Aldert Piersma

Aldert Piersma
National Institute for Public Health and the Environment (RIVM) | RIVM · Laboratory for Health Protection Research

About

334
Publications
42,346
Reads
How we measure 'reads'
A 'read' is counted each time someone views a publication summary (such as the title, abstract, and list of authors), clicks on a figure, or views or downloads the full-text. Learn more
10,888
Citations
Citations since 2017
69 Research Items
4657 Citations
20172018201920202021202220230200400600
20172018201920202021202220230200400600
20172018201920202021202220230200400600
20172018201920202021202220230200400600

Publications

Publications (334)
Article
The evaluation of chemical and pharmaceutical safety for humans is moving from animal studies to New Approach Methodologies (NAM), reducing animal use and focusing on mechanism of action, whilst enhancing human relevance. In developmental toxicology, the mechanistic approach is facilitated by the assessment of predictive biomarkers, which allow mec...
Article
The zebrafish embryo (ZE) model provides a developmental model well conserved throughout vertebrate embryogenesis, with relevance for early human embryo development. It was employed to search for gene expression biomarkers of compound-induced disruption of mesodermal development. We were particularly interested in the expression of genes related to...
Article
The zebrafish embryotoxicity test (ZET) is widely used in developmental toxicology. The analysis of gene expression regulation in ZET after chemical exposure provides mechanistic information about the effects of chemicals on morphogenesis in the test. The gene expression response magnitude has been shown to change with exposure duration. The object...
Article
Toxicology is moving away from animal testing towards in vitro tools to assess chemical safety. This new testing framework requires a quantitative method, i.e. kinetic modelling, which extrapolates effective concentrations in vitro to a bioequivalent human dose in vivo and which can be applied on “high throughput screening” of a wide variety of che...
Article
Full-text available
The cardiac embryonic stem cell test (ESTc) is a well-studied non-animal alternative test method based on cardiac cell differentiation inhibition as a measure for developmental toxicity of tested chemicals. In the ESTc, a heterogenic cell population is generated besides cardiomyocytes. Using the full biological domain of ESTc may improve the sensit...
Article
Full-text available
Adverse Outcome Pathways (AOPs) are conceptual frameworks that tie an initial perturbation (molecular initiating event) to a phenotypic toxicological manifestation (adverse outcome), through a series of steps (key events). They provide therefore a standardized way to map and organize toxicological mechanistic information. As such, AOPs inform on ke...
Article
Full-text available
There is an increased awareness that the use of animals for compound-induced developmental neurotoxicity (DNT) testing has limitations. Animal-free innovations, especially the ones based on human stem cell-based models are pivotal in studying DNT since they can mimic processes relevant to human brain development. Here we present the human neural pr...
Article
Full-text available
This manuscript provides a review focused on embryonic stem cell-based models and their place within the landscape of alternative developmental toxicity assays. Against the background of the principles of developmental toxicology, the wide diversity of alternative methods using pluripotent stem cells developed in this area over the past half centur...
Technical Report
Full-text available
Between 1984 and 2006, Ministry of Defence personnel maintained American equipment at the so-called POMS sites (POMS stands for Prepositioned Organizational Materiel Storage) located in the Netherlands. They may have been exposed at the workplace to chromium-6 which was primarily contained in the primer used to paint the equipment. The risk of deve...
Article
With the increasing application of cell culture models as primary tools for predicting chemical safety, the quantitative extrapolation of the effective dose from in vitro to in vivo (QIVIVE) is of increasing importance. For developmental toxicity this requires the scaling in vitro observed dose-response characteristics to in vivo fetal exposure, wh...
Article
Embryonic stem cell differentiation models have increasingly been applied in non-animal test systems for developmental toxicity. After the initial focus on cardiac differentiation, attention has also included an array of neuro-ectodermal differentiation routes. Alternative differentiation routes in the mesodermal and endodermal germ lines have rece...
Article
The cardiac embryonic stem cell test (ESTc) is an in vitro embryotoxicity screen which uses cardiomyocyte formation as the main differentiation route. Studies are ongoing into whether an improved specification of the biological domain can broaden the applicability of the test, e.g. to discriminate between structurally similar chemicals by measuring...
Article
Hexavalent chromium (Cr(VI)) compounds have been studied extensively and several agencies have described their toxicological profile. In the past, personnel of the Dutch Ministry of Defence may have been exposed to Cr(VI) during maintenance activities on NATO equipment. To investigate if this exposure may have caused irreversible adverse health eff...
Article
Oxygen (O2) levels in the mammalian embryo range between 2.4% and 8%. The cardiac embryonic stem cell test (ESTc) is a model for developmental toxicity predictions, which is usually performed under atmospheric O2 levels of 20%. We investigated the chemical sensitivity of the ESTc carried out under 20% O2, using embryonic stem cells (ESC) cultured u...
Article
Hexavalent chromium (Cr(VI)) compounds have been studied extensively and several agencies have described their toxicological profile. In the past, personnel of the Dutch Ministry of Defence may have been exposed to Cr(VI) during maintenance activities. To investigate if this exposure may have caused irreversible adverse health effects, the Dutch Na...
Article
Full-text available
Organ-on-chip (OoC) systems are microfabricated cell culture devices designed to model functional units of human organs by harboring an in vitro generated organ surrogate. In the present study, we reviewed issues and opportunities related to the application of OoC in the safety and efficacy assessment of chemicals and pharmaceuticals, as well as th...
Article
Full-text available
The cardiac embryonic stem cell test (ESTc) originally used the differentiation of beating cardiomyocytes for embryotoxicity screenings of compounds. However, the ESTc consists of a heterogeneous cell population, including neural crest (NC) cells, which are important contributors to heart development in vivo. Molecular markers for NC cells were inv...
Article
Risk assessment of chemicals can be based on toxicology and/or epidemiology. The choice of toxicological or epidemiological data can result in different health-based guidance values (HBGVs). Communicating the underlying argumentation is important to explain these differences to the public and policymakers. In this article, we explore the argumentat...
Article
The 3Rs concept, calling for replacement, reduction and refinement of animal experimentation, is receiving increasing attention around the world, and has found its way to legislation, in particular in the European Union. This is aligned by continuing high-level efforts of the European Commission to support development and implementation of 3Rs meth...
Article
Full-text available
Associations between per-and polyfluoroalkyl substances (PFASs) and increased blood lipids have been repeatedly observed in humans, but a causal relation has been debated. Rodent studies show reverse effects, i.e. decreased blood cholesterol and triglycerides, occurring however at PFAS serum levels at least 100-fold higher than those in humans. Thi...
Article
Animal-free assessment of compound-induced developmental neurotoxicity will most likely be based on batteries of multiple in vitro tests. The optimal battery is built by combining tests with complementary biological domains that together ideally cover all relevant toxicity pathways. Thus, biological domain definition, i.e. which biological processe...
Article
Full-text available
Human induced pluripotent stem cells (iPSCs) can capture the diversity in the general human population as well as provide deeper insight in cellular mechanisms. This makes them suitable to study both fundamental and applied research subjects, such as disease modeling, gene-environment interactions, personalized medicine, and chemical toxicity. In a...
Article
In vitro tests are increasingly applied in chemical hazard assessment. Basic culture conditions may affect the outcome of in vitro tests and should be optimised to reduce false predictions. The neural embryonic stem cell test (ESTn) can predict early neurodevelopmental effects of chemicals, as it mimics the differentiation of stem cells towards the...
Article
The use of the plasticizer diethyl hexyl phthalate (DEHP) in PVC medical devices is being questioned due to its potential reprotoxic effects in patients exposed as a result from migration from the device. This article reviews new information on migration and toxicity data of eleven alternative plasticizers that have previously been evaluated by the...
Article
Human embryonic stem cell neuronal differentiation models provide promising in vitro tools for the prediction of developmental neurotoxicity of chemicals. Such models mimic essential elements of human relevant neuronal development, including the differentiation of a variety of brain cell types and their neuronal network formation as evidenced by sp...
Article
The importance of oxygen tension in in vitro cultures and its effect on embryonic stem cell (ESC) differentiation has been widely acknowledged. Research has mainly focussed on ESC maintenance or on one line of differentiation and only few studies have examined the potential relation between oxygen tension during ESC maintenance and differentiation....
Article
There is a need for in vitro tests for the evaluation of chemicals and pharmaceuticals that may cause developmental neurotoxicity (DNT) in humans. The neural embryonic stem cell test (ESTn) is such an in vitro test that mimics early neural differentiation. The aim of this study was to define the biological domain of ESTn based on the expression of...
Article
Developmental toxicity studies for chemical and pharmaceutical safety are primarily performed in rats. Regulatory frameworks may require testing in a second, non-rodent species, for which the rabbit is usually chosen. This study shows that differences in NOAELs or LOAELs (N(L)OAELs) observed between rat and rabbit developmental toxicity studies per...
Article
This article reflects on possibilities for the application of emerging developments in artificial intelligence and machine learning in chemical safety assessment. A comparison is made between adverse outcome pathway networks and in silico neural networks. The issue of data sufficiency as to current knowledge of the toxicological mechanistic landsca...
Article
In vitro assays to assess developmental neurotoxicity of chemicals are highly desirable. The murine neural embryonic stem cell test (ESTn) can mimic parts of early differentiation of embryonic brain and may therefore be useful for this purpose. The aim of this study was to investigate whether this test is able to rank the toxic potencies of three v...
Poster
Non-animal testing methods, in vitro and in silico, are indispensable for improving human risk assessment of chemicals and reducing the number of laboratory animals used. Such an approach requires a series of complementary in vitro and in silico methods to study effects of chemicals on complex processes, such as embryonic development. The murine ne...
Article
Full-text available
p>The authors regret that in the Results section - 3.7 - the data regarding the inhibition of Cyp26a1 provided by BASF SE were not IC50 values but rather Kd (dissociation constant) values. The authors would like to apologise for any inconvenience caused.</p
Article
Many chemicals are going through a hazard-based classification and labeling process in Europe. Because of the significant public health implications, the best science must be applied in assessing developmental toxicity data. The European Teratology Society and Health and Environmental Sciences Institute co-organized a workshop to consider best prac...
Article
In recent years several OECD test guidelines have been updated and some will be updated shortly with the requirement to measure thyroid hormone levels in the blood of mammalian laboratory species. There is, however, an imperative need for clarification and guidance regarding the collection, assessment, and interpretation of thyroid hormone data for...
Article
Developmental neurotoxicity entails one of the most complex areas in toxicology. Animal studies provide only limited information as to human relevance. A multitude of alternative models have been developed over the years, providing insights into mechanisms of action. We give an overview of fundamental processes in neural tube formation, brain devel...
Article
Aldert piersma (rivm): This report describes the proceedings of the BfR-RIVM workshop on validation of alternative methods which was held 23 and 24 March 2017 in Berlin, Germany. Stakeholders from. governmental agencies, regulatory authorities, universities, industry and the OECD were invited to discuss current problems concerning the regulatory a...
Article
Full-text available
Background: Current developmental toxicity testing adheres largely to protocols suggested in 1966 involving the administration of test compound to pregnant laboratory animals. After more than 50 years of embryo-fetal development testing, are we ready to consider a different approach to human developmental toxicity testing? Methods: A workshop wa...
Article
Full-text available
This consensus statement voices the agreement of scientific stakeholders from regulatory agencies, academia and industry that a new framework needs adopting for assessment of chemicals with the potential to disrupt brain development. An increased prevalence of neurodevelopmental disorders in children has been observed that cannot solely be explaine...
Article
Background: As more information is generated about modes of action for developmental toxicity and more data are generated using high-throughput and high-content technologies, it is becoming necessary to organize that information. This report discussed the need for a systematic representation of knowledge about developmental toxicity (i.e., an onto...
Article
Full-text available
In the present study, we show the value of combining toxico-dynamic and -kinetic in vitro approaches for embryotoxicity testing of azoles. Both the whole embryo culture (WEC) and the embryonic stem cells test (EST) predicted the in vivo potency ranking of twelve tested azoles with moderate accuracy. Combining these results with relative placental t...
Article
Full-text available
We evaluated the effect of six azoles on embryonic development in the rat whole embryo culture (WEC). Using the total morphological scoring system (TMS), we calculated the ID10 concentration (effective dose for 10% decrease in TMS). For evaluating gene specific responses, we combined previously and newly collected transcriptomics data of rat WEC ex...
Article
This review explores the usefulness retinoic acid (RA) related physiological factors as possible biomarkers of embryotoxicity. RA is involved in the morphogenesis of the early embryo as well as in the development and maturation of a wide variety of organ anlagen. The region-specific homeostasis of RA in the embryo is in many ways the driving force...
Article
Full-text available
Differential gene expression analysis in the rat whole embryo culture (WEC) assay provides mechanistic insight into the embryotoxicity of test compounds. In our study, we hypothesized that comparative analysis of the transcriptomes of rat embryos exposed to six azoles (flusilazole, triadimefon, ketoconazole, miconazole, difenoconazole and prothioco...
Article
Full-text available
A database of embryo-fetal developmental toxicity (EFDT) studies of 379 pharmaceutical compounds in rat and rabbit was analyzed for species differences based on toxicokinetic parameters of area under the curve (AUC) and maximum concentration (Cmax) at the developmental lowest adverse effect level (dLOAEL). For the vast majority of cases (83% based...
Article
Full-text available
Regulatory non-clinical safety testing of human pharmaceuticals typically requires embryo–fetal developmental toxicity (EFDT) testing in two species (one rodent and one non-rodent). The question has been raised whether under some conditions EFDT testing could be limited to one species, or whether the testing in a second species could be decided on...
Chapter
The field of transcriptomics has expanded rapidly during the last decades. This methodology provides an exceptional framework to study not only molecular changes underlying the adverse effects of a given compound, but also to understand its Mode of Action (MoA). However, the implementation of transcriptomics-based tests within the regulatory arena...
Article
Embryotoxic responses are critically dependent on the timing of exposure during embryo development. Here, we examined the time- dependent developmental effects in rat embryos exposed to flusilazole (FLU), and their link to retinoic acid (RA) mediated pathways. To this end, we assessed the effects of 4-hour exposure of rat embryos in vitro to 300μM...