Alejandra Caqueo-Urizar

Psychiatry, Health Psychology

PhD.
28.06

Publications

  • Alejandra Caqueo-Urízar · Alfonso Urzúa · Patricio Rojas Jamett · Matias Irarrazaval
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    ABSTRACT: This study examined the burden on family members of patients with schizophrenia in a Chilean community. Sixty-five caregivers underwent the Subjective and Objective Family Burden Interview. The results showed moderate to high levels of subjective burden and low levels of support from others in providing care. Burden and containment of disturbed behaviour were correlated with worse relationships between patients and caregivers, with the latter spending less time working outside the home. The assessed sample showed a similar pattern of burden to that of caregivers from developed countries; however, the extent of the burden tended to be higher in Chilean caregivers.
    No preview · Article · Jan 2016
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    ABSTRACT: Although a number of cognitive deficits have been described in individuals with intellectual disabilities (ID), few studies have examined the use of computer-assisted cognitive training programmes in this group of people. This study sought to determine the cognitive mechanisms underlying 16 activities included in Armoni, a computerized cognitive training programme for individuals with ID, in order to validate its use with this population. Fifty adults with ID from four residential care centres in Spain underwent neuropsychological testing tapping attention, verbal memory, visual memory, comprehension, visuoperception, visuoconstruction, naming ability, verbal fluency, verbal reasoning and motor function. In addition, they performed 16 activities included in the Armoni programme. The relationships between cognitive function and the computer-based activities were assessed using Spearman correlations. Stepwise multiple regression analyses were then used to explore how cognitive function predicted the performance of individuals with ID on the programme activities. Most programme activities correlated with visuoconstruction, comprehension and naming ability. Naming ability, visual memory, comprehension and visuoconstruction contributed the most to the predictive models regarding performance on the Armoni activities. Our findings support the validity of Armoni for cognitive training in individuals with ID.
    Full-text · Article · Jan 2016 · Anales de Psicologia
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    Alejandra Caqueo-Urízar · Alfonso Urzúa · Laurent Boyer · David R. Williams
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    ABSTRACT: Objective: The aim of the study was to explore the relationship between religion involvement (RI) and quality of life (QoL) in patients with schizophrenia from three countries in Latin America, while considering key confounding factors such as socio-demographic and clinical characteristics. Methods: This cross-sectional study was conducted in the public mental health services in La Paz, Bolivia; Arica, Chile; and Tacna, Peru. The data collected included RI, socio-demographic information, clinical characteristics, type of treatment and QoL using the S-QoL 18 questionnaire. A multivariate analysis using multiple linear regressions was performed to determine variables associated with QoL levels. Results: Two hundred and fifty-three patients with schizophrenia were enrolled in our study. Significant positive associations were found between RI and QoL (the S-QoL 18 index: β = 0.13; p = 0.048; autonomy dimension: β = 0.15; p = 0.027). Other socio-cultural and economic factors were also associated with low QoL level: being a woman, older patient, low education level and being Aymara. Severity of the psychotic symptoms was associated to a lower QoL for all the dimension (β from 0.15 to 0.31), except for the resilience. Conclusion: Our study found that socio-cultural and economic factors including RI were associated with QoL in patients with schizophrenia in Latin America, suggesting that these factors may influence positively health outcome. However, these relationships were moderate in strength, especially in comparison to symptoms severity which remained the most important features associated with QoL.
    Full-text · Article · Nov 2015 · Social Psychiatry and Psychiatric Epidemiology
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    Alfonso Urzúa · Alejandra Caqueo-Urízar · María Fernanda Bravo · Karen Carvajal · Claudio Vera
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    ABSTRACT: While self-report of overall quality of life has been widely examined, there are no studies that explore the impact of the relative importance people give to the various categories of their quality of life. Therefore, with a quantitative methodology and a co-relational transverse design, we analyze differences in the assessment when the importance given to each category is evaluated. Participants were 530 students from the city of Antofagasta in the North of Chile, aged between 15 and 18 years. They were from subsidized, public secondary schools and private and state universities in the city who were assessed using the KIDSCREEN-27 questionnaire. Results: Differences were found in the assessment of categories when results were analyzed based on gender and age and when incorporating an assessment of importance. Even when the results were not conclusive, there was evidence of a need to incorporate an importance variable when assessing quality of life.
    Full-text · Article · Sep 2015 · Universitas Psychologica
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    ABSTRACT: We compared perception of family functioning in a sample (N = 1,496) of Aymara and non-Aymara parents and children living in Arica, Chile. The children were aged from 9 to 15 years and were recruited from the 5th to 8th grades of 9 elementary schools (4 public, 5 government-subsidized private schools) serving lower socioeconomic areas. Participants completed the Family Functioning Test (FF-SIL), which consists of 14 events or characteristics that may occur in a family. The results showed that parents and children from the Aymara group recorded lower scores for their perception of family functioning than did the non-Aymara group. Addressing this issue may be important in the prevention of psychological problems in these families.
    Full-text · Article · Jul 2015 · Social Behavior and Personality An International Journal
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    Alfonso Urzúa · María Vega · Alexandra Jara · Susana Trujillo · Roxana Muñoz · Alejandra Caqueo-Urízar

    Full-text · Article · Jul 2015 · Terapia Psicologica
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    Alejandra Caqueo-Urízar · Laurent Boyer · Karine Baumstarck · Stephen E Gilman
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    ABSTRACT: Beliefs about the causes of schizophrenia are thought to impact treatment outcomes. We investigated 3 theoretically opposing belief systems (biological, psychosocial, magical-religious) in relation to the severity of positive and negative symptoms and to attitudes towards medications. We recruited 253 patients with schizophrenia and their primary caregivers from public mental health clinics in Bolivia, Chile, and Peru. We assessed patients' and caregivers' beliefs about the causes of schizophrenia, which were used as predictors of symptom severity and medication attitudes in linear regression analyses. Patients' scores on biological, psychosocial, and magical-religious beliefs were positively correlated with one another, indicating that these domains were not, as anticipated, "opposing". Patients with higher levels of biological and psychosocial beliefs had significantly lower levels of positive and negative symptoms; in contrast, higher levels of magical-religious beliefs were associated with increased positive symptoms and less favorable attitudes towards medications. Patients' belief systems are significant predictors of symptom severity and medication attitudes. Research is needed on the extent to which psychotherapeutic treatments for schizophrenia should bolster patients' beliefs in the biological and psychosocial domains and weaken beliefs in the magical-religious domain; this research should also attend to the ethical considerations involved in intervening on belief systems cross-culturally. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
    Full-text · Article · Jun 2015
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    Alejandra Caqueo-Urízar · Laurent Boyer · Karine Baumstarck · Stephen E Gilman
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    ABSTRACT: Functional outcomes in schizophrenia may be more closely related to social cognition than to neurocognition; however, the extent to which social cognition influences quality of life (QoL) remains unclear. We conducted a cross-sectional survey study of the impact of patients' and clinicians' subjective perceptions of neurocognitive and social cognitive deficits on quality of life. The study included 253 patients with schizophrenia and their clinicians from public mental health clinics in Bolivia, Chile, and Peru. We utilized the GEOPTE Scale of Social Cognition for Psychosis, the Schizophrenia Quality of Life Questionnaire, and the Positive and Negative Syndrome Scale for schizophrenia. Patients' subjective perceptions of their neurocognitive deficits (B = -1.13; CI -1.56 to -0.70) were significantly associated with QoL, whereas there was no independent association between the clinicians' ratings of the patients' neurocognitive deficits and QoL (B = -0.33; CI -0.98 to 0.31). However, patients' subjective perceptions of their neurocognitive deficits were no longer associated with QoL (B = -0.23; CI -0.71 to 0.24) once their perceptions of social cognitive impairments were accounted for (B = -1.03; CI -1.39 to -0.68). Patients' perceptions of their social cognitive function (but not neurocognitive functioning) have a significant impact on their QoL. Clinicians' ratings of patients' cognitive deficits were only weakly correlated with patients' subjective perceptions of their own neurocognitive, suggesting a mismatch between clinician and patient assessments of such deficits. Closer attention should therefore be paid toward patients' perception of their own deficits by clinicians in order to improve QoL.
    Full-text · Article · Jun 2015 · Quality of Life Research
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    ABSTRACT: Background: The Diabetes Mellitus 2 treatment adherence scale version III (EATDM-III) was devised in Costa Rica. Its seven factors are family support, community organization and support, physical exercise, medical control, hygiene and self-care and assessment of physical condition. Aim: To assess the psychometric properties of the scale in Chilean patients. Material and Methods: The results of the EATDM-III scale, applied to 274 patients with Diabetes Mellitus 2 aged 59 +/- 11 years (59% women), were analyzed. Reliability, item, exploratory and confirmatory factorial analyses were carried out both in the initial and the proposed model. Results: We propose a version of 30 items grouped in six dimensions, improving the fit indices obtained with the original scale. The review of item factor loadings shows that all are appropriate both in magnitude and statistical significance, with values between 0.46 and 0.93. Internal consistency measured by Cronbach's alpha, was 0.85 for the total scale. Conclusions: The adapted EATDM-III scale is reliable and can be used to assess treatment adherence in Chilean patients.
    No preview · Article · Jun 2015 · Revista medica de Chile
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    Alfonso Urzúa · Alejandra Caqueo-Urízar · Mariana Bargsted · Matías Irarrázaval
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    ABSTRACT: This study aimed to evaluate whether the scoring system of the General Health Questionnaire (GHQ-12) alters the instrument's factor structure. The method considered 1,972 university students from nine Ibero American countries. Modeling was performed with structural equations for 1, 2, and 3 latent factors. The mechanism for scoring the questions was analyzed within each type of structure. The results indicate that models with 2 and 3 factors show better goodness-of-fit. In relation to scoring mechanisms, procedure 0-1-1-1 for models with 2 and 3 factors showed the best fit. In conclusion, there appears to be a relationship between the response format and the number of factors identified in the instrument's structure. The model with the best fit was 3-factor 0-1-1-1-formatted, but 0-1-2-3 has acceptable and more stable indicators and provides a better format for two- and three-dimensional models.
    Full-text · Article · Jun 2015 · Cadernos de saúde pública / Ministério da Saúde, Fundação Oswaldo Cruz, Escola Nacional de Saúde Pública
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    ABSTRACT: We used the Kidney Disease Quality of Life Survey and Chronic Illness Resources Survey to determine the personal resources that influence health-related quality of life (HRQOL) of 128 individuals receiving treatment for end-stage renal disease in Antofagasta, Chile. The results showed that personal and community resources protect against disability and physical deterioration among individuals receiving hemodialysis. Further, these resources had a direct influence on HRQOL, especially in relation to the burden of the disease and for those who are not in paid employment. Our findings show the importance of the availability and use of measures required for the community to improve HRQOL, and to protect the physical health of people undergoing hemodialysis.
    Full-text · Article · Apr 2015 · Social Behavior and Personality An International Journal
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    ABSTRACT: Family interventions for schizophrenia have been amply demonstrated to be effective and are recommended by most of the international clinical guidelines. However, their implementation in the clinical setting as well as in treatment protocols of patients with psychosis has not been fully achieved yet. With the increasing deinstitutionalization of patients, family has begun to assume the role of care performed by psychiatric hospitals, with a high emotional cost for caregivers as well as the recognition of burden experiences. Families have been the substitute in the face of the scarcity of therapeutic, occupational, and residential resources. For this reason, the viability of patients' care by their families has become a challenge. This article aims to discuss the most important aspects of family interventions, their impact on families, and the most important challenges that need to be overcome in order to achieve well-being and recovery in both patients and caregivers.
    Full-text · Article · Jan 2015 · Neuropsychiatric Disease and Treatment
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    Alfonso Urzua · Maria Vega · Alexandra Jara · Susana Trujillo · Roxana Munoz · Alejandra Caqueo-Urizar
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    ABSTRACT: Under a cross-sectional design, we analyzed the effect of socio-demographic-economic-relational variables on quality of life (QoL) in a sample of 421 Peruvian and Colombian immigrants in northern Chile. To assess the QoL was used the WHOQOL-Bref and a sociodemographic questionnaire. The results show that the best domain assessed in both populations was the physical, while the worst was the environmental domain. Sociodemographic variables that were most predictive in the domains were age, level of monthly income, with whom you live and whether you are a couple. This study hopes to contribute to the development of comprehensive migration policies, especially regarding the QoL of people living daily migration process, to promote their well-being, prevent health problems and to promote the integration and adaptation to the new culture.
    Full-text · Article · Jan 2015
  • Alejandra Caqueo-Urízar · Laurent Boyer · Mohamed Boucekine · Pascal Auquier
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    ABSTRACT: Objective The aim of this study was to adapt the Schizophrenia — Quality of Life short-version questionnaire (SQoL18) for use in three middle-income countries in Latin America and to evaluate the factor structure, reliability, and external validity of this questionnaire. Methods The SQoL18 was translated into Spanish using a well-validated forward–backward process. We evaluated the psychometric properties of the SQoL18 in a sample of 253 patients with schizophrenia attending outpatient mental health services in three Latin American countries. For participants in each country (Bolivia, N = 83; Chile, N = 85; Peru, N = 85), psychometric properties were compared to those reported from the reference population (507 patients with schizophrenia) assessed in the validation study. In addition, differential item functioning (DIF) analyses were performed to see whether all items behave in the same way in each country. Results Factor analysis performed in the 3 countries showed that the questionnaire's structure adequately matched the initial structure of the SQoL18. The unidimensionality of the dimensions was preserved, and the internal/external validity indices were close to those of the reference population. However, one dimension of the SQoL18 (resilience) presented some unsatisfactory properties including low Cronbach's alpha coefficients, one INFIT value higher than 1.2, and one item showing DIF between the 3 countries. Conclusions These results demonstrate the satisfactory acceptability and psychometric properties of the SQoL18, suggesting the relevance of this questionnaire among patients with schizophrenia in these 3 Latin American countries.
    No preview · Article · Oct 2014 · Schizophrenia Research
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    Alejandra Caqueo-Urízar · Koen De Munter · Alfonso Urzúa · José L. Saiz

    Full-text · Article · Sep 2014
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    Alejandra Caqueo-Urízar · Joshua Breslau · Stephen E Gilman
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    ABSTRACT: Aim: The aim of this study is to investigate differences in the beliefs about the causes of schizophrenia between Aymara and non-Aymara patients with schizophrenia and their primary caregivers. Ethnic background plays an important role in the formation of beliefs regarding the causes of schizophrenia, and there have been no prior studies on such beliefs among the Aymara, an indigenous community with a population of about 2 million people living in the Andes. We focused on three systems of beliefs distinguished in the literature: biological, psychosocial and magical-religious. Methods: The sample comprised 253 patients (n=117 Aymara, and n=136 non-Aymara) of public mental health centers in Chile (33.6%), Peru (33.6%) and Bolivia (32.8%) with a diagnosis of schizophrenia, and each patient's primary caregiver. We administered to patients and caregivers a questionnaire with scales assessing the perceived causes of schizophrenia. Linear regression models were fitted to compare differences in the levels of causal beliefs between Aymara and non-Aymara patients and caregivers, and to identify socio-demographic and clinical predictors of different types of beliefs about the causes of schizophrenia. Results: Adjusted for socio-demographic and clinical covariates, levels of psychosocial beliefs were significantly higher for Aymara caregivers (0.33, 95% confidence interval (CI)=0.05, 0.62) than non-Aymara caregivers. Conclusions: Contrary to expectations, beliefs about the causes of schizophrenia among Aymara are not more magical-religious than those of their non-Aymara counterparts. It may be necessary for mental health staff members to evaluate beliefs about the disorder, especially in ethnic minorities, before applying a standard model of treatment.
    Full-text · Article · Aug 2014 · International Journal of Social Psychiatry
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    Alejandra Caqueo-Urizar · Koen De Munter · Alfonso Urzua · Jose L. Saiz
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    ABSTRACT: In this article, the authors present an analysis of the genesis and further implementation of a methodological tool which was fundamental in the constitutive phase of an interdisciplinary research project on the psychological wellbeing of Aymara childrenin schooling contexts in the city of Arica, in northern Chile. This region is characterized by the presence of strongly marked intercultural situations between what, simply put, could be called a hegemonic national-Chilean culture and the indigenous tradition of the Aymara minority. First, the authors reflect upon the process of elaboration of a "Scale of Involvement in Aymara Culture" (EICA), beginning with a first research stage consisting of anthropological and qualitative considerations of acculturation and interculturality. They then analyze how this scale was implemented following a quantitative procedure and showing how it was finetuned along the way in a number of different subscales. The EICA scale was developed with the goal of preventing an essentialist attitude when speaking of "Aymara children", given the fact that these children live in very different situations of interculturality. Constructed on the basis of a series of cultural practices that are supposed to be characteristic of the dynamic Aymara tradition, this quantitative-qualitative tool aspires to measure, to some extent, the different degrees in which children are involved in this tradition, as they move in a dynamic continuum of complex intercultural relations. Throughout a detailed discussion of the first results of the quantitative application of the tool, the authors show its relevance and utility in order to better understand, both qualitatively and quantitatively, the dynamic social and cultural universe these Aymara children inhabit.
    Full-text · Article · Jul 2014 · Chungará
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    Full-text · Article · Jul 2014 · Terapia Psicologica
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    ABSTRACT: Background: Schizophrenia is a debilitating mental illness that has a significant impact not only in the patient but also in the entire family as well. Caregivers assume almost the totality of the patient care. This responsibility exposes caregivers to an intense burden with negative consequences for them and the rest of the family system. This is an updated review of existing literature about burden on families with schizophrenia patients. Method: An electronic search of articles from MEDLINE, EMBASE, APA, EBSCO, and Cochrane databases was conducted for articles published between 2008 and 2013. Results: A systematization of information and frequency analysis revealed the existence of eight factors related to burden that were present in almost all the reviewed literature: Programs of family treatment, Ethnic group, Expressed Emotion, Stress and Burden, Preoccupations of the caregiver, Kind of caregiver, Social networks, Social support, Finances and Coping Strategies. Conclusions: This study supports the statements of different theories reflecting the complexity of schizophrenia caregivers' burden and these, in turn, may be related to the above factors.
    Full-text · Article · May 2014 · Psicothema
  • Alejandra Caqueo-Urízar

    No preview · Article · Apr 2014 · Revista medica de Chile

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