Albert W Wu

Albert W Wu
Johns Hopkins University | JHU · Department of Health Policy

MD MPH

About

601
Publications
191,562
Reads
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54,305
Citations
Additional affiliations
September 1990 - present
Johns Hopkins Bloomberg School of Public Health
Position
  • Professor (Full)
September 1990 - present
Johns Hopkins University
Position
  • Professor
Education
January 1989 - May 1990
University of California, Berkeley
Field of study
  • Public Health
August 1980 - June 1984
Cornell University
Field of study
  • Medicine
September 1976 - May 1980
Cornell University
Field of study
  • Psychology and Neurobiology

Publications

Publications (601)
Article
Background: Falls are common in older adults and can lead to severe injuries. The Strategies to Reduce Injuries and Develop Confidence in Elders (STRIDE) trial cluster-randomized 86 primary care practices across 10 health systems to a multifactorial intervention to prevent fall injuries, delivered by registered nurses trained as falls care manager...
Article
Randomized clinical trials are critical for evaluating the safety and efficacy of interventions in oncology and informing regulatory decisions, practice guidelines, and health policy. Patient-reported outcomes (PROs) are increasingly used in randomized trials to reflect the impact of receiving cancer therapies from the patient perspective and can i...
Article
Full-text available
Machine learning-based clinical decision support tools for sepsis create opportunities to identify at-risk patients and initiate treatments at early time points, which is critical for improving sepsis outcomes. In view of the increasing use of such systems, better understanding of how they are adopted and used by healthcare providers is needed. Her...
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Early recognition and treatment of sepsis are linked to improved patient outcomes. Machine learning-based early warning systems may reduce the time to recognition, but few systems have undergone clinical evaluation. In this prospective, multi-site cohort study, we examined the association between patient outcomes and provider interaction with a dep...
Article
While a growing number of machine learning (ML) systems have been deployed in clinical settings with the promise of improving patient care, many have struggled to gain adoption and realize this promise. Based on a qualitative analysis of coded interviews with clinicians who use an ML-based system for sepsis, we found that, rather than viewing the s...
Article
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PurposeTo identify patient-level barriers and facilitators to completion of patient-reported outcomes measures (PROMs) in a hand and upper extremity clinic in Baltimore, Maryland.Methods We conducted 12 h of direct observation of PROM completion (October–November, 2020). Ethnographic observation memos were qualitatively analyzed for barriers and fa...
Article
Patient-reported outcomes are increasingly collected in clinical trials and in routine clinical practice, but strategies must be taken to include underserved groups to avoid increasing health disparities. https://rdcu.be/cMO2S
Article
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Background The assessment of patient-reported outcomes in clinical trials has enormous potential to promote patient-centred care, but for this potential to be realized, the patient-reported outcomes must be captured effectively and communicated clearly. Over the past decade, methodologic tools have been developed to inform the design, analysis, rep...
Article
The COVID-19 pandemic has placed extraordinary stresses on healthcare workers. Combined with disruptions to daily life outside of work, health care professionals experience a high prevalence of anxiety, depression, acute stress reaction, burnout, and PTSD. Top leaders at Johns Hopkins Medicine appreciated the mission-critical importance of maintain...
Article
The Patient-Reported Outcomes Measurement Information System (PROMIS) has developed item banks, short forms, and computer-adaptive tests (CATs) to help standardize measurement for important patient-reported outcome domains. These tools have the potential to revolutionize outcome measurement in clinical research through greater assessment precision...
Article
The Patient-Reported Outcomes Measurement Information System (PROMIS) has developed item banks, short forms, and computer-adaptive tests (CATs) to help standardize measurement for important patient-reported outcome domains. These tools have the potential to revolutionize outcome measurement in clinical research through greater assessment precision...
Article
Limited data are available on the longer-term physical and psychosocial consequences after major extremity trauma apart from literature on the consequences after major limb amputation. The existing literature suggests that although variations in outcome exist, a significant proportion of service members and civilians sustaining major limb trauma wi...
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Background Transplantation of HIV-positive (HIV+) donor organs for HIV+ recipients (HIV D+/R+) is now being performed as research in the United States, but raises ethical concerns. While patient-reported outcome measures are increasingly used to evaluate clinical interventions, there is no published measure to aptly capture patients’ experiences in...
Article
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Objective: Aneurysmal subarachnoid hemorrhage has a high mortality with significant impact on quality of life despite effective management strategies including endovascular treatment and/or microsurgical clipping. Although the modalities have undergone clinical comparison, they have not been evaluated on patient reported outcomes (PRO). The study...
Article
Objective: Suprasellar meningioma resection via either the transcranial approach (TCA) or the endoscopic endonasal approach (EEA) is an area of controversy and active evaluation. Skull base surgeons increasingly consider patient-reported outcomes (PROs) when choosing an approach. No PRO measure currently exists to assess quality of life for supras...
Article
Objective Existing quality of care frameworks insufficiently integrate the perspectives of physicians, nurses and patients. We collected narrative accounts from these three groups to explore if their perspectives might add new content to these existing definitions. Methods Ninety-seven descriptions of “good” and “poor” care episodes were collected...
Article
Organ procurement organizations (OPOs) evaluate referrals for deceased organ donation in the United States. Efforts to expand the donor pool, such as the HIV Organ Policy Equity (HOPE) Act that permits transplants from HIV+ donors to HIV+ recipients, can only succeed if OPOs pursue referrals. However, relatively little is known about how OPO staff...
Article
Background Perceived health is one of the strongest determinants of subjective well-being, but it has received little attention among survivors of acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS). Research Question How well do self-reported measures of physical, emotional, and social functioning predict perceived overall health (measured using the EQ-5D...
Article
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A culture of safety is important for the delivery of safe, high-quality care, as well as for healthcare providers’ wellbeing. This systematic review aimed to describe and synthesize the literature on patient safety attitudes of the next generation of healthcare workers (health professional students, new graduates, newly registered health profession...
Preprint
Full-text available
Machine learning-based clinical decision support tools for sepsis create opportunities to identify at-risk patients and initiate treatments earlier, an important step in improving sepsis outcomes. Increasing use of such systems means quantifying and understanding provider adoption is critical. Using real-time provider interactions with a sepsis ear...
Article
The health-related quality of life (HRQoL) among persons living with HIV (PLWHA) who initiate ART during acute HIV infection (AHI) is not well studied. Participants in the SEARCH010/RV254 cohort initiated ART during AHI. They completed the Thai version of the World Health Organisation Quality of Life instrument-BREF (WHOQOL-BREF) and Patient Health...
Article
In the seven years since the HIV Organ Policy Equity (HOPE) Act made HIV-positive organ donation to HIV-positive recipients legally permissible in the United States, there have been fewer HIV-positive organ donations than expected. Organ procurement organizations (OPOs) play a key role in the transplant system and barriers at OPOs may be partly res...
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Background Self-administration of patient-reported outcomes measures (PROMs) by patients with low literacy is a methodologic and implementation challenge. There is an increasing emphasis on patient-centered care and wider adoption of PROMs to understand outcomes and measure healthcare quality. However, there is a risk that the use of PROMs could pe...
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Given the negative impact of adverse events on the wellbeing of healthcare providers, easy access to psychological support is crucial. We aimed to describe the types of support resources available in healthcare organizations, their benefits for second victims, peer supporters’ experiences, and implementation challenges. We also explored how these r...
Article
Background Education about patient safety has historically been limited in health professionals curricula and largely inaccessible to the general public. We developed a massive open online course (MOOC), The Science of Safety in Healthcare, to present the foundational patient safety principles to a broad global audience of health professionals, lea...
Article
Purpose: To develop and validate the Patient-Reported Outcome Measure for Vascular Malformation (PROVAM) questionnaire to assess the health-related quality of life in patients with vascular malformations. Materials and methods: We developed and validated PROVAM using a mixed methods design during a prospective clinical trial at a vascular anomal...
Article
In light of the current coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic and potential future infectious disease outbreaks, a comprehensive understanding of the negative effects of epidemics and pandemics on healthcare workers’ mental health could inform appropriate support interventions. Thus, we aimed to synthesize and quantify the psychological and...
Article
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Purpose: Patient-reported outcomes (PROs) are increasingly used in clinical trials to provide patients' perspectives regarding symptoms, health-related quality of life, and satisfaction with treatments. A range of guidance documents exist for the selection of patient-reported outcome measures (PROMs) in clinical trials, and it is unclear to what e...
Article
Executive summary: The Resilience In Stressful Events (RISE) program that supports healthcare professionals traumatized by stressful clinical events has had a stable, volunteer-based membership since its inception in 2011 at Johns Hopkins Hospital. For this study, we explored RISE members' perceptions of the program that contribute to their retent...
Article
Objective: To explore the putative phases of the psychological response to disaster: preimpact, impact, heroic, honeymoon, disillusionment, and recovery, and make recommendations for corresponding interventions. Conclusions: Disasters such as the COVID-19 pandemic are often characterized by chaos and uncertainty. As a result, public health disas...
Article
Background: Academic health centers with peer support programs have identified a significant increase in requests linked to workplace violence (WPV) exposure. However, no known research has focused on supportive interventions for health care workers exposed to WPV. This study aimed to describe the expansion of two long-standing programs—University...
Article
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COVID-19 is a “disaster of uncertainty” with ambiguity about its nature and trajectory. These features amplify its psychological toxicity, and increase the number of psychological casualties it inflicts. Uncertainty was fueled by lack of knowledge about the lethality of a disaster, its duration, and ambiguity in messaging from leaders and healthcar...
Article
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Background/objectives: In the Strategies to Reduce Injuries and Develop Confidence in Elders (STRIDE) study, a multifactorial intervention was associated with a nonsignificant 8% reduction in time to first serious fall injury but a significant 10% reduction in time to first self-reported fall injury relative to enhanced usual care. The effect of t...
Article
At a time when patient-centered care is a goal and patient safety is a paramount concern across the spectrum of health care, renewed and rigorous attention to interpersonal communication skills makes good sense. In this interdisciplinary article, we share lessons from communication science that can help clinicians communicate more appropriately and...
Article
The management of high-utilizing patients is an area of active research with broad implications for the healthcare system. There are significant operational challenges to designing primary care models for these medically complex, high-needs patients. Although it is crucial to provide a high degree of continuity of care for this population, managing...
Article
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Background Injuries from falls are major contributors to complications and death in older adults. Despite evidence from efficacy trials that many falls can be prevented, rates of falls resulting in injury have not declined. Methods We conducted a pragmatic, cluster-randomized trial to evaluate the effectiveness of a multifactorial intervention tha...
Article
New models of primary care include patient-reported outcome measures (PROMs) to promote patient-centered care. PROMs provide information on patient functional status and well-being, can be used to enhance care quality, and are proposed for use in assessing performance. Our objective was to identify a short list of candidate PROMs for use in primary...
Article
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Objectives: Despite the critical need to understand the diverse responses by second victims to adverse events, there has not been a meta-analysis examining coping by second victims. We aimed to analyze the coping strategies applied by second victims in the aftermath of adverse events. Methods: We performed a systematic search of nine electronic...
Article
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Objectives: In an adverse event investigation, the patients have the potential to add a unique perspective because they can identify contributing factors that providers may miss. However, patients are rarely included in patient safety investigations. We aimed to identify the barriers to patient involvement in patient safety investigations and prop...
Article
Objective: "PRO-cision Medicine," using patients' reports of their symptoms, functioning, and well-being to personalize their care, is becoming more prevalent. PROs (patient-reported outcomes) are assessed using standardized, validated measures. Research shows that clinicians' and patients' understanding of what the PRO scores mean and how to act...
Article
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Although there is a demonstrated need for peer support programs for healthcare workers like Resilience In Stressful Events, little is known about their utilization. This study evaluated awareness and utilization of Resilience In Stressful Events among nurses at one teaching hospital; perceptions of program benefits; and resilience, burnout, and job...
Article
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To develop and evaluate a novel strategy that automates the retrospective identification of sepsis using electronic health record data. Design: Retrospective cohort study of emergency department and in-hospital patient encounters from 2014 to 2018. Setting: One community and two academic hospitals in Maryland. Patients: All patients 18 years...
Article
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Background Given the automatization of care and rationing of time and staff due to economic imperatives, often resulting in dehumanized care, the concept of ‘humanization of care’ has been increasingly discussed in the scientific literature. However, it is still an indistinct concept, lacking well-defined dimensions and to date no literature review...
Article
The Centers for Medicare and Medicaid Services publicly report star ratings for hospitals based on their patient experience performance on the Hospital Consumer Assessment of Healthcare Provider and Systems (HCAHPS) survey.¹ The agency’s objective is to make information about hospital quality understandable for patients. However, the hospital star...
Article
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Introduction: This cluster RCT aimed to reduce healthcare utilization and increase the referral of patients between an academic health center and local community-based organizations (CBOs) that address social determinants of health. Study design: Cluster RCT. Settings/participants: Twenty-two CBOs located in Baltimore, Maryland, were randomly...
Article
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Patients are increasingly being asked to complete standardized, validated questionnaires with regard to their symptoms, functioning, and well-being [ie, patient-reported outcomes (PROs)] as part of routine care. These PROs can be used to inform patients' care and management, which we refer to as "PRO-cision Medicine." For PRO-cision Medicine to be...
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Introduction: We have used several methods to aid in the interpretation of patient-reported outcome (PRO) scores, and to suggest recommendations for acting on them, both within the PatientViewpoint system and in work done since. Methods for interpreting pro scores: For identifying possibly concerning change scores, PatientViewpoint uses question...
Article
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Objectives: Despite growing interest in the second-victim phenomenon and greater awareness of its consequences, there has not been a meta-analysis quantifying the negative impact of adverse events on providers involved in adverse events. This study systematically reviewed the types and prevalence of psychological and psychosomatic symptoms among s...
Article
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It is a worldwide imperative to prepare the health care work force to deliver safer care. We believe that patient safety should be regarded as a new basic science for health professions education. However, the translation of patient safety science into safe practice is also a highly applied activity. Major reforms will be needed to incorporate pati...