. We analyzed its relationship with atrial electrocardiograp...
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Purpose: To compare the physical demands and performance indicators of male professional cyclists of 2 different categories (Union Cycliste Internationale WorldTour [WT] and ProTeam [PT]) during a cycling grand tour. Methods: A WT team (n = 8, 31.4 [5.4] y) and a PT team (n = 7, 26.9 [3.3] y) that completed "La Vuelta 2020" volunteered to partic...
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The present study aimed to assess the effects of an injury pre- vention program in CrossFit athletes. Thirty-two CrossFit ath- letes were randomized to either an intervention group (n = 16), that performed mobility and stability exercises during the warm-up of all CrossFit sessions for a 10-week period or to a control group (n = 16) that kept perfo...
Preprint
Full-text available
Skeletal muscle fiber composition and capillary density influence physical performance and whole-body metabolic properties. ~45% of the variance in fiber type is heritable, which motivated us to perform a genome-wide association study of skeletal muscle histology from 656 Swedish men. Four independent variants were associated ( p < 5x10 − 8 ) with...
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Purpose: To analyze the relationship between critical power (CP) and different lactate threshold (LT2) markers in cyclists. Methods: Seventeen male recreational cyclists [33 ± 5 years, peak power output (PO) = 4.5 ± 0.7 W/kg] were included in the study. The PO associated with four different fixed (onset of blood lactate accumulation) and individual...
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There is substantial experimental evidence for dysregulation of several microRNA (miRNA) expression levels in Alzheimer’s disease (AD). MiRNAs modulate critical brain intracellular signaling pathways and are associated with AD core pathophysiological mechanisms. First, we conducted a real-time quantitative PCR-based pilot study to identify a set of...