Aldert Vrij

Aldert Vrij
University of Portsmouth · Department of Psychology

43.27
 · 
PhD

About

389
Publications
157,148
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12,642
Citations

Publications

Publications (389)
Article
Typically, truth-tellers report more detailed statements when interviewed immediately, compared to after delays (displaying forgetting), whereas liars report statements containing similar amounts of detail when interviewed immediately or after a delay (displaying a metacognitive error). Accordingly, the diagnostic utility of the ‘richness-of-detail...
Article
Background Lying through omitting information has been neglected in verbal lie detection research. The task is challenging: Can we decipher from the truthful information a lie teller provides that s/he is hiding something? We expected this to be the case because of lie tellers’ inclination to keep their stories simple. We predicted lie tellers to p...
Preprint
Jang, M., Luke, T. J., Granhag, P. A., & Vrij, A. (2020). The impact of evidence type on police investigators’ perceptions of suspect culpability and evidence reliability. Zeitschrift für Psychologie, 228, 188–198. https://doi.org/10.1027/2151-2604/a000411 --Abstract-- In a repeated-measures experimental study, we examined how evidence type influe...
Article
In a repeated-measures experimental study, we examined how evidence type influences police investigators’ beliefs about (a) suspect’s culpability and (b) reliability of incriminating evidence. South Korean detectives ( N = 202) read four crime reports including general information about a crime and a suspect. In the general case information, one pi...
Article
Training programmes, checklists, and interviewing techniques are being developed to help lie detection. In this experiment, we combined the baseline technique (either comparable truth- where the baseline section is comparable to the section of the interview dealing with the event under investigation, the target section- or small talk- where the bas...
Article
Full-text available
To make veracity judgements in individual cases, practitioners may rely on baselining. That is, they may evaluate a statement relative to a baseline statement that is known to be truthful. We investigated whether a within-statement verbal baseline comparison could enhance discriminatory accuracy. Participants (n = 148) read an alibi statement of a...
Article
In a countermeasures experiment, we examined to what extent liars who learn about the Model Statement tool and about the proportion of complications (complications/complications + common knowledge details + self-handicapping strategies) can successfully adjust their responses so that they sound like truth tellers. Truth tellers discussed a trip the...
Article
Full-text available
Researchers started developing interview techniques to enhance deception detection in forensic settings. One of those techniques is the Model Statement, which has been shown to be effective for eliciting information and cues to deception in single interviews. In the current research, we focused on the effect of the Model Statement in multiple inter...
Article
Full-text available
In this article, we attempt to unravel the misconception about deception and nervous behavior. First we will cite research demonstrating that observers believe lie tellers display more nervous behaviors than truth tellers; that observers pay attention to nervous behaviors when they attempt to detect deception; and that lie tellers actually feel mor...
Article
Full-text available
The literature on information elicitation in psycholegal settings has predominantly focused on the investigator–interviewee dynamic, with little attention to the environment in which the interview takes place. The present study compared the impact of two interview locations on the disclosure of crime‐related information and perceptions of rapport b...
Article
The Self‐Administered Interview (SAI) is a written eyewitness recall tool that elicits more information from cooperative witnesses than written free recall (WFR) formats. To date, SAI research has examined the accounts of cooperative people providing honest reports. In the current experiment, truthful and fabricating participants (N = 128) either c...
Preprint
Abstract: Few studies have examined the potential relationship between evidential interrogation tactics and suspect’s perceived interviewer’s knowledge. Suspect’s perception of interviewer's knowledge refers to the perception of how much incriminating evidence an interrogator holds about the crime and the suspect. In this study, we classified 27 in...
Preprint
Abstract: In the present study, we used a mixed design. We randomly allocated 106 South Korean police interrogators to one of five evidence conditions (DNA, CCTV, fingerprint, eyewitness, and no evidence; between-subject factor). They read an investigation report of a murder case where we manipulated critical evidence with one of the five evidence...
Data
This is part of my research project, which I hope to be published some day. This is an exploratory study without any hypothesis.
Article
Full-text available
Guilt is a complex emotion with a potentially important social function of stimulating cooperative behaviours towards and from others, but whether the feeling of guilt is associated with a recognisable pattern of nonverbal behaviour is unknown. We examined the production and perception of guilt in two different studies, with a total of 238 particip...
Article
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Research has repeatedly shown that accusatory questions posed during an investigative interview are indicative of biased beliefs about suspect guilt. Linguistic research has shown that the verbs used in utterances can be indicative of biased beliefs about another person. In the present study we examined question type and the verbs used in question...
Article
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Research consistently shows that truthful accounts are richer in detail than deceptive accounts. It is unknown, however, how interviewees strategically regulate the information they provide when their accounts contain both truthful and deceptive information. This study examined how truths and lies interact, and whether interviewees’ self-reported s...
Article
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In information gathering interviews, follow‐up questions are asked to clarify and extend initial witness accounts. Across two experiments, we examined the efficacy of open‐ended questions following an account about a multi‐perpetrator event. In Experiment 1, 50 mock‐witnesses used the timeline technique or a free recall format to provide an initial...
Article
Research has attempted to explain perceived cues to deception based upon self‐report of what participants believe are ‘good’ cues to deception, or self‐report of what cues participants say they base their veracity judgements on. However, it is not clear to what extent participants can accurately self‐report what influences their decision‐making. Us...
Article
Full-text available
Purpose. Lie-tellers tend to tell embedded lies within interviews. In the context of intelligence-gathering interviews, human sources may disclose information about multiple events, some of which may be false. In two studies, we examined when lie-tellers from low- and high-context cultures start reporting false events in interviews and to what exte...
Article
Full-text available
The foremost goal of conducting an investigative interview is to obtain as much accurate information as possible. To achieve this, investigators employ a variety of interviewing techniques. Kelly et al. (Psychol Public Policy Law 19:165–178, 2013) proposed a taxonomy interviewing techniques, grouping them into six domains (i.e., Rapport and Relatio...
Article
Full-text available
The aim of this study was to understand if guilty suspects' perceptions regarding the prior information or evidence held by the interviewer against the suspect could be influenced through the content of the investigative questions. To test this idea, we explored three question‐phrasing factors that we labeled as topic discussion (if a specific crim...
Article
In none of the deception studies that used drawings to date, was the effect of sketching on both speech content and drawing content examined, making it unclear what the full potential is of the use of drawings as a lie detection tool. A total of 122 truth tellers and liars took part in the study who did or did not sketch while narrating their alleg...
Article
Full-text available
Recently, researchers have started searching for combinations of verbal cues to deceit and verbal cues to truth. The proportion of complications (complications divided by complications plus common knowledge details plus self-handicapping strategies) is an example of such a combination, as it includes one verbal cue of truth (complications) and two...
Article
Full-text available
When given the opportunity, liars will embed their lies into otherwise truthful statements. In what way this embedding affects the quality of lies, however, remains largely unknown. This study investigated whether lies that are embedded into truthful stories are richer in detail and contain higher quality details compared to lies that are part of e...
Article
The application of alibi witness scenarios to deception detection has been overlooked. Experiment 1 was a study of the verifiability approach in which truth-telling pairs completed a mission together, whereas in lying pairs one individual completed this mission alone and the other individual committed a mock theft. All pairs were instructed to conv...
Article
Full-text available
Meta-analytic findings indicate that the success of unmasking a deceptive interaction relies more on the performance of the liar than on that of the lie detector. Despite this finding, the lie characteristics and strategies of deception that enable good liars to evade detection are largely unknown. We conducted a survey (n = 194) to explore the ass...
Article
Behaviour Detection Officers’ task is to spot potential criminals in public spaces, but scientific research concerning what to look for is scarce. In two experiments, 52 (Experiment 1A) and 60 (Experiment 2A) participants carried out a mission involving a ferry‐crossing. Half were asked to smuggle an object; the other half were non‐smugglers. In Ex...
Article
Verbal lie detection tools are almost exclusively examined in Western Europe and North America, but practitioners worldwide show interest in such tools. Because cultural differences in the efficacy of such tools may occur, it is important to examine their efficacy in different cultures. In this article, we focus on proportion of complications, whic...
Article
Due to time constraints interviews aimed to detect deception in airport settings should be brief and veracity assessments should be made in real time. In two experiments carried out in the departure hall of an international airport, truth tellers were asked to report truthfully their forthcoming trip, whereas liars were asked to lie about the purpo...
Article
Innocent suspects interviewed by a guilt‐presumptive versus innocence‐presumptive or neutral interviewer may tend more to display non‐verbal behaviours which neutral judges consider indicative of guilt. We examined the effects of interviewer's presumption of guilt on innocent mock suspects' alibis. Participants (N = 90) provided an alibi to convinc...
Article
During police interviews, innocent suspects may provide unconvincing alibis due to impaired memory processes or guilt-presumptive behaviour on behalf of the interviewer. Consequently, innocent suspects may be prosecuted and tried in court, where lay people who serve jury duty will assess their alibi’s credibility. To examine lay people’s beliefs an...
Preprint
Full-text available
The aim of this study was to understand how the question-content influences guilty suspects’ inferences regarding prior information held by the interviewer about the suspect’s crime- related activities. We explored three question content factors, namely Topic Discussion (whether a specific crime-related topic was discussed at all), Specificity (cri...
Preprint
Full-text available
The aim of this study was to understand how introducing a higher suspicion tone and specific crime-related details in the content of investigative questions influences inferences guilty suspects draw regarding prior information held by the interviewer. We tested three factors related to the specific content in questions namely level of suspicion (h...
Article
We tested the utility of applying the Verifiability Approach (VA) to witness statements after a period of delay. The delay factor is important to consider because interviewees are often not interviewed directly after witnessing an event. A total of 64 liars partook in a mock crime and then lied about it during an interview, seven days later. Truth...
Article
Truth tellers provide less detail in delayed than in immediate interviews (likely due to forgetting), whereas liars provide similar amounts of detail in immediate and delayed interviews (displaying a metacognitive stability bias effect). We examined whether liar's flawed metacognition after delays could be exploited by encouraging interviewees to p...
Article
Full-text available
Research has shown that a comparable truth baseline (CTB) approach elicits more cues to deception and results in higher accuracy rates than a small talk baseline. Past research focused on laypeople’s accuracy rates. We examined whether the CTB also has a positive effect on law enforcement personnel accuracy. In this study, 95 police officers judged...
Article
Sham marriages occur frequently and, to detect them, partners are sometimes interviewed together. We examined an innovative method to detect deceit in such interviews. Fifty‐three pairs of interviewees, either friends (truth tellers) or pretended to be friends (liars), were interviewed about their friendship. Just before the interview, they receive...
Article
Full-text available
We examined the effects of cognitive load on the strategy selection in the Forced Choice Test (FCT) when used to detect hidden crime knowledge. Examinees (N = 120) with and without concealed knowledge from a mock crime were subjected to a FCT either under standard circumstances or cognitive load. Cognitive load was implemented through time pressure...
Article
Full-text available
Purpose.The quality of information obtained from investigative interviews largely relies on the quality of communication between the interviewee and interviewer. One aspect of the communication process that has yet to be well examined is the environment in which the interviews take place. The present study examined the influence of physical spaciou...
Conference Paper
Since its introduction into the field of deception detection, the verbal channel has become a rapidly growing area of research. The basic assumption is that liars differ from truth tellers in their verbal behaviour, making it possible to classify them by inspecting their verbal accounts. However, as noted in conferences and in private communication...
Conference Paper
Full-text available
Since its introduction into the field of deception detection, the verbal channel has become a rapidly growing area of research. The basic assumption is that liars differ from truth tellers in their verbal behaviour, making it possible to classify them by inspecting their verbal accounts. However, as noted in conferences and in private communication...
Preprint
Journal of Zeitschrift für Psychologie. On Speical Issue 3. To be pulbished in July, 2020. Abstract. In a repeated-measures experimental study, we examined how evidence type influences police investigators’ beliefs about (a) suspect’s culpability and (b) reliability of incriminating evidence. South Korean detectives (N = 202) read four crime report...
Preprint
Full-text available
With Study 1 (N=140), we aimed to examine how different ways of disclosing evidence during an interview would influence guilty suspects’ perception of interviewer’s prior knowledge and elicit statement-evidence inconsistencies. We predicted that interviews with evidence disclosed would elicit low statement-evidence inconsistencies whereas interview...
Article
Full-text available
The Forced Choice Test (FCT) can be used to detect malingered loss of memory or sensory deficits. In this test, examinees are presented with two stimuli, one correct and one incorrect, in regards to a specific event or a perceptual discrimination task. The task is to select the correct answer alternative, or guess if it is unknown. Genuine impairme...
Article
Since interviewees typically say less when an interpreter is present, we examined whether this was caused by interpreters not interpreting everything interviewees says or by interviewees providing less information. We further examined (1) the effect of a model drawing on providing information and (2) the diagnostic value of total details and the pr...
Article
Background We examined a new method to encourage interviewees to say more, the ghostwriter method, and examined its effect on eliciting information and cues to deceit. Method A total of 150 truth tellers and liars either told the truth about a trip they made in the last 12 months or pretended to have made such a trip. They were allocated to a Cont...
Preprint
Full-text available
Our aim was to examine how people communicate their true and false intentions—truths and lies about the future. Based on construal level theory (Trope & Liberman, 2010), we predicted that statements of true intentions would be more concretely phrased than statements of false intentions. Because true intentions refer to more likely future events tha...
Article
Full-text available
Leal, Vrij, Deeb and Jupe (2018) found ‐with British participants‐ that a Model Statement elicited (1) more information and (2) a cue to deceit: After exposure to a Model Statement liars reported significantly more peripheral information than truth tellers. We sought to replicate these findings with Arabs living in Israel. Truth tellers and liars r...
Article
Research has shown that the comparable truth baseline technique outperforms the small talk with respect to the elicitation of cues to deception. However, their impact on observers’ accuracy has not been evaluated yet. In this experiment, participants (N=74) watched ten interviews where senders either lied or told the truth about a set of tasks. Hal...
Article
Research indicates that truthful statements typically contain more details than fabricated statements, and that truth tellers are no more consistent than liars over multiple interviews. In this experiment, we examine the impact of (i) multiple interviewers and (ii) reverse order recall on liars’ and truth tellers’ consistency and amount of reported...
Article
Full-text available
Expectancy effects are known to influence behaviour so that what is expected appears to be true. In this study, expectancy was induced using (fabricated) information about honesty and specific group membership. Targets were tested in a non-accusatory interview environment using neutral and information-gathering questions. It was hypothesized that t...
Article
Full-text available
Most of deception research has focused on past events that were either completely truthful or a complete fabrication. However, people often tell a mixture of truths and lies. This could enable investigators to make within-subjects comparisons between different themes discussed in one interview, which we examined in the current experiment. Seventy-t...
Article
There is consensus about the importance to engage with, and if possible interview, individuals who threaten to cause harm. However, there exists little research on how to conduct such interviews. This article contributes with an experimental approach on threat management interviewing. We explored what types of counter-interview strategies threatene...
Article
The present experiment examined how the interaction between senders’ communicative competence, veracity and the medium through which judgments were made affected observers’ accuracy. Stimuli were obtained from a previous study. Observers (N = 220) judged the truthfulness of statements provided by a good truth teller, a good liar, a bad truth teller...
Article
The verifiability approach (VA) is a lie‐detection tool that examines reported checkable details. Across two studies, we attempt to exploit liar's preferred strategy of repeating information by examining the effect of questioning adult interviewees before the VA. In Study 1, truth tellers (n = 34) and liars (n = 33) were randomly assigned to either...
Article
Full-text available
We have been reliably informed by practitioners that police officers and intelligence officers across the world have started to use the Model Statement lie detection technique. In this article we introduce this technique. We describe why it works, report the empirical evidence that it works, and outline how to use it. Research examining the Model S...
Article
This study examined the joint influence of helpfulness priming and a helpfulness‐focused interpersonal approach on information disclosure in an intelligence interview. We based the research on the theoretical proposition that consistency between an interviewee's primed dispositions and an interviewer's interpersonal approach would facilitate disclo...
Article
In this article, I present my view on the significant developments and theoretical/empirical tipping points in nonverbal and verbal deception and lie detection from the last 30 years and on prospects for future research in this domain. I discuss three major shifts in deception detection research: (a) From observing target persons' nonverbal behavio...
Article
Research has shown that a model statement elicits more information during an interview and that truth tellers and liars report a similar amount of extra information. We hypothesised that veracity differences would arise if the total amount of information would be split up into core details and peripheral details. A total of 119 truth tellers and li...
Article
In forced‐choice tests (FCTs), examinees are typically presented with questions with two equally plausible answer alternatives, of which only one is correct. The rationale underlying this test is that guilty examinees tend to avoid relevant crime information, producing a nonrandom response pattern. The validity of FCTs is reduced when examinees are...
Article
The current study was to test whether reality monitoring and language use could distinguish identity liars from truth tellers when answering outcome questions and unexpected process questions. Truth tellers (n = 30) and liars (n = 30) discussed their identity in a recruitment interview. No differences emerged between truth tellers and liars in the...
Article
Full-text available
We experimentally investigated how different mnemonic techniques employed in an interview conducted immediately after an event affected truth tellers' and liars' responses when they were interviewed again after a 2‐week delay. We also compared how verbal accounts changed over time within truth tellers and liars, and how consistent both groups were....
Article
Purpose The current experiment examined the use of a model statement for aiding lie detection and gathering additional information during interviews in which pairs of suspects were interviewed together (i.e., collective interviewing). A model statement is an example of an answer, unrelated to the topic under investigation, which is played to suspec...
Article
Background ‘Interviewing to detect deception’ research is sparse across different Ethnic Groups. In the present experiment, we interviewed truth tellers and liars from British, Chinese, and Arab origins. British interviewees belong to a low‐context culture (using a communication style that relies heavily on explicit and direct language), whereas Ch...
Article
Full-text available
Several studies on the verifiability approach found that truth-tellers report more verifiable details than liars. Therefore, we wanted to test whether such a difference would emerge in the context of malingered symptoms. We obtained statements from undergraduates (N = 53) who had been allocated to three different conditions: truth-tellers, coached...
Preprint
Full-text available
Expectancy effects are known to influence behaviour so that what is expected appears to be true. In the present study, expectancy was induced using (fabricated) information about honesty and specific group membership. We tested Targets in a non-accusatory interview environment using neutral and information-gathering type questions. We hypothesized...
Article
Full-text available
The foremost goal of an investigative interview is to obtain information from a suspect, witness, or source. Most of the literature on information disclosure during investigative interviews has focused on communication and the interpersonal dynamics between investigator and interviewee. Little attention has been given to the environment in which th...
Article
Full-text available
Recently, verbal credibility assessment has been extended to the detection of deceptive intentions , the use of a model statement, and predictive modeling. The current investigation combines these 3 elements to detect deceptive intentions on a large scale. Participants read a model statement and wrote a truthful or deceptive statement about their p...
Article
Full-text available
Obtaining detailed accounts from individuals who have witnessed complex events under challenging encoding conditions presents a difficulty for investigators. In the present research, participants (N = 132) reported their recall of an event witnessed under full or divided attention using a timeline reporting format. Extending the timeline technique...
Preprint
Full-text available
Expectancy effects are known to influence behaviour so that what is expected appears to be true. In the present study, expectancy was induced using (fabricated) information about honesty and specific group membership. We tested Targets in a non-accusatory interview environment using neutral and information-gathering type questions. We hypothesized...