Albi Salm

Albi Salm
SubMarineConsulting · R & D: www.SMC-de.com

Prof. (ret.) Exp. Physics

About

45
Publications
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Introduction
Albi Salm currently works at SubMarineConsulting. Albi does research in Diving Physiology, Ocean Engineering, Naval Engineering and Combat Engineering & Decompression Modelling.

Publications

Publications (45)
Presentation
Full-text available
The United States Navy air diving tables from the U.S.N. Diving Manual Revision 7 [1] are widespread in military & professional use all over the world [2]. In fact, the precursor editions of these air-diving tables have or had been adopted by nearly all major civilian diver-training agencies like PADI, NAUI, SSI and the like. We selected several ai...
Preprint
Full-text available
Überblick über Hintergründe & Anwendungen des "K-Wert"- Algorithmus. Der K-Wert ist ein "severity index" zur CNS- & P-OT, den Schädigungen durch hyperbaren Sauerstoff von Ran Arieli et al. [1] bis [5] und alle darin genannten Referenzen.
Presentation
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The mapping of the DCIEM Air-diving table to a standard Haldane-/Workman-/Schreiner-algorithm Abstract: As we demonstrated recently ([1] and all the references therein) selected air-diving schedules from the DCIEM framework ([2] & [3]) could be recovered using a simple desktop decompression shareware with only one additional parameter: a conservat...
Presentation
Full-text available
The DCIEM air diving tables [1] are widespread in professional use [2] and considered conservative due to a low rate of DCS ([3], [4] & [5] and all the references therein). We selected several air diving schedules incl. repetitive dives from the recreational / TEC diving community and tried to recover these schedules from the printed DCIEM tables w...
Presentation
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On the reliability of dive computer generated run-times, Part VI: Error Propagation Abstract: Here, in Part VI, we only point out to the law of error propagation. During the previous 5 parts ([1] to [5] and all the references therein), we observed by some of the dive computer manufacturers deviations from documented algorithms/decompression models...
Presentation
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On the reliability of dive computer generated run-times (22.02.2022) Part IV Here, in Part IV, we checked the DCIEM implementation of one SHEARWATER® dive computer with the original source, the air diving table from the DCIEM Diving Manual [1] along selected table entries. Conclusion: the manufacturers claims on using the DCIEM model could be ver...
Presentation
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On the reliability of dive computer generated run-times 07.02.2022, Part V Here, in Part V, we checked the ZH-L16C implementation of one SHEARWATER® dive computer with the original source, the air diving table ZH-86 from A. A. Bühlmann [2] along selected table entries as well with a freeware/shareware implementation [1], [3] as a 2nd. benchmark. C...
Presentation
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On the reliability of dive computer generated run-times: Part III Here, in Part III, we checked 3 simple run-times with bottom depth 18 m / 60 min, 33 m / 60 min & 51 m / 30 min bottom times on air with the RATIO iX3M DEEP from Dive System® in comparison with the original source, the ZH-86 from A.A. Bühlmann [2] and DIVE Version 3_11 [1] & [3]. C...
Presentation
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Executive editing" is an off hand change of calculated entries in the printed / published versions of diving tables. Usually, nowadays, the tables entries are calculated via an algorithm, written in a high-level computer language, like "FORTRAN" or "C" and thus coded into a piece of software. The deviations from the automated, algorithmically gener...
Presentation
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The ZH-86 air diving tables and A.A. Bühlmanns underlying ZH-L16 algorithms are considered "gold standard" within the recreational diving community, thus they are widely used in decompression planning software and dive computers. In order to achieve a transparent comparability between the various methods of calculating a diving schedule and thus ge...
Presentation
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Risk Assessment in the Norwegian Diving & Treatment Tables: our offer for improvement Abstract: The NDTT 5th. Ed. describes a transparent & straight-forward score-based risk assessment with 3 clear parameters (Ref. [1], p. 65). We used (de-)hydration as a 4th. parameter, based on our experience [2], as an offer for quick & easy improvement.
Presentation
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On the reliability of dive computer generated run-times, 11.01.2022, Part II Abstract: Here, in Part II, we checked a simple run-time (bottom depth 45 m / bottom time 30 min on air) with the 3 different dive computers in comparison with the original source, the ZH-86 from A.A. Bühlmann and two free-ware desktop deco-programs. Results: there is s...
Presentation
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Abstract: a somewhat belated case study for a sub-saturation dive on air to 8.5 m required for a GUINNESS® world-record of 36 h in-door underwater spinning in 2001 Methods: we analyzed the dive profile with the: USN Rev. 7 2018 tables [1], the DCIEM 1983 tables [2] and the shareware DIVE Version 3_11 from 11/2021 [3], [4]. Results: in one of the...
Presentation
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Abstract / Methods / Results: as per Part I. i.e.: DOI: 10.13140/RG.2.2.15199.79528 We compiled lists/descriptions of errors found in the standard diving medicine literature. We scanned our diving medicine archives and looked there for already existing error-reports; typos etc. were ignored. Severe errors are appearing more frequently in monograph...
Presentation
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Abstract: We compiled lists/descriptions of errors found in the standard diving medicine literature. Methods: We scanned our diving medicine archives and looked there for already existing error-reports; typos etc. were ignored. Results: Severe errors are appearing more frequently in monographs. Omnibus Volumes, written by teams of experts, are ob...
Chapter
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Kapitel 14 aus "Dekompression": Fehlerchen im Bühlmann Konvolut, S. 368 - 372
Presentation
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Abstract: in Part I we checked a simple run-time for a dive with: @bottom depth 42 m / bottom time 25 min. with 2 breathing gases (air & Trimix21/50) with the Scubapro/UWATEC G2 computer with various firmware releases from 2017 up to now (08 / 2021). Methods: pls. cf. slides # 3 to 11, and References [1], [2] & [4], [5] Results: there is variati...
Presentation
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The K-value power functions for the central nervous system and pulmonary oxygen toxicity (CNS-OT, P-OT) are described in: [1], [2], [3], [4] & [5], pls. cf. chapter „References“. As Ran et al. would have it ([3], abstract), there is a need for an implementation. Which is what we did ([6], [7], [8], [9]). „Agile“ means here, in the context of IT-...
Conference Paper
Full-text available
If there is more than one inertgas in the breathing mixture, the calculation of the decompression-time td has to be done numerically. We analyzed 480 square / box dive-profiles in the TEC/REC range with one freeware, two commercially available software-packages and via numerical methods (depth range: 30 - 80 m, bottom times: 20 - 60 min, helium per...
Method
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PoC: proof of concept DIVE: a decompression suite as a free-/shareware for: dive / decompression planning with open system / SCUBA bounce/jump/sprint dives in the TEC & recreational domain saturation diving custom models for: diving at reduced ambient pressure, low water temperature diving with high workload / oxygen consumption C&R diving, Caisso...
Presentation
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Abstract: The published french air diving tables MT92 ([1] & [2]) could be mapped via a simple algebraic transformation directly to a standard decompression algorithm based on blood perfusion with a linear relationship between calculated compartment inert gas overpressures and the ambient pressure. With this mapping the MT92 table entries could b...
Presentation
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On the theoretical evaluation of one yo-yo diving profile on air for fish-farming Abstract: A yo-yo diving profile is one with very rapid and repeated depth changes. Due to the speed of depth changes in excess of 20 m/min and the quickly repeated ascents and descents within 1 to 5 min, a standard decompression model based on perfusion or a dive co...
Presentation
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On the statistical probability of contracting a decompression sickness after a single scuba dive on air within a no-decompression-limit The P(DCS) is the statistical probability of contracting a decompression sickness, the NDL are the so-called „No Decompression Limits“, the time limits for dives where a direct ascent to the surface is still possi...
Presentation
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Adaption of a COMEX procedure for recreational bounce dives on air: a COMEX decompression procedure, once developped for deep experimental and saturation dives with Heliox is adapted for the use in the deep diving range for recreational & technical bounce dives on regular breathing air. As well a comparison is done between different staging proto...
Presentation
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A „deep stop“ table for recreational dives on air: Debunked! A "deep stop" table is challenged with 2 box-profiles: the authors claims of reduced decompression stress and additional safety due to deep stops are analyzed. An in-depth analysis of the calculated inertgas partial pressures in theoretical tissue compartments reveals that the additiona...
Presentation
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Ist die DGUV Vorschrift 40 angepaßt für Taucher-“Arbeit“? Die DGUV 40 wird anhand eines exemplarischen Box-Profiles geprüft, inwieweit die körperliche Belastung unter Wasser berücksichtigt ist. Aus den Abweichungen zu bewährten / implementierten Standardmethoden läßt sich zeigen, daß dies nicht der Fall ist. Für anstrengendere Taucher-Arbeiten wir...
Presentation
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Comparison of the air diving tables DCIEM and ZH-86 with DGUV Vorschrift 40 and DIVE Version 3_09 (english version of: DOI: 10.13140/RG.2.2.28277.40169) DGUV follows precisely the ZH-86 within the „protective envelope“(< 30 m, < 30 min). Marginal deviations of +/- 1 min per ZH-86 resp. DIVE Version 3_09 stem, among others, from different ascent ra...
Presentation
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Is the „DGUV Vorschrift 40“ adequate for underwater-“work“? The DGUV 40 is challenged with a certain paradigm of one box profile to check whether this regulation is adequate for underwater work, i.e.: physical workload. According to other approved methods this seems to be not the case. Thus the recommendation is not to use the DGUV 40 for strenous...
Presentation
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Vergleich der Pressluft-Tabellen ZH-86 und DGUV Vorschrift 40 mit DCIEM und DIVE Version 3_09 anhand exemplarischer Box-Profile Zusammenfassung: DGUV folgt präzise ZH-86 innerhalb der „schützenden Einhüllenden“(< 30 m, < 30 min). Marginale Abweichungen +/- 1 min zu ZH-86 bzw. DIVE Version 3_09 rühren u.a. von den unterschiedlichen Aufstiegsgeschw...
Presentation
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ZH-L12: Validation of an old (1982) experimental Heliox jump dive (30 m, 120 min): Question: could we verify the old ZH-L12 decompression profile with a topical desktop deco software?
Article
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This little essay gives a short primer on „catastophe theory“ and tries to give connections to decompression sickness (DCS). The surface of a cuspoid, non-linear potential function and the derivatives are linked to P(DCS), the statistical probability of contracting DCS and to Hemplemans decompression stress assessment.
Presentation
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"Historical Divetables" gives an overview of ca. 110 years of dive tables development, tests and the results: the printed tables. There are copies & extracts of 24 tables and 2 procedures. "Historische Tauchtabellen" gibt einen Überblick über ca. 110 Jahre Entwicklung, Test und die Ergebnisse, die gedruckten Tabellen. Es gibt 24 Tabellen, komplett...
Presentation
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The relative and absolute performance of 4 dive computers on a controlled bounce dive to 50 m on air: 4 standard dive computers (Scubapro G2, Aladin TEC 2G, Ratio iX3m and Cochran EMC-20 H) are compared relative to each other and with well-tried air diving tables like: United States Navy USN old 1990, USN new 2018, DCIEM 1992, DRÄGER 1984 and Dec...
Preprint
Full-text available
the following is an essay on some aspects of DCS and the relation to just one of the 7 so-called elementary catastrophes, the cusp. Thus it is not a strict scientific paper, neither in form nor in contents but delineates a couple of preliminary thoughts on the topic, intended to raise awareness or as a basis for further discussions. As well this s...
Article
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Fats- & superfast compartments
Conference Paper
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Basics of dual phase theory and its application in diving. What is “Dual Phase”? (only short) Overview on Bubble Models basic bubble physics, kavitation and tribonucleation, bubble dynamics and evolution: Why does a bubble exist and why does it grow or shrink? The critical diameter concept The role of bubble seeds (gas nuclei) How does a bubble ex...
Preprint
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Über schnelle und superschnelle Kompartimente, in: CAISSON, Jg. 33, Nr. 2, April 2018, S. 6 - 19
Preprint
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Essay on Fast and Superfast Compartments
Preprint
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Preprint
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Dive computers for mixed gas diving and PC software for decompression calculations are often considered as 'black boxes' to the diver: they perform part of their function-the calculation of a decompression schedule-but leave the user in a somewhat nebulous state about the relative safety of this schedule. This is because, in reality, the technology...
Preprint
Full-text available
If there is more than one inertgas in the breathing mixture, the calculation of the decompression-time t d has to be done numerically. We analyzed 480 square dive-profiles in the TEC/REC range with one freeware, two commercially available software-packages and via numerical methods (depth range: 30-80 m, bottom times: 20-60 min, helium percentage:...
Chapter
Full-text available
Chapter 5 of 2nd edition: the 3rd edition (ISBN 978-3-87247-771-2) will be available soon! A. Salm: Weltweit bewegen sich Menschen unter Wasser: als Forscher, Soldaten, Arbeiter in Fischfarmen oder Tunnelbauten, Retter, Polizisten und Freizeitsportler. Den größten Anteil machen die Freizeitsportler aus. In diesem Segment tummeln sich auch die so g...
Article
Full-text available
A Salm CAISSON 26. Jg./2011/Nr. 3 4 www.gtuem.org Grundlagen Mit 'Algorithmus' ist die Rechenvorschrift für eine Inertgas-Buchhaltung bei einer Überdruck-Exposition subsummiert, mit 'Implementierung' die praktische Umsetzung dieses Algorithmus in eine Desktop-Deco-Software für den PC oder auch in eine Hardware, den Tauchcomputer. Mit 'Gradientenf...

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Projects

Projects (2)
Project
" ... helping to bring the time of Bühlmanns work in Zurich back to present and link it with current research and science." (citation, guideword from the organisers)