Alberto C Naveira Garabato

Alberto C Naveira Garabato
National Oceanography Centre, Southampton | NOCS

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122
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Publications

Publications (122)
Article
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Future sea-level rise projections carry large uncertainties, mainly driven by the unknown response of the Antarctic Ice Sheet to climate change. During the past four decades, the contribution of the East Antarctic Ice Sheet to sea-level rise has increased. However, unlike for West Antarctica, the causes of East Antarctic ice-mass loss are largely u...
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Plain Language Summary Near‐inertial waves (NIWs) are excited mainly by variable winds at the ocean surface and can carry their energy into the ocean interior, thus playing an important role in mixing the deep ocean. However, the propagation behaviors of NIWs, and how such waves are affected by mesoscale and submesoscale processes, are still unders...
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Plain Language Summary Sub‐Antarctic Mode Waters (SAMW) form during vigorous, deep winter mixing at the northern edge of the Antarctic Circumpolar Current (ACC). SAMW constitute an important portion of the upper ocean volume, and slow down climate change by storing vast amounts of anthropogenic heat and carbon. SAMW also transport Southern Ocean nu...
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Plain Language Summary The Southern Ocean circulation has a strong impact on the global climate. Yet, the variability of the subpolar circulation features is poorly known due to the large sea ice cover, especially in winter. Here, we benefit from new satellite measurements, enabling us to measure ocean circulation in both the ice‐covered and open r...
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Small-scale turbulent mixing plays a pivotal role in shaping ocean circulation and a broad range of physical and biogeochemical processes. Despite advances in our understanding of the geophysical processes responsible for this mixing, the nature and importance of biomixing—turbulent mixing caused by marine biota—are still debated. A major source of...
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The fate of mesoscale eddy kinetic energy represents a large source of uncertainty in the global ocean energy budget. Satellite altimetry suggests that mesoscale eddies vanish at ocean western boundaries. However, the fate of the eddies’ kinetic energy remains poorly known. Here we show that the generation of small-scale turbulence as eddy flow imp...
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Sustaining biological export over the open ocean requires a physical supply of nutrients to the mixed layer and thermocline. The relative importance of diapycnal mixing, diapycnal advection, and isopycnal stirring by mesoscale eddies in providing this nutrient supply is explored using a field campaign in oligotrophic waters in the subtropical North...
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Quantifying and understanding the processes driving turbulent mixing around Antarctica are key to closing the Southern Ocean's heat budget, an essential component of the global climate system. In 2016, a glider deployed in Ryder Bay, West Antarctic Peninsula, collected hydrographic and microstructure data, obtaining some of the first direct measure...
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Water-mass transformation by turbulent mixing is a key part of the deep-ocean overturning, as it drives the upwelling of dense waters formed at high latitudes. Here, we quantify this transformation and its underpinning processes in a small Southern Ocean basin: the Orkney Deep. Observations reveal a focussing of the transport in density space as a...
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The Galápagos archipelago, rising from the eastern equatorial Pacific Ocean some 900 km off the South American mainland, hosts an iconic and globally significant biological hotspot. The islands are renowned for their unique wealth of endemic species, which inspired Charles Darwin’s theory of evolution and today underpins one of the largest UNESCO W...
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Antarctic Bottom Water (AABW) supplies the lower limb of the global overturning circulation, ventilates the abyssal ocean and sequesters heat and carbon on multidecadal to millennial timescales. AABW originates on the Antarctic continental shelf, where strong winter cooling and brine released during sea ice formation produce Dense Shelf Water, whic...
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The evolution of upper-ocean potential vorticity (PV) over a full year in a typical mid-ocean area of the Northeast Atlantic is examined using submesoscale- and mesoscale-resolving hydrographic and velocity measurements from a mooring array. A PV budget framework is applied to quantitatively document the competing physical processes responsible for...
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Mesoscale eddies are ubiquitous dynamical features that tend to propagate westward and disappear along ocean western boundaries. Using a multiscale observational study, we assess the extent to which eddies dissipate via a direct cascade of energy at a western boundary. We analyze data from a ship-based microstructure and velocity survey, and an 18-...
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Turbulent mixing from breaking oceanic internal waves drives a vertical transport of water, heat and other climatically important tracers in the ocean, thereby playing an important role in shaping the circulation and distributions of heat and carbon within the climate system. However, linking internal wave-driven mixing to its impacts on climate po...
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The Amundsen Sea has the highest thinning rates of ice shelves in Antarctica. This imbalance is caused by changes in ocean melting induced by warm Circumpolar Deep Water (CDW) intrusions. The resulting changing freshwater balance could affect the on-shelf currents and mixing. However, a clear understanding of the sources and sinks of freshwater in...
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The changing supply of warm Circumpolar Deep Water (CDW) to the West Antarctic continental shelf is responsible for the basal melting and thinning of the West Antarctic ice shelves that has occurred in recent decades. Here we assess the variability in CDW supply, and its drivers, from a multiyear mooring deployed in, and a regional ocean model span...
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The physical mechanisms that remove energy from the Southern Ocean’s vigorous mesoscale eddy field are not well understood. One proposed mechanism is direct transfer of energy to the internal wave field in the ocean interior, via eddy-induced straining and shearing of pre-existing internal waves. The magnitude, vertical structure and temporal varia...
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Plain Language Summary Deep ocean basins are filled with dense waters that form at high latitudes and sink to the abyss. The overturning circulation of the ocean, a key regulator of the climate system, is only feasible if such dense waters can resurface. The breaking of internal waves makes such resurfacing possible. In the deep ocean, internal wav...
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Abstract The ocean surface boundary layer is a critical interface across which momentum, heat, and trace gases are exchanged between the oceans and atmosphere. Surface processes (winds, waves, and buoyancy forcing) are known to contribute significantly to fluxes within this layer. Recently, studies have suggested that submesoscale processes, which...
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Plain Language Summary Oceanic submesoscale flows, with typical spatial scales of 1 km, are key to providing a dynamical route from energetic mesoscale eddies (10–100 km) to turbulent microscales (∼1 cm). A submesoscale phenomenon thought to draw kinetic energy from mesoscale currents and transfer it to turbulent dissipative processes is symmetric...
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In the Southern Ocean the Antarctic Circumpolar Current is significantly steered by large topographic features, and subpolar gyres form in their lee. The geometry of topographic features in the Southern Ocean is highly variable, but the influence of this variation on the large-scale flow is poorly understood. Using idealized barotropic simulations...
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The lower limb of the Atlantic overturning circulation is resupplied by the sinking of dense Antarctic Bottom Water (AABW) that forms via intense air–sea–ice interactions next to Antarctica, especially in the Weddell Sea. In the last three decades, AABW has warmed, freshened and declined in volume across the Atlantic Ocean and elsewhere, suggesting...
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Variability in the heat delivery by Circumpolar Deep Water (CDW) is responsible for modulating the basal melting of the Amundsen Sea ice shelves. However, the mechanisms controlling the CDW inflow to the region’s continental shelf remain little understood. Here, a high-resolution regional model is used to assess the processes governing heat deliver...
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The net rate of freshwater input to the Arctic Ocean has been calculated in the past by two methods: directly, as the sum of precipitation, evaporation and runoff, an approach hindered by sparsity of measurements, and by the ice and ocean budget method, where the net surface freshwater flux within a defined boundary is calculated from the rate of d...
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The Argo Program has been implemented and sustained for almost two decades, as a global array of about 4000 profiling floats. Argo provides continuous observations of ocean temperature and salinity versus pressure, from the sea surface to 2000 dbar. The successful installation of the Argo array and its innovative data management system arose opport...
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The Argo Program has been implemented and sustained for almost two decades, as a global array of about 4000 profiling floats. Argo provides continuous observations of ocean temperature and salinity versus pressure, from the sea surface to 2000 dbar. The successful installation of the Argo array and its innovative data management system arose opport...
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Global climate is critically sensitive to physical and biogeochemical dynamics in the subpolar Southern Ocean, since it is here that deep, carbon-rich layers of the world ocean outcrop and exchange carbon with the atmosphere. Here, we present evidence that the conventional framework for the subpolar Southern Ocean carbon cycle, which attributes a d...
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The overturning circulation of the global ocean is critically shaped by deep-ocean mixing, which transforms cold waters sinking at high latitudes into warmer, shallower waters. The effectiveness of mixing in driving this transformation is jointly set by two factors: the intensity of turbulence near topography and the rate at which well-mixed bounda...
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Turbulent mixing in the ocean is key to regulate the transport of heat, freshwater and biogeochemical tracers, with strong implications for Earth's climate. In the deep ocean, tides supply much of the mechanical energy required to sustain mixing via the generation of internal waves, known as internal tides, whose fate-the relative importance of the...
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Numerical simulations suggest that submesoscale turbulence may transform lateral buoyancy gradients into vertical stratification, and thus restratify the upper ocean via vertical flow. However, the observational evidence for this restratifying process has been lacking due to the difficulty in measuring such ephemeral phenomena, particularly over pe...
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The traditionally divergent perspectives of the Arctic Ocean freshwater budget provided by control volume-based and geochemical tracer-based approaches are reconciled, and the sources of inter-approach inconsistencies identified, by comparing both methodologies using an observational data set of the circulation and water mass properties at the basi...
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The upwelling of deep waters in the Southern Ocean is a critical component of the climate system. The time‐ and zonal‐mean dynamics of this circulation describe the upwelling of Circumpolar Deep Water and the downwelling of Antarctic Intermediate Water. The thermodynamic drivers of the circulation and their seasonal cycle play a potentially key reg...
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The rate of dissipation of turbulent kinetic energy is estimated using Seaglider observations of vertical water velocity in the midlatitude North Atlantic. This estimate is based on the large-eddy method, allowing the use of measurements of turbulent energy at large scales O(1–10 m) to diagnose the rate of energy dissipated through viscous processe...
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This paper presents the first estimate of the seasonal cycle of ocean and sea ice net heat and freshwater (FW) fluxes around the boundary of the Arctic Ocean. The ocean transports are estimated primarily using 138 moored instruments deployed in September 2005 to August 2006 across the four main Arctic gateways: Davis, Fram and Bering Straits, and t...
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Tectonic landforms reveal that the West Antarctic Ice Sheet (WAIS) lies atop a major volcanic rift system. However, identifying subglacial volcanism is challenging. Here we show geochemical evidence of a volcanic heat source upstream of the fast-melting Pine Island Ice Shelf, documented by seawater helium isotope ratios at the front of the Ice Shel...
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Year‐round variability in the Ross Gyre (RG), Antarctica, during 2011–2015, is derived using radar altimetry. The RG is characterized by a bounded recirculating component and a westward throughflow to the south. Two modes of variability of the sea surface height and ocean surface stress curl are revealed. The first represents a large‐scale sea surf...
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In this work, we use realistic isopycnal velocities with a 3-D eddy diffusivity to advect and diffuse a tracer in the Antarctic Circumpolar Current, beginning in the Southeast Pacific and progressing through Drake Passage. We prescribe a diapycnal diffusivity which takes one value in the SE Pacific west of 67°W and another value in Drake Passage ea...
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The lifecycle of semidiurnal internal tides over the Mid-Atlantic Ridge (MAR) sector south of the Azores is investigated using in situ, a high-resolution mooring and microstructure profiler, and satellite data, in combination with a theoretical model of barotropic-to-baroclinic tidal energy conversion. The mooring analysis reveals that the internal...
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Submesoscale processes have been extensively studied in observations and simulations of fronts. Recent idealized simulations show that submesoscale instabilities also occur in baroclinic mesoscale cyclones and anticyclones. The instabilities in the anticyclone grow faster and at coarser grid resolution than in the cyclone. The instabilities lead to...
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The processes regulating ocean ventilation at high latitudes are re-examined based on a range of observations spanning all scales of ocean circulation, from the centimetre scales of turbulence to the basin scales of gyres. It is argued that high-latitude ocean ventilation is controlled by mechanisms that differ in fundamental ways from those that s...
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A high-resolution satellite image that reveals a train of coherent, submesoscale (6-km) vortices along the edge of an ocean front is examined in concert with hydrographic measurements in an effort to understand formation mechanisms of the submesoscale eddies. The infrared satellite image consists of ocean surface temperatures at ∼390-m resolution o...
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The ocean-to-atmosphere heat budget of the West Antarctic Peninsula is controlled in part by the upward flux of heat from the warm Circumpolar Deep Water (CDW) layer that resides below ~200 m to the Antarctic Surface Water (AASW), a water mass which varies strongly on a seasonal basis. Upwelling and mixing of CDW influence the formation of sea ice...
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Lee waves are thought to play a prominent role in Southern Ocean dynamics, facilitating a transfer of energy from the jets of the Antarctic Circumpolar Current to microscale, turbulent motions important in water mass transformations. Two EM-APEX profiling floats deployed in the Drake Passage during the Diapycnal and Isopycnal Mixing Experiment (DIM...
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The instability and accelerated melting of the Antarctic Ice Sheet are among the foremost elements of contemporary global climate change. The increased freshwater output from Antarctica is important in determining sea level rise, the fate of Antarctic sea ice and its effect on the Earth's albedo, ongoing changes in global deep-ocean ventilation, an...
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Interannual variability in the volumetric water mass distribution within the North Atlantic subtropical gyre is described in relation to variability in the Atlantic Meridional Overturning Circulation. The relative roles of diabatic and adiabatic processes in the volume and heat budgets of the subtropical gyre are investigated by projecting data int...
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The Amundsen Sea is a key region of Antarctica where ocean, atmosphere, sea ice, and ice sheet interact. For much of Antarctica, the relatively warm water of the open Southern Ocean (a few degrees above freezing) does not reach the Antarctic continental shelf in large volumes under current climate conditions. However, in the Amundsen Sea, warm wate...
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Ice shelves around Antarctica are vulnerable to an increase in ocean-driven melting, with the melt rate depending on ocean temperature and the strength of circulations inside the ice-shelf cavities. We present measurements of velocity, temperature, salinity, turbulent kinetic energy dissipation rate and thermal variance dissipation rate beneath Pin...
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The distribution of noble gases and helium isotopes in the dense shelf waters of Antarctica reflect the boundary conditions near the ocean surface: air-sea exchange, sea ice formation and subsurface ice melt. We use a non-linear least-squares solution to determine the value of the recharge temperature and salinity, as well as the excess air injecti...
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The hypothesis that the impingement of mesoscale eddy flows on small-scale topography regulates diapycnal mixing and meridional overturning across the deep Southern Ocean is assessed in an idealised model. The model simulates an eddying circumpolar current coupled to a double-celled meridional overturning with properties broadly resembling those of...