Alejandro Estrada

Alejandro Estrada
Universidad Nacional Autónoma de México | UNAM · Institute of Biology

Ph.D Rutgers University

About

269
Publications
80,777
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10,806
Citations
Citations since 2016
58 Research Items
5324 Citations
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20162017201820192020202120220200400600800
Introduction
My research areas are primate ecology, behavior and conservation, frugivory and seed dispersal, forest fragmentation and wildlife conservation, arboreal agroecosystems and biodiversity conservation, socio-economic basis of tropical conservation, illegal trade of primates as pets, rescue and rehabilitation of primates from illegal trade. Reintroduction of species in their indigenous range, specifically the scarlet macaw and the spider monkey in southern Mexico.
Additional affiliations
January 1987 - October 2015
Universidad Nacional Autónoma de México
Position
  • University of Mexico (UNAM), Senior Research Scientist.
January 1980 - present
Universidad Nacional Autónoma de México
Position
  • Senior Researcher
Description
  • Head of Primate Laboratory

Publications

Publications (269)
Article
Full-text available
Nonhuman primates, our closest biological relatives, play important roles in the livelihoods, cultures, and religions of many societies and offer unique insights into human evolution, biology, behavior, and the threat of emerging diseases. They are an essential component of tropical biodiversity, contributing to forest regeneration and ecosystem he...
Article
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Social traditions based on communication signals are widespread in birds, cetaceans and humans, but surprisingly rare in nonhuman primates known for having genetically-determined vocal repertoires. This study presents the first description of a singular case of behaviour associated with calling (placing a hand in front of the mouth while vocalizing...
Article
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Seed predation and dispersal play key roles in the regeneration of tropical trees. Pre-dispersal predation may cause high mortality in seed crops. Seeds may escape pre-dispersal predation when ingested with the fruit pulp and moved away from the parent trees by frugivores. In southern Mexico, we investigated if seed traits (i.e., length, width, and...
Article
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Studies of human and domestic animal models indicate that related individuals and those that spend the most time in physical contact typically have more similar gut microbial communities. However, few studies have examined these factors in wild mammals where complex social dynamics and a variety of interacting environmental factors may impact the p...
Article
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Cooperative group defence can provide benefits both to participants in the collective actions and to freeriding group members. The study of individual strategies used during collective action is thus useful for our understanding the nature and evolution of cooperation in animal societies. Here, we examine social and genetic factors influencing the...
Article
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Primates, represented by 521 species, are distributed across 91 countries primarily in the Neotropic, Afrotropic, and Indo-Malayan realms. Primates inhabit a wide range of habitats and play critical roles in sustaining healthy ecosystems that benefit human and nonhuman communities. Approximately 68% of primate species are threatened with extinction...
Article
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When navigating, wild animals rely on internal representations of the external world – called ‘cognitive maps’ – to take movement decisions. Generally, flexible navigation is hypothesized to be supported by sophisticated spatial skills (i.e. Euclidean cognitive maps); however, constrained movements along habitual routes are the most commonly report...
Article
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Animal communication has long been thought to be subject to pressures and constraints associated with social relationships. However, our understanding of how the nature and quality of social relationships relates to the use and evolution of communication is limited by a lack of directly comparable methods across multiple levels of analysis. Here, w...
Article
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“Conversation rules” such as overlap avoidance and coordinated overlap have been reported in nonhuman animals, and seem to be adaptive responses to the requirements of social life. Some species display both patterns in an apparently flexible way, but the social factors mediating their respective usage remain poorly documented. We investigated the p...
Article
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Tropical landscape connectivity and matrix quality near large stands of primary forest are important factors that dictate biodiversity trends in communities. Suitable matrix management surrounding primary forest may help conserve biodiversity, but areas with poor matrix management need attention to determine their long-term viability to support nat...
Article
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Memories linked to specific locations provide information for animals to plan future actions and anticipate the occurrence of events. Here, we examined goal-directed travel towards locations where biologically meaningful events had previously taken place to elucidate the relative importance of past social and ecological information for route planni...
Article
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Currently, ~65% of extant primate species ( ca 512 species) distributed in 91 countries in the Neotropics, mainland Africa, Madagascar, South Asia and Southeast Asia are threatened with extinction and 75% have declining populations as a result of deforestation and habitat loss resulting from increasing global market demands, and land conversion for...
Article
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Habitat loss and fragmentation are leading threats to biodiversity today, and primates are particularly vulnerable to anthropogenic habitat disturbance. However, few studies have examined how differential effects of variation in forest fragment characteristics on males and females in a primate population may affect demography and population persist...
Article
For wild primates, demography studies are increasingly recognized as necessary for assessing the viability of vulnerable populations experiencing rapid environmental change. In particular, anthropogenic changes such as habitat loss and fragmentation can cause ecological and behavioral changes in small, isolated populations, which may, over time, al...
Article
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Long-distance vocalizations form an integral part of intergroup spacing mechanisms. The decision to approach, retreat, or ignore loud calls of neighboring groups might be influenced by resource availability, location in the home range, presence of fertile females or infants, or differential resource-holding potentials, and can alter intergroup enco...
Article
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Background: Although navigating along a network of routes might constrain animal movement flexibility, it may be an energetically efficient strategy. Routinely using the same route allows for visually monitoring of food resources, which might reduce the cognitive load and as such facilitate the process of movement decision-making. Similarly, locat...
Article
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The Peribunyaviridae family contains the genera Orthobunyavirus, Herbevirus, Pacuvirus, and Shangavirus. Orthobunyaviruses and pacuviruses are mainly transmitted by blood-feeding insects and infect a variety of vertebrates whereas herbeviruses and shangaviruses have a host range restricted to insects. Here, we tested mosquitoes from a tropical rain...
Data
Table S9 - Percent of total number of primate species threatened with extinction due to 10 human land use types under current and six future scenarios for 2050 and 2100
Data
Table S8 - Percent of primate species threatened with extinction currently (2016) and under six future scenarios for 2050 and 2100
Article
Full-text available
As a consequence of recent human activities. populations of approximately 75% of the world's primates are in decline, and more than 60% of species (n = 512) are threatened with extinction. Major anthropogenic pressures on primate persistence include the widespread loss and degradation of natural habitats caused by the expansion of industrial agricu...
Article
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Context Understanding population responses to landscape structure is critical to improve landscape planning. Yet, large uncertainty remains about how such responses vary among regions with different disturbance intensity. This knowledge is particularly important for forest-specialist species, such as spider monkeys. Objectives Assessing the effect...
Article
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China is facing an unprecedented set of challenges in balancing the effects of economic development and global climate change with environmental protection and maintaining biodiversity. Although positive steps have been undertaken to remedy this situation, currently 80% of China’s 25 extant primate species are threatened, 15–18 species have populat...
Article
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Primates occur in 90 countries, but four—Brazil, Madagascar, Indonesia, and the Democratic Republic of the Congo (DRC)—harbor 65% of the world’s primate species (439) and 60% of these primates are Threatened, Endangered, or Critically Endangered (IUCN Red List of Threatened Species 2017-3). Considering their importance for global primate conservati...
Article
Full-text available
Primates occur in 90 countries, but four-Brazil, Madagascar, Indonesia, and the Democratic Republic of the Congo (DRC)-harbor 65% of the world's primate species (439) and 60% of these primates are Threatened, Endangered, or Critically Endangered (IUCN Red List of Threatened Species 2017-3). Considering their importance for global primate conservati...
Article
Full-text available
Primates occur in 90 countries, but four-Brazil, Madagascar, Indonesia, and the Democratic Republic of the Congo (DRC)-harbor 65% of the world's primate species (439) and 60% of these primates are Threatened, Endangered, or Critically Endangered (IUCN Red List of Threatened Species 2017-3). Considering their importance for global primate conservati...
Article
Full-text available
Primates occur in 90 countries, but four-Brazil, Madagascar, Indonesia, and the Democratic Republic of the Congo (DRC)-harbor 65% of the world's primate species (439) and 60% of these primates are Threatened, Endangered, or Critically Endangered (IUCN Red List of Threatened Species 2017-3). Considering their importance for global primate conservati...
Data
Fig. S3. Trends in the growth of the cultivated areas devoted to roots and tubers, maize, and rice paddy production and in two important arboreal food crops in DRC. Also shown is the growth trend in the harvest of hardwoods. Available at http://www.fao.org/faostat/en/#compare (crops processed) (accessed 1 April 2017). Note: starting year may differ...
Data
Fig. S1. Expansion of agricultural land for the period 2001 to 2015 in Brazil, Indonesia, Madagascar and DRC. Available at FAOStats http://www.fao.org/faostat/en/#compare (accessed 10 February 2018). See Text S1 for limitations of the FAO data.
Data
Fig. S2. Trends in the growth of cattle populations and in the production of some of the most important agricultural commodities in Brazil. Available at http://www.fao.org/faostat/en/#data (accessed 14 February 2018; for a definition of the category Roundwood nonconiferous see http://www.fao.org/waicent/faostat/forestry/products.htm#S2; http://www....
Data
Fig. S5. Trends in the area devoted to the cultivation of rice, oil palm, natural rubber and the increase in the volume of roundwood extraction in Indonesia. Available at http://www.fao.org/faostat/en/#compare (crops processed) (accessed 5 April 2017). See Text S1 for limitations of the FAO data.
Data
Fig. S4. Trends in the growth of cultivated areas including roots and tubers, maize, and rice paddy production in Madagascar. Also shown is the growth in the extraction of hardwoods. Available at http://www.fao.org/faostat/en/#compare (crops processed) (accessed 1 April 2017). See Text S1 for limitations of the FAO data.
Data
Fig. S6. Optimistic, business as usual, and pessimistic scenarios of expected spatial conflict between agricultural expansion and primate distributions in the 21st century in Brazil, DRC, Madagascar and Indonesia. The table at the bottom shows the predicted agricultural expansion values (%) to take place by 2050 and 2100 under each of the three sce...
Data
Table S2. Number of primate species, genera and families currently present in Brazil, DRC, Madagascar and Indonesia. Also shown is the number of species threatened and with declining populations. Source of data: IUCN, 2017 http://www.iucnredlist.org (consulted February 13th, 2018). Three families are shared by DRC and Indonesia: Lorisidae, Cercopit...
Data
Table S5. Gross Domestic Product Per Capita (GDPPC) and the Human Development Index for the 25 most developed nations in the world and for Brazil, DRC, Madagascar and Indonesia. Source HDI: http://hdr.undp.org/en/countries/profiles/COD (accessed 5 February 2018) Source GDPPC: http://data.worldbank.org/indicator/NY.GDP.PCAP.CD?contextual=max&locatio...
Data
Fig. S7. Frequency distribution of the area of the ranges of primate species (blue) and the area of their ranges that overlap with protected areas. (A) Brazil, (B) DRC, (C) Madagascar and (D) Indonesia.
Data
Table S1. Biological richness of four major vertebrate groups in Brazil, DRC, Madagascar and Indonesia. Source: IUCN, 2017 http://www.iucnredlist.org–consulted August 2017.
Data
Table S3. Tree cover loss (>30% canopy cover) for the period 2001 to 2016. Source: Global Forest Watch (http://www.globalforestwatch.org (accessed 11 January 2018). All areas are in ha.
Data
Table S4. Expansion estimates of agricultural land in Brazil, Indonesia, Madagascar and DRC for the period 2001 to 2015. Also shown is agricultural land as percent of the country’s land area. Source of data: FAOStats http://www.fao.org/faostat/en/#data (accessed 12 February 2018). Increases or decreases from year to year can be calculated by subtra...
Article
Understanding the effect of landscape structure on biodiversity is critically needed to improve management strategies. To accurately evaluate such effect, landscape metrics need to be assessed at the correct scale, i.e. considering the spatial extent at which species-landscape relationship is strongest (scale of effect, SE). Although SE is highly v...
Chapter
Full-text available
The world's primate taxa (approximately 612) are at risk of extinction because of human activities. The IUCN Red List database classifies 37 percent of primate taxa as Least Concern, but the rest (63 percent) are categorized under different levels of risk. The cause of these declines is habitat loss caused by human activities. Natural protected are...
Chapter
Global human population will increase from 7 billion in 2012 to 9 billion in 2050, with most of the growth taking place in developing tropical nations. Currently, 2 billion people live in species-rich primate range regions (the Neotropics, Sub-Saharan Africa, and Southeast Asia). High levels of poverty in the human population are typical of tropica...
Chapter
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De Octubre de 2006 a Diciembre de 2008 evaluamos la riqueza y abundancia relativa de mamíferos terrestres medianos (de 0.5 a 9.0 kg) y grandes (≥10.0 kg) en el Área de Protección de Flora y Fauna (APFF) Metzabok, en Chia- pas, México. El muestreo fue realizado mediante cámaras-trampa ubicadas en seis senderos dentro de un bosque tropical perennifol...
Article
Alouatta species utter the most powerful primate vocalizations in the Neotropics and are well-known for their loud and long-lasting male howling bouts. However, the diversity of acoustic structures used in these howling bouts, as well as in non-howling contexts, and the relative contribution of the different group members to the entire vocal repert...
Article
Full-text available
Most alphaviruses are transmitted by arthropods and infect vertebrate hosts. An exception is Eilat virus (EILV), the only described alphavirus with a host range restricted to insects. We established a new generic reverse transcription PCR assay for alphaviruses and tested 8,860 tropical mosquitoes. We detected a novel alphavirus, tentatively named...
Article
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The scarlet macaw (Ara macao cyanoptera) is an endangered species in Mesoamerica due to illegal traffic, habitat loss, and hunting. In Mexico, its range has been reduced by 98%. Between April 2013 and June 2014, a population of 96 individuals of A. m. cyanoptera was reintroduced (six releasing events), in the tropical rainforests of Palenque, south...