Alberto E Minetti

Alberto E Minetti
University of Milan | UNIMI · Department of Pathophysiology and Transplantation

About

158
Publications
61,808
Reads
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7,087
Citations
Additional affiliations
January 2012 - present
Odense University Hospital, University of South Denmark
Position
  • Honorary Professor of Computer Science in Medicine
January 2006 - present
University of Milan
Position
  • Università degli studi di Milano
June 1999 - December 2006
Manchester Metropolitan University
Education
September 1984 - September 1987
University of Milan
Field of study
  • Specialty Course in Biostatistics
September 1975 - September 1981
University of Milan
Field of study
  • Medicine

Publications

Publications (158)
Article
New findings: What is the topic of this review? This narrative review explores past and recent findings on the mechanical determinants of energy cost during human locomotion, obtained by using a mechanical approach based on König's theorem (Fenn's approach). What advances does it highlight? Recent developments in analytical methods and of their ap...
Article
Full-text available
PurposeOn level, the metabolic cost (C) of backward running is higher than forward running probably due to a lower elastic energy recoil. On positive gradient, the ability to store and release elastic energy is impaired in forward running. We studied running on level and on gradient to test the hypothesis that the higher metabolic cost and lower ef...
Article
The aim of this paper is to investigate the mechanical and metabolic reasons of the spontaneous gait/speed choice of ascending short flight of stairs, where walking on every step or running on every other step are frequently interchangeable options. Twenty-four subjects' kinematics, oxygen uptake ( V̇ O 2 ), ventilation and heart rate were sampled...
Article
Full-text available
Joint friction has never previously been considered in the computation of mechanical and metabolic energy balance of human and animal (loco)motion, which heretofore included just muscle work to move the body centre of mass (external work) and body segments with respect to it. This happened mainly because, having been previously measured ex vivo, fr...
Article
A few years before Apollo Missions to Moon, locomotion physiologists promoted research and discussion about the potential adaptation of human body, the musculo-skeletal apparatus in particular, to an environment subject to a much smaller gravity acceleration than on Earth. Rodolfo Margaria and Giovanni Cavagna, who had just started investigating th...
Article
Full-text available
Race walking has been theoretically described as a walking gait in which no flight time is allowed and high travelling speed, comparable to running (3.6–4.2 m s−1), is achieved. The aim of this study was to mechanically understand such a “hybrid gait” by analysing the ground reaction forces (GRFs) generated in a wide range of race walking speeds, w...
Article
Full-text available
Sprint running is a common feature of many sport activities. The ability of an athlete to cover a distance in the shortest time relies on his/her power production. The aim of this study was to provide an exhaustive description of the mechanical determinants of power output in sprint running acceleration and to check whether a predictive equation fo...
Article
Biomechanics (and energetics) of human locomotion are generally studied at constant, linear, speed whereas less is known about running mechanics when velocity changes (because of accelerations , decelerations or changes of direction). The aim of this study was to calculate mechanical work and power and to estimate mechanical efficiency in shuttle r...
Article
Full-text available
Background Previous research has shown that use of a dynamic-response prosthetic foot (DRF) that incorporates a small passive hydraulic ankle device (hyA-F), provides certain biomechanical benefits over using a DRF that has no ankle mechanism (rigA-F). This study investigated whether use of a hyA-F in unilateral trans-tibial amputees (UTA) addition...
Poster
Full-text available
An investigation into the additional internal mechanical work of locomotion due to friction within human joints.
Article
Controlled experimental protocols for metabolic cost assessment of speed changing locomotion are quite complex to be designed and managed. The use of the 'equivalent slope', i.e. the gradient locomotion at constant speed metabolically equivalent to a level progression in acceleration, proved to be useful to estimate the metabolic cost of speed chan...
Chapter
Understanding the biomechanics of Alpine skiing is fundamental to the design of training protocols, to identify the metabolic burden of athletes and to help preventing traumas. Despite the apparent simplicity of the overall mechanics related to a descent with skiis, the scientific community is still uncertain about the role of muscle contraction in...
Poster
Full-text available
Biociencias Estudio biomecánico de los cambios de mano en el galope diagonal del caballo (Equus caballus L., 1758) Palabras clave: Locomoción, Miembro líder, Galope diagonal. El galope transverso o diagonal es un tipo de paso asimétrico que admite dos distribuciones: decimos que un caballo realiza galope derecho cuando las patas más adelantadas son...
Article
Full-text available
Maximum aerobic power (V˙O2peak) as an indicator of body fitness is today a very well-known concept not just for athletes but also for the layman. Unfortunately, the accurate measurement of that variable has remained a complex and exhaustive laboratory procedure, which makes it inaccessible to many active people. In this paper we propose a quick es...
Article
Comment on: "How Biomechanical Improvements in Running Economy Could Break the 2-Hour Marathon Barrier''
Article
Full-text available
The dynamics of body center of mass (BCoM) 3D trajectory during locomotion is crucial to the mechanical understanding of the different gaits. Forward Dynamics (FD) obtains BCoM motion from ground reaction forces while Inverse Dynamics (ID) estimates BCoM position and speed from motion capture of body segments. These two techniques are widely used b...
Article
Full-text available
Dam walls are like open laboratories useful to study the gradient limits of locomotion. Two dam walls, where Alpine ibex (Capra ibex) use to climb searching for the salty exuded, were filmed at 0.2 fps. The straight slope of the walls ranged from 123% to almost vertical. In total 54 animals were filmed and their body mass estimated as medium size,...
Article
The use of poles during Nordic Walking (NW) actively engages the upper body to propel the body forward during walking. Evidence suggests that NW leads to a longer stride and higher speed, and sometimes to increased ground reaction forces with respect to conventional walking (W). The aim of this study was to investigate if NW is associated with diff...
Article
Full-text available
Purpose: Acceleration and deceleration phases characterise shuttle running (SR) compared to constant speed running (CR); mechanical work is thus expected to be larger in the former compared to the latter, at the same average speed (v mean). The aim of this study was to measure total mechanical work (W tot (+) , J kg(-1) m(-1)) during SR as the sum...
Article
Recumbent bicycles (RB) are high performance, human-powered vehicles. In comparison to normal/upright bicycles (NB) the RB may allow individuals to reach higher speeds due to aerodynamic advantages. The purpose of this investigation was to compare the non-aerodynamic factors that may potentially influence the performance of the two bicycles. 3D bod...
Article
Previous literature on the effects of low gravity on the mechanics and energetics of human locomotion already dealt with walking, running and skipping. The aim of the present study is to obtain a comprehensive view on that subject by including measurements of human hopping in simulated low gravity, a gait often adopted in many Apollo Missions and d...
Conference Paper
Horses and dogs sensu lato are gregarious cursorial mammals that live in open-mixed habitats. They share long and thin limbs and transverse gallop as elective running gait1. While horses are “forced” transverse galloper, dogs can employ rotary gallop during short high-speed sprints, which permits them to reach relevant top speeds, in the order of 5...
Article
Full-text available
Estimation of human oxygen uptake (_ Vo 2) during exercise is often used as an alternative when its direct measurement is not feasible. The American College of Sports Medicine (ACSM) suggests estimating human _ Vo 2 during exercise on a cycle ergometer through an equation that considers individual's body mass and external work rate, but not pedalin...
Article
Full-text available
A model to predict the mechanical internal work of breaststroke swimming was designed. It allowed us to explore the frequency-internal work relationship in aquatic locomotion. Its accuracy was checked against internal work values calculated from kinematic sequences of eight participants swimming at three different self-chosen paces. Model predictio...
Article
Full-text available
Repetitive stresses and movements on the shoulder in the volleyball spike expose this joint to overuse injuries, bringing athletes to a career threatening injury. Assuming that specific spike techniques play an important role in injury risk, we compared the kinematic of the traditional (TT) and the alternative (AT) techniques in 21 elite athletes,...
Article
Hypogravity challenges bipedal locomotion in its common forms. However as previously theoretically and empirically suggested, humans can rely on 'skipping', a less common gait available as a functional analogue (perhaps a vestigium) of quadrupedal gallop, to confidently move when gravity is much lower than on Earth. We set up a 17 m tall cavaedium...
Article
Full-text available
This review aims to provide both researchers and coaches with a comprehensive overview of race walking biomechanics and to point out new viable route for future analyses. The examined literature has been divided into three categories according to the method of analysis: kinematics, ground reaction forces and joint power/efficiency. From an overall...
Article
Most of the inverse modeling of body dynamics in sports assumes that every segment is 'rigid' and moves 'as a whole', although we know that uncontrolled wobbling masses exist and in specific condition their motion should be optimized, both in engineering and biology. The visceral mass movement within the trunk segment potentially interferes with re...
Article
Full-text available
Abstract Overuse injuries are predominant in sports involving the repetition of similar movements patterns, such as in volleyball or beach volleyball, and they may represent as much a problem as do acute injuries. This review discusses the prevalence of two of the most common overuse-related injuries in volleyball: shoulder and back/spine injuries....
Article
Full-text available
We hypothesized that, as occurring in cars, body structural asymmetries could generate asymmetry in the kinematics/dynamics of locomotion, ending up in a higher metabolic cost of transport, i.e. more ‘fuel’ needed to travel a given distance. Previous studies found the asymmetries in horses’ body negatively correlated with galloping performance. In...
Conference Paper
Full-text available
Most of the inverse modelling of body dynamics in sports assumes that every segment is ‘rigid’ and moves 'as a whole', although we know that uncontrolled wobbling masses exist and in specific condition their motion should be optimised, both in engineering and biology. The visceral mass movement within the trunk segment potentially interferes with r...
Conference Paper
Dam walls are like open laboratories useful to study the gradient limits of locomotion. A 64 m high dam wall, where Alpine ibex use to climb searching for the salty exuded, was filmed at 0.2 fps. The straight slope of the wall was 123% from ground to 31 m, then 157% for 22 m, and then almost vertical. In total 33 animals were filmed and their body...
Article
Full-text available
Objectives: The purpose of this study was to analyse energetic and biomechanical parameters of sprinting on sand surface, aimed at the evaluation of inherent aspects of soccer training programs, injury prevention and recovery processes. Design: Twenty-nine professional soccer players took part in this study: they performed maximal sprints and ma...
Article
Full-text available
Although most of the literature on locomotion energetics and biomechanics is about constant speed experiments, humans and animals tend to move at variable speed in their daily life. This paper addresses the following questions: 1) how much extra metabolic energy is associated to travelling a unit distance by adopting acceleration/deceleration cycle...
Article
Walking and running in low gravity cannot be used at useful speeds, while ‘skipping’, a gait displayed by kids and spontaneously adopted by astronauts of Apollo missions, proved to have the potential to become the gait of choice in that condition. In this paper the previous biomechanical and metabolic analysis of level skipping is extended to posit...
Conference Paper
In transverse gallop the leading feet (i.e. the second limb of each pair on the ground) of hind and forelimbs are ipsilateral. Therefore, we can distinguish a right-leading by a left-leading gallop. When turning, a horse leads with its inside limbs. Consequently, during direction changes, right-hand bends are covered using right-leading gallop and...
Conference Paper
Full-text available
Most of the modelling of body dynamics in sports and other activities assumes that every anatomical segment is solid and moves ‘as a whole’. In the past a technique has been provided to estimate the relative motion of the visceral mass with respect to the trunk segment, a movement potentially affecting respiration and jump performance in general. H...
Conference Paper
Full-text available
Unless you are driving a hybrid car, where the energy normally lost in decelerations is stored as electric energy to be used in successive accelerations, speed increases of your vehicle are associated to extra fuel consumption. A few years ago we showed that the inherent increases/decreases of total mechanical energy of the body centre of mass duri...
Article
Transverse and rotary gallop differ for the placement of the hind and fore leading feet: ipsilateral in the former, contralateral in the latter gait. 351-filmed sequences have been analysed to assess the gallop type of 89 investigated mammal species belonging to Carnivora, Artiodactyla and Perissodactyla orders. 23 biometrical, ecological and physi...
Poster
Full-text available
One male (29yrs, 63.5kg, 174cm) was tested. Torque data were collected via dynamometer and, modeled with a suitable function. Eccentric, isometric and concentric contractions were considered. A specific 3-actuator torque driven model could be a successful tool to optimize jumping techniques. The specificity of the model is the most important featur...
Poster
Full-text available
The aim of this study was to examine differences in technique between a squat jump and a squat jump with added weight by utilizing a subject specific model implemented in Working Model 2D.
Conference Paper
Full-text available
In this study, a forward dynamic subject specific 3-actuator torque-driven model of the human musculoskeletal system was created based on measurements of individual characteristics of a subject. Simulation results were compared with experimental vertical squat jumping with and without adding weights. By analyzing kinematic and kinetic experimental...
Article
Full-text available
On Earth only a few legged species, such as water strider insects, some aquatic birds and lizards, can run on water. For most other species, including humans, this is precluded by body size and proportions, lack of appropriate appendages, and limited muscle power. However, if gravity is reduced to less than Earth's gravity, running on water should...
Data
Lizard.mov. A movie showing how the Basilisk lizard (Basiliscus basiliscus) runs on the water surface. (MOV)
Data
16%.mov. A movie showing one of our subjects running in place on water at a simulated gravity of 1/6 of gEARTH (corresponding to the Moon gravity). (MOV)
Conference Paper
Introduction Froude number, Fr = v^2/gl (where v is the speed of progression (m/s), g is gravity acceleration (9.81m/s^2), l is the leg length (m)) is used to compare dynamic similar gait (Alexander, 1989). Fr=1 defines the maximal speed value for pendulum-like locomo- tion such us walking. Race Walking is an Olympic discipline, which is supposed t...
Conference Paper
Full-text available
Introduction: Volleyball is at the third place after Soccer and Basket within the sport activities causing injuries. Overuse and stresses during the traditional spike and serve movements, make the shoulder one of the most commonly exposed body part (Chan et al. 1993, Verhagen et al. 2004). Pain, reduced range of motion and mobility, bring often the...
Conference Paper
Race Walking (RW) athletes are required to have always at least one foot in contact with the ground. While coded as a variety of ‘walking’ (W), potential and kinetic energy of the body centre of mass (BCoM) are in phase as in running (R). Aims of this work were to measure the 3D BCoM trajectory, in order to check the resemblance with W or R, and it...
Article
Full-text available
Intra-individual simulation needs accurate data about actuators (muscles) and force transmission (bones, joints) for obtaining accurate predictions. That work preludes to a more comprehensive 2D jump simulator, dealing with the estimation of squat jump parameters based on maximum torque measurements. An individual male athlete was investigated. The...
Article
Despite the abundance of octapodal species and their evolutionary importance in originating terrestrial locomotion, the locomotion mechanics of spiders has received little attention so far. In this investigation we use inverse dynamics to study the locomotor performance of Grammostola mollicoma (18 g). Through 3-D kinematic measurements, the trajec...
Article
Full-text available
In Medieval Europe, soldiers wore steel plate armour for protection during warfare. Armour design reflected a trade-off between protection and mobility it offered the wearer. By the fifteenth century, a typical suit of field armour weighed between 30 and 50 kg and was distributed over the entire body. How much wearing armour affected Medieval soldi...
Article
Full-text available
Skyscraper running is here analyzed in terms of mechanical and metabolic requirements, both at the general and at the individual level. Skyscraper runners' metabolic profile has been inferred from the total mechanical power estimated in 36 world records (48-421 m tall buildings), ranked by gender and age range. Individual athlete's performance (n=1...
Article
Although the 3D trajectory of the body centre of mass during ambulation constitutes the 'locomotor signature' at different gaits and speeds for humans and other legged species, no quantitative method for its description has been proposed in the literature so far. By combining the mathematical discoveries of Jean Baptiste Joseph Fourier (1768-1830,...
Article
Predictive methods estimating mechanical internal work (W(int), i.e., work to accelerate limbs with respect to BCOM during locomotion) are needed in absence of experimental measurements. A previously proposed model equation predicts such a parameter based upon velocity, stride frequency, duty factor, and a compound critical term (q) accounting for...
Article
The 'dissection' of energy expenditure of cycling into the metabolic equivalent of the different forms of mechanical work done, inaugurated 30 years ago by di Prampero and collaborators, has been much debated in the last few decades. The mechanical internal work, particularly, which is currently associated to the movement of the lower limbs, has be...
Article
Competitive swimmers spread fingers during the propulsive stroke. Due to the inherent inefficiency of human swimming, the question is: does this strategy enhance performance or is it just a more comfortable hand posture? Here we show, through computational fluid dynamics (CFD) of a 3D model of the hand, that an optimal finger spacing (12 degrees ,...