Alec J Redwood

Alec J Redwood
University of Western Australia | UWA · Institute for Respiratory Health

PhD

About

69
Publications
10,640
Reads
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1,209
Citations
Introduction
Associate Professor Redwood works at the Univeristy of Western Australia. He is a Principle Research Fellow working on neoantigen vaccines for cancer immunotherapy. Dr Redwood is also the head of the Vaccines and Viral Immunity Group which focuses on cytomegaolovirus (CMV) immune evasion and genetics. A particular focus of this group is the use of CMV as a vaccine vector for multiple infectious agents and as a vector for cancer immunotherapy.
Additional affiliations
July 2018 - present
University of Western Australia
Position
  • Fellow
August 2014 - June 2018
Murdoch University
Position
  • Professor (Associate)
January 2001 - present
University of Western Australia
Position
  • Professor (Assistant)

Publications

Publications (69)
Article
Full-text available
The process of tumorigenesis leaves a series of indelible genetic changes in tumor cells, that when expressed, have the potential to be tumor-specific immune targets. Neoantigen vaccines that capitalize on this potential immunogenicity have shown efficacy in preclinical models and have now entered clinical trials. Here we discuss the status of pers...
Article
e21111 Background: Following repeated tumor antigen stimulation, T cells lose functional capacity and become exhausted. T cell exhaustion is a progressive change in phenotype. Early in the pathway, stem-like exhausted T cells (Tex stem ) retain proliferative and cytotoxic potential. However, they differentiate into terminally exhausted T cells (Tex...
Article
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Asbestos-induced preclinical mouse models of mesothelioma produce tumors that are very similar to those that develop in humans and thus represent an ideal platform to study this rare, universally fatal tumor type. Our team and a number of other research groups have established such models as a stepping stone to new treatments, including chemotherap...
Article
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Pre-existing pathogen-specific memory T cell responses can contribute to multiple adverse outcomes including autoimmunity and drug hypersensitivity. How the specificity of the T cell receptor (TCR) is subverted or seconded in many of these diseases remains unclear. Here, we apply abacavir hypersensitivity (AHS) as a model to address this question b...
Article
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Transmissible vaccines have the potential to revolutionize how zoonotic pathogens are controlled within wildlife reservoirs. A key challenge that must be overcome is identifying viral vectors that can rapidly spread immunity through a reservoir population. Because they are broadly distributed taxonomically, species specific, and stable to genetic m...
Article
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Congenital cytomegalovirus (cCMV) infection is the leading infectious cause of neurodevelopmental disorders. However, the neuropathogenesis remains largely elusive due to a lack of informative animal models. In this study, we developed a congenital murine CMV (cMCMV) infection mouse model with high survival rate and long survival period that allowe...
Article
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Diverse applications rely on engineering microbes to carry and express foreign transgenes. This engineered baggage rarely benefits the microbe and is thus prone to rapid evolutionary loss when the microbe is propagated. For applications where a transgene must be maintained for extended periods of growth, slowing the rate of transgene evolution is c...
Article
Neoantigen-specific T cells are strongly implicated as being critical for effective immune checkpoint blockade treatment (ICB) (e.g., anti-PD-1 and anti-CTLA-4) and are being targeted for vaccination-based therapies. However, ICB treatments show uneven responses between patients, and neoantigen vaccination efficiency has yet to be established. Here...
Article
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As the largest herpesviruses, the 230 kb genomes of cytomegaloviruses (CMVs) have increased our understanding of host immunity and viral escape mechanisms, although many of the annotated genes remain as yet uncharacterised. Here we identify the m15 locus of murine CMV (MCMV) as a viral modulator of natural killer (NK) cell immunity. We show that, r...
Article
All tumours harbour unique mutant peptides, some of which are able to elicit T-cell mediated immune responses. These are known as neoantigens. Lung cancers bear a heavy mutational burden and hence many potential neoantigens. Neoantigens are increasingly recognised as key mediators of tumour specific immune activation and have been identified as pot...
Article
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Murine cytomegalovirus (MCMV) is widely used as a model of human CMV (HCMV) infection. However, this model relies on strains of MCMV that have been serially passaged in the laboratory for over four decades. These laboratory strains have been cloned as bacterial artificial chromosomes (BACs), which permits rapid and precise manipulation. Low-passage...
Conference Paper
Full-text available
3292: Neo-antigen specific T cell responses can inform cancer therapy
Article
Abacavir hypersensitivity syndrome (ABC HSS) is strongly associated with carriage of human leukocyte antigen (HLA)-B*57:01, which has a 100% negative predictive value for the development of ABC HSS. However, 45% of individuals who carry HLA-B*57:01 can tolerate ABC. We investigated immune and non-immune related genes in ABC HSS (n = 95) and ABC tol...
Article
Vaccination against Y‐herpesviruses has proved difficult. CD4+ T cells are essential to contain infection, but how best to prime them and whether this can reduce viral loads remain unclear. To address these questions, we used ovalbumin (OVA) as a model antigen, delivering it with Murine cytomegalovirus (MCMV) to protect mice against OVA‐expressing...
Article
Cytomegaloviruses (CMVs) use myeloid cells to move within their hosts. Murine CMV (MCMV) colonizes the salivary glands for long-term shedding, and reaches them via CD11c+ infected cells. A need to recruit patrolling monocytes for systemic spread has been proposed, based on poor salivary gland infection in fractalkine receptor (CX3CR1)-deficient mic...
Article
Capsule summary: Single-cell responses in HLA-B*57:01 abacavir patch test positive skin remote to the acute hypersensitivity reaction demonstrate polyclonal T-cell activation and proliferation characterized by a transcriptional and cellular response consistent with memory responses to altered peptides.
Article
Full-text available
CMVs efficiently target MHC I molecules to avoid recognition by cytotoxic T cells. However, the lack of MHC I on the cell surface renders the infected cell susceptible to NK cell killing upon missing self recognition. To counter this, mouse CMV (MCMV) rescues some MHC I molecules to engage inhibitory Ly49 receptors. Here we identify a new viral pro...
Article
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Background: Vancomycin is a prevalent cause of the severe hypersensitivity syndrome drug reaction with eosinophilia and systemic symptoms (DRESS), which leads to significant morbidity and mortality and commonly occurs in the setting of combination antibiotic therapy, affecting future treatment choices. Variations in HLA class I in particular have...
Article
Adverse drug reactions (ADRs) are a significant health care burden. Immune-mediated adverse drug reactions (IM-ADRs) are responsible for one-fifth of ADRs but contribute a disproportionately high amount of that burden due to their severity. Variation in human leukocyte antigen (HLA) genes has emerged as a potential preprescription screening strateg...
Article
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Tissue-resident memory T (TRM) cells provide first-line defense against invading pathogens encountered at barrier sites. In the lungs, TRM cells protect against respiratory infections, but wane more quickly than TRM cells in other tissues. This lack of a sustained TRM population in the lung parenchyma explains, at least in part, why infections with...
Article
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Upon infection with an intracellular pathogen, cytotoxic CD8 ⁺ T cells develop diverse differentiation states characterized by function, localization, longevity, and the capacity for self-renewal. The program of differentiation is determined, in part, by FOXO1, a transcription factor known to integrate extrinsic input in order to specify survival,...
Chapter
Immune-mediated adverse drug reactions (IM-ADRs) occur because of off-target interactions of medications with immune receptors and result in disproportionately high patient morbidity, mortality, and cost to drug delivery, development, and healthcare systems. IM-ADRs of greatest clinical relevance include Type I IgE-mediated anaphylaxis and delayed...
Article
Stevens-Johnson syndrome/toxic epidermal necrolysis (SJS/TEN) is a life-threatening, immunologically mediated, and usually drug-induced disease with a high burden to individuals, their families, and society with an annual incidence of 1 to 5 per 1,000,000. To effect significant reduction in short- and long-term morbidity and mortality, and advance...
Article
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Genes of the human leukocyte antigen (HLA) system encode cell-surface proteins involved in regulation of immune responses, and the way drugs interact with the HLA peptide binding groove is important in the immunopathogenesis of T-cell mediated drug hypersensitivity syndromes. Nevirapine (NVP), is an HIV-1 antiretroviral with treatment-limiting hype...
Article
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Adverse drug reactions (ADR) can be broadly categorised as either on-target or off-target. On-target ADRs arise as a direct consequence of the pharmacological properties of the drug and are therefore predictable and dose dependant. On-target ADRs comprise the majority (>80%) of ADRs, relate to the drug's interaction with its known pharmacological t...
Article
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Background: For severe cutaneous adverse reactions (SCARs) associated with multiple antibiotics dosed concurrently, clinical causality is challenging and diagnostic approaches are limited, leading to constricted future antibiotic choices. Objective: To examine the combined utility of in vivo and ex vivo diagnostic approaches at assigning drug ca...
Article
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Linked Article: Ye et al. Br J Dermatol 2017; 176:378–386.
Conference Paper
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Table of contents Oral Abstracts O1 Functionally distinct HMGB1 isoforms correlate with physiological processes in drug-induced SJS/TEN Daniel F. Carr, Wen-Hung Chung, Rosalind E. Jenkiins, Mas Chaponda, Gospel Nwikue, Elena M. Cornejo Castro, Daniel J. Antoine, Munir Pirmohamed O2 Hypersensitivity reactions to beta-lactams, does the t cell recogni...
Conference Paper
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Table of contents Poster walk 11: miscellaneous drug hypersensitivity 2 (P92–P94, P96–P101) P92 16 years of experience with proton pump inhibitors (PPIs) Javier Dionicio Elera, Cosmin Boteanu, Maria Aranzazu Jimenez Blanco, Rosario Gonzalez-Mendiola, Irene Carrasco García, Antonio Alvarez, Jose Julio Laguna Martinez P93 Allergy evaluation of quinol...
Article
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Interleukin-22 (IL-22) is a member of the IL-10 family of cytokines. Hematopoietic cells express IL-22, and this cytokine signals through the heterodimeric IL-22R expressed by non-hematopoietic cells. A growing body of evidence points towards a role for IL-22 in a diverse array of biological functions ranging from cellular proliferation, tissue pro...
Article
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Cytomegalovirus vectors are promising delivery vehicles for vaccine strategies that aim to elicit effector CD8+ T cells. To determine how the route of immunization affects CD8+ T-cell responses in the lungs of mice vaccinated with a murine cytomegalovirus vector expressing the respiratory syncytial virus matrix (M) protein, we infected CB6F1 mice v...
Poster
Introduction: HLA class I and class II genotyping has identified patients at risk for both T-cell mediated and IgE/mast cell mediated severe drug hypersensitivity (HSR). Class II HLA-DRA variants have been associated with immediate allergic reactions to beta-lactams and the HLA-DRB1*07:01 allele has been associated with IgE-mediated reactions to as...
Article
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The Alphaherpesvirinae subfamily includes HSV types 1 and 2 and the sequence-divergent pathogen varicella zoster virus (VZV). T cells, controlled by TCR and HLA molecules that tolerate limited epitope amino acid variation, might cross-react between these microbes. We show that memory PBMC expansion with either HSV or VZV enriches for CD4 T cell lin...
Article
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Modern human activity fueled by economic development is profoundly altering our relationship with microorganisms. This altered interaction with microbes is believed to be the major driving force behind the increased rate of emerging infectious diseases from animals. The spate of recent infectious disease outbreaks, including Ebola virus disease and...
Article
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Immunology and Cell Biology focuses on the general functioning of the immune system in its broadest sense, with a particular emphasis on its cell biology. Areas that are covered include but are not limited to: Cellular immunology, Innate and adaptive immunity, Immune responses to pathogens,Tumour immunology,Immunopathology, Immunotherapy, Immunogen...
Article
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Infection with multiple genetically distinct strains of pathogen is common and can lead to positive (complementation) or negative (competitive) within-host interactions. These interactions can alter aspects of the disease process and help shape pathogen evolution. Infection of the host with multiple strains of cytomegalovirus (CMV) infection occurs...
Article
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Author Summary TRAIL death receptors regulate apoptosis and inflammation, and growing evidence suggests their importance in promoting antiviral defenses. Many viruses encode strategies to modulate signaling by TNF family cytokines in order to shape host defenses. Cytomegaloviruses encode many immune modulatory genes, many of which target the TNF fa...
Article
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It is becoming increasingly clear that many diseases are the result of infection from multiple genetically distinct strains of a pathogen. Such multi-strain infections have the capacity to alter both disease and pathogen dynamics. Infection with multiple strains of human cytomegalovirus (HCMV) is common and has been linked to enhanced disease. Sugg...
Data
Surface expression of m157 on infected MEF. MEF were infected with high MOI (>10) and stained for surface expression of m157 using the monoclonal antibody 6H121. 6H121 was raised against the Smith/K181 variant of m157. Uninfected cells (grey shading) were used as controls. Note m157 was only detectable on the surface of MEF infected with K181, soli...
Data
Phylogenetic analysis of published m157 sequences. Sequences of m157 were extracted from DNA databases or produced in this study and used to construct a maximum likelihood phylogeny. Shown in red are m157 genotypes that have been shown to encode products capable of ligating Ly49H. In green are genotypes that produce products that do not ligate Ly49...
Article
The herpesvirus lifestyle results in a long-term interaction between host and invading pathogen, resulting in exquisite adaptation of virus to host. We have sequenced the genomes of nine strains of murine cytomegalovirus (a betaherpesvirus), isolated from free-living mice trapped at locations separated geographically and temporally. Despite this se...
Article
Previous studies have reported on the development of a recombinant murine cytomegalovirus (rMCMV) containing the mouse zona pellucida 3 (mZP3) gene for use as a virally vectored immunocontraceptive (VVIC). This study aimed to alter promoter control over foreign antigen expression and cellular localisation of the antigen expressed in order to overco...
Article
The laboratory strain of murine cytomegalovirus (MCMV), K181, has been successfully engineered as a vaccine expressing murine zona pellucida 3 (mZP3) for viral vectored immunocontraception (VVIC) in mice. However, certain laboratory strains of mice are resistant to infection with K181 and therefore demonstrate resistance to VVIC. Cmv1 is the best c...
Article
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IFN-producing killer dendritic cells (IKDC) represent a recently discovered cell type in the immune system that possesses a number of functions contributing to innate and adaptive immunity, including production of type 1 and 2 IFNs, interleukin (IL)-12, natural killing, and ultimately antigen presentation to naïve T cells. Here, we compared in vitr...
Article
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The mouse cytomegalovirus (CMV), a beta-herpesvirus, exploits its large (~230 kb) double-stranded DNA genome for both essential and non-essential functions. Among the non-essential functions are those that offer the virus a selective advantage in eluding both the innate and adaptive immune responses of the host. Several non-essential genes of MCMV...
Article
We have developed a murine cytomegalovirus (MCMV)-vectored vaccine expressing the mouse zona-pellucida-3 gene (rMCMV-ZP3), which successfully induces infertility in experimentally inoculated laboratory or wild-derived mice. However, the future success of this vector as a fully disseminating vaccine in free-living mice may be compromised by pre-exis...
Article
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Murine cytomegalovirus (MCMV) is widely used to model human cytomegalovirus (HCMV) infection. However, it is known that serially passaged laboratory strains of HCMV differ significantly from recently isolated clinical strains of HCMV. It is therefore axiomatic that clinical models of HCMV using serially passaged strains of MCMV may not be able to f...
Chapter
Murine cytomegalovirus (MCMV) is a very well studied virus of laboratory mice. The discovery of the cytomegaloviruses had its origins in early studies of the etiology of a distinctive cytopathology associated with intranuclear inclusions and cellular enlargement. MCMV research has benefited from the similarities between the diseases caused by human...
Article
Mouse cytomegalovirus (MCMV) has previously been used as a vaccine vector for viral vectored immunocontraception (VVIC). MCMV expressing murine zona pellucida 3 (mZP3) induces long term infertility in up to 100% of female BALB/c mice following a single inoculation. Whilst a large number of antigens have been investigated as potential immunocontrace...
Article
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The wild house mouse (Mus domesticus) is not native to Australia and was introduced from Europe with early settlement. It undergoes periodic population explosions or plagues, which place significant economic and social burdens on agricultural communities. Present control mechanisms rely on improvements to farm hygiene and the use of rodenticides. T...
Article
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Species-specific viruses are being genetically engineered to produce contraceptive biological controls for pest animals such as mice, rabbits and foxes. The virus vaccines are intended to trigger an autoimmune response in the target animals that interferes with their fertility in a process termed virally vectored immunocontraception. Laboratory exp...
Article
Murine cytomegaloviruses encode a number of genes which modulate polymorphic host immune responses. We suggest that these viral genes should themselves therefore exhibit sequence polymorphism. Additionally, clinical isolates of human cytomegalovirus (HCMV) have been shown to vary extensively from the common laboratory strains. Almost all research c...
Article
Cytomegaloviruses are species-specific DNA viruses. Recombinant murine cytomegaloviruse (MCMV) expressing the mouse egg-coat protein zona pellucida 3 (mZP3) has been shown to sterilise female mice by breaking self-tolerance and inducing an immune response against the host ZP3. This virus has the potential to be used for mouse population control, ho...