Albert Flynn

Albert Flynn
University College Cork | UCC · School of Food and Nutritional Sciences

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366
Publications
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Introduction
Skills and Expertise

Publications

Publications (366)
Article
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Context and purpose In light of the key roles of vitamin D and calcium in adolescent bone health, there is a critical need for representative data on nutritional status for both micronutrients in teenagers. The present work used data from the recent representative National Teens’ Food Survey II (2019–2020) to assess calcium and vitamin D intakes of...
Article
Plant-based (PB) diets are associated with good health and environmental sustainability. However, the definition of a PB diet, the prevalence and demographics of those consuming PB diets (or PB foods within an omnivorous diet) and the nutritional role of PB diets is not widely studied. While PB dietary indexes exist and provide information on the a...
Article
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Background: Investigations into the main drivers of childhood obesity are vital to implement effective interventions to halt the global rise in levels. The use of a composite score may help to identify children most at risk of overweight/obesity. Objectives: To investigate the cumulative impact of factors associated with overweight/obesity risk...
Article
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Identifying reliable metrics which measure the quality of a diet to promote nutrient adequacy and long-term health is an important step in the development of a sustainable food system. The Probability of Adequate Nutrient Intake (PANDiet) scoring system has been used as a measure of dietary quality in interdisciplinary research in recent years. The...
Article
Plant-based (PB) diets are associated with good health and are also recommended for environmental sustainability. The present review aimed to summarise the definitions of PB diets globally and to investigate the nutritional role of PB diets in adults. This review found that there is a wide range of PB definitions ranging from the traditional vegeta...
Article
Food neophobia is characterised by a reluctance to eat novel or unfamiliar foods and has been linked to reduced dietary variety and quality. However, this link has been primarily studied in children. Therefore, we aimed to explore the relationship between food neophobia and dietary variety and quality in adults using a sub-sample of the National Ad...
Article
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Excessive adiposity is associated with several metabolic perturbations including disturbances in iron homeostasis. Increased systemic inflammation in obesity stimulates expression of the iron regulatory hormone hepcidin, which can result in a maldistribution of bodily iron, which may be implicated in metabolic dysfunction. This study aimed to inves...
Article
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Scope The objectives are to develop a metabolomic‐based model capable of classifying individuals into dietary patterns and to investigate the reproducibility of the model. Methods and Results K‐means cluster analysis was employed to derive dietary patterns using metabolomic data. Differences across the dietary patterns were examined using nutrient...
Article
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The global population is rapidly ageing. Adequate nutritional status can play a key role in preventing or delaying the progression of age-related diseases. The aim of this study was to estimate the usual intake of energy, macronutrients, dietary fibre and salt in order to determine compliance with recommendations and to identify the sources of thes...
Article
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Dietary and food intake biomarkers offer the potential of improving the accuracy of dietary assessment. An extensive range of putative intake biomarkers of commonly consumed foods have been identified to date. As the field of food intake biomarkers progresses toward solving the complexities of dietary habits, combining biomarkers associated with si...
Article
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Background Genome-wide and clinical studies have linked the 677C→T polymorphism in the gene encoding methylenetetrahydrofolate reductase (MTHFR) with hypertension, whilst limited evidence shows that intervention with riboflavin (i.e. the MTHFR co-factor) can lower blood pressure (BP) in hypertensive patients with the variant MTHFR 677TT genotype. W...
Article
Objective To examine current dietary fat intakes and compliance in Irish children and to examine changes in intakes from 2005 to 2019. Design Analyses were based on data from the Irish National Children’s Food Survey (NCFS) and the National Children’s Food Survey II (NCFS II), two cross-sectional studies that collected detailed food and beverage i...
Article
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Purpose The rate of neural tube defects (NTDs) in Europe has remained similar since the 1990s despite folic acid supplement recommendations (400 µg/day) for women of childbearing age. Mandatory folic acid fortification of staple foods has proved effective for reducing the prevalence of NTDs in over 80 countries. This study estimated the impact of a...
Article
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Purpose The trace element iodine is a vital constituent of thyroid hormones. Iodine requirements increase during pregnancy, when even mild deficiency may affect the neurocognitive development of the offspring. Urinary iodine concentration (UIC) is the means of assessing iodine status in population surveys; a median UIC of 100–199 µg/L is deemed suf...
Preprint
BACKGROUND There are many constraints to conducting national food consumption surveys for the purposes of national nutrition surveillance including cost, time and participant burden. Validated Web-based dietary assessment technologies offer a potential solution to many if these constraints. OBJECTIVE This study investigated the feasibility of usin...
Article
Background There are many constraints to conducting national food consumption surveys for national nutrition surveillance, including cost, time, and participant burden. Validated web-based dietary assessment technologies offer a potential solution to many of these constraints. Objective This study aims to investigate the feasibility of using a prev...
Article
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Fruit and vegetables (F&V) play an important role in the prevention of obesity and other chronic diseases and low intakes have been highlighted as one of the risk factors attributing to global mortality in adults. The childhood years are a critical period during which eating behaviours and food preferences evolve, providing an opportunity to develo...
Article
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Objective The present study aimed to examine the temporal prevalence of overweight and obesity in Irish children through different methodologies and evaluate the change in rates between 1990 and 2019. Design Anthropometric data from three Irish national food consumption surveys were used to examine the change in the prevalence of BMI and waist cir...
Article
Introduction Current dietary recommendations encourage increased fibre and reduced sugar consumption. In the UK, specific targets and benchmarks have been established for the sugar content of some foods but not for fibre. National Food Consumption Surveys provide comprehensive information of all foods consumed by representative population samples....
Article
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Excess body fat is associated with the production of pro-inflammatory molecules from dysfunctional adipose tissue resulting in systemic inflammation. Inflammation stimulates expression of the iron regulatory hormone hepcidin, resulting in elevated serum ferritin and iron overload in metabolic tissues. Hepcidin driven iron maldistribution may be imp...
Article
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The Food Safety Authority of Ireland (FSAI) have set target maximum daily salt intakes for children (4–6y: 3 g, 7–10y: 5 g, 11–14y: 6g) while the European Food Safety Authority (EFSA) have set Adequate Intakes (AI) for potassium of 1100mg/d, 1800mg/d and 2700mg/d for children of the same respective age groups. An individual's sodium to potassium (N...
Article
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Being physically active is associated with fundamental health benefits and assists with the maintenance of normal weight in children. The current World Health Organizations’ recommendation is for children to accumulate 60 minutes of physical activity (PA) per day to obtain such benefits. Conversely, time spent in sedentary behaviours including watc...
Article
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Meta-analyses of epidemiological data report that adults who carry a common polymorphism, the MTHFR 677C→T, in the gene encoding the folate-metabolising enzyme methylenetetrahydrofolate reductase (MTHFR) have a 40% increased risk of CVD and an 87% increased risk of hypertension. Riboflavin (vitamin B2), in its co-enzymatic form flavin adenine nucle...
Article
Low intakes and suboptimal status of vitamin D, riboflavin, vitamin B12, folate and calcium have been reported in older adults across Europe. Dietary strategies to improve micronutrient intakes and status could include food fortification (mandatory or voluntary) and/or the use of nutritional supplements. This study aims to examine the impact of for...
Article
Research suggests that food fussiness (FF) and food neophobia (FN) are two separate constructs. Food fussiness is the tendency to be selective about a large proportion of familiar and unfamiliar foods, while food neophobia is the refusal of novel foods. Therefore, the aim of this study is to explore the association between parental feeding practice...
Article
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A diet rich in plant-based foods with fewer animal products may offer improved health and environmental benefits. There is little consensus on the definition for a plant-based diet in the literature with some defining it as one rich in vegetables, legumes, fruits, wholegrains, nuts and seeds, excluding animal foods and with heavy restrictions on pr...
Article
Recent evidence suggests that menaquinones (Vitamin K 2 ) may be important for both bone health and cardiovascular health. With the exception of menaquinone-4 which is formed from the tissue specific conversion of phylloquinone or menadione, menaquinones are synthesized by bacteria. They are typically found in foods of animal origin such as meat, d...
Article
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Under Regulation (EC) No 1924/2006 the usage of nutrition and health claims are permitted, however foods that are high in fat, sugars and salt are advised not to use such claims as foods promoted with these claims may influence consumer food choice. The use of nutrient profiles has been proposed as a means of avoiding the potential of such claims m...
Article
Dietary iron requirements are higher among women of child-bearing age (WCBA) to replenish blood loss during menses, to prevent iron deficiency anaemia and to support a healthy foetus during pregnancy. Low intakes of iron have previously been reported among WCBA in Ireland and across Europe and data from European countries have shown that there is e...
Article
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Introduction Milk is widely recognised as a nutrient dense food, supporting the growth and development of children. Nevertheless some milk types such as whole milk can consist of high levels of saturated fat, which is recognised for its association with chronic disease risk in adults when intakes are elevated. In Ireland, current dietary guidelines...
Article
Breakfast is often referred to as ‘the most important meal of the day’ and is consumed after the longest postprandial fast (an overnight fast). Breakfast consumption has been positively linked to many health benefits and has been shown in many studies to be associated with a better diet quality. The aim of this study was to characterise breakfast i...
Article
Introduction Meat is a nutrient-dense food that plays a central role in the diets of many children globally, contributing significantly to intakes of energy, protein and a number of essential micronutrients. However, nutritive quality is variable across meat types and cuts, and dietary guidelines across Europe typically encourage the consumption of...
Article
Scope There is an increased interest in developing biomarkers of food intake to address some of the limitations associated with self‐reported data. The objective was to identify biomarkers of apple intake, examine dose‐response relationships and agreement with self‐reported data. Methods and results Metabolomic data from three studies were examine...
Article
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An individual’s sodium to potassium intake ratio (Na:K) has been shown to be an important predictor of hypertension. The aim of this study was to estimate the mean 24 h urinary Na, K and Na:K of Irish adults and to identify the foods that determine Na:K in a nationally representative sample of Irish adults. This study was based on data from the Iri...
Article
There are limited data available on vitamin K intakes in national dietary surveys across Europe partly due to the lack of food composition data for vitamin K. The Irish Food Composition Database (IFCD) (2012) has been developed over the last 20 years informed by foods consumed on the Irish national dietary surveys (www.iuna.net). The IFCD (2012) ha...
Article
The role of meat in the diet has come under scrutiny recently due to an increased public emphasis on providing healthy diets from sustainable food systems and due to health concerns relating to the consumption of red and processed meat. The present review aimed to summarise dietary guidelines relating to meat, actual meat intakes and the contributi...
Article
Objective: To apply a dietary modelling approach to investigate the impact of substituting beef intakes with three types of alternative fatty acid (FA) composition of beef on population dietary fat intakes. Design: Cross-sectional, national food consumption survey - the National Adult Nutrition Survey (NANS). The fat content of the beef-containi...
Article
Scope: Fish intake has been reported to associate with certain health benefits; however accurate assessment of fish intake is still problematic. The objective of this study was to identify fish intake biomarkers and examine relationships with health parameters in a free-living population. Methods and results: In the NutriTech study, 10 participa...
Conference Paper
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The Food Safety Authority of Ireland (FSAI) has national responsibility for co-ordinating the enforcement of food safety legislation in Ireland. Sampling and analysis of food products on the Irish market for chemical contaminants, and the assessment of their compliance with legislative maximum levels, represents an important aspect of enforcement....
Article
Background: Measurement error associated with self-reported dietary intake is a well-documented issue. Combining biomarkers of food intake and dietary intake data is a high priority. Objectives: The objective of this study was to develop calibration equations for food intake, illustrated with an application for citrus intake. Further, a simulati...
Article
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Purpose Drinking (plain) water intake has been associated with weight loss and reducing energy intake in intervention trials. In free-living populations, replacing other beverages with drinking water is associated with reduced obesity risk. However, the association of total water intake and its sources, and body fat distribution remain unevaluated....
Article
Cardiovascular Disease (CVD) is one of the leading causes of morbidity and mortality in the world accounting for approximately one third of global deaths. A diet low in sodium (Na) and high in potassium (K) is widely recommended as a strategy to lower blood pressure and to reduce the risk of CVD. The independent roles that both sodium and potassium...
Article
Micronutrient intake and adequacy in women of child-bearing age (WCBA) (18-50y) in Ireland - Volume 78 Issue OCE1 - J. Walton, L. Kehoe, B.A. McNulty, A.P. Nugent, A. Flynn
Article
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Association of key sources of riboflavin with EGRac status in a representative sample of Irish adults aged 18-90 years - Volume 78 Issue OCE1 - L. Kehoe, J. Walton, S.M. Hopkins, B.A. McNulty, A.P. Nugent, H. McNulty, M. Ward, A. Flynn
Article
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PurposeObservational studies link high whole grain intakes to reduced risk of many chronic diseases. This study quantified whole grain intakes in the Irish adult population and examined the major contributing sources. It also investigated potential dietary strategies to improve whole grain intakes. Methods Whole grain intakes were calculated in a n...
Article
Population ageing is rapidly progressing and it is estimated that by 2050 one in every five people globally will be aged 60 years or over. Research has shown that adequate nutritional status can positively impact the ageing process, resulting in improved quality of life and the prevention of chronic disease and mortality. However, due to physiologi...
Article
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The present study set out to explore the option of developing food portion size for nutritional labelling purposes using two European Union (EU) dietary surveys. The surveys were selected as they differed in (a) methodologies (food diary versus food frequency questionnaire), (b) populations (Irish National Adult Nutrition Survey (NANS) versus a sev...
Article
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Reduction in portion size, particularly for energy-dense foods, is increasingly addressed in healthy eating guidelines in a bid to tackle the obesity epidemic. The effect of portion size on other aspects of dietary quality, such as nutrient intakes, is less studied. The aim of the current work was to investigate associations between food portion si...
Preprint
The present study set out to explore the option of developing food portion size for nutritional labelling purposes using two European Union (EU) dietary surveys. The surveys were selected as they differed in (a) methodologies (food diary v food frequency questionnaire), (b) populations (Irish National Adult Nutrition Survey: NANS) versus a seven-co...
Article
Selenium Intakes in Irish Adults - Volume 77 Issue OCE3 - M. Buffini, J. Ryan, A.P. Nugent, J. Walton, A. Flynn, B.A. McNulty
Article
Intake, status and dietary sources of riboflavin in a representative sample of Irish adults aged 18–90 years - Volume 77 Issue OCE3 - L. Kehoe, J. Walton, S.M. Hopkins, B.A. McNulty, A.P. Nugent, H. McNulty, M. Ward, A. Flynn
Article
Dietary Determinants of iron intakes in Irish teenage girls (13–17 years) - Volume 77 Issue OCE3 - A. Walsh, L. Kehoe, B. A. McNulty, A. P. Nugent, J. Walton, A. Flynn
Article
The role of meat in the diets of Irish adults (18–90 years) - Volume 77 Issue OCE3 - C. Cocking, L. Kehoe, B.A. McNulty, A.P. Nugent, J. Walton, A. Flynn
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Intakes of fruit and vegetables in Irish children (5–12 years) - Volume 77 Issue OCE3 - R. McCarthy, L. Kehoe, J. Walton, B.A McNulty, A.P Nugent, A. Flynn
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Whole grain Intakes in Irish Pre-school Children - Volume 77 Issue OCE3 - C. Hamrock, M. Buffini, A.P. Nugent, J. Walton, A. Flynn, B.A. McNulty
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Dietary Patterns in Irish Children (5–12yrs) and Weight Status - Volume 77 Issue OCE3 - A. O'Donnell, M. Buffini, A.P. Nugent, J. Walton, A. Flynn, B.A. McNulty
Article
Dietary determinants of saturated fat intake in Irish children (5–12 years) - Volume 77 Issue OCE3 - A. O'Connor, M. Buffini, A.P. Nugent, J. Walton, A. Flynn, B.A. McNulty
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Contribution of meals and snacks to dietary intakes by Irish preschool children (1–4 years) - Volume 77 Issue OCE3 - A. P. Nugent, D. M. Martyn, M.J. Gibney, J. Walton, A. Flynn, B.A. McNulty
Article
Intakes and sources of vitamin K1 in Irish teenagers aged 13–17 years - Volume 77 Issue OCE3 - C. Kingston, L. Kehoe, B.A. McNulty, A.P. Nugent, K.D. Cashman, J. Walton, A. Flynn
Article
Scope: This study examined to what extent plasma linoleic acid (LA) is modified by adiposity, and explored any association between plasma LA, demographics, dietary intakes, markers of metabolic health and haplotypes of the fatty acid desaturase (FADS) 1/2 genes. Methods and results: 820 participants with fasting blood samples from Irish National...
Article
This research investigated the intakes of six intense sweeteners; acesulfame-K (E950), aspartame (E951), cyclamate (E952), saccharin (E954), sucralose (E955) and steviol glycosides (E960) in the diets of Irish adults, using data from the National Adult Nutrition Survey (NANS). A food label survey which included products currently available on the I...
Article
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PurposeTo show how safe maximum levels (SML) of vitamins and minerals in fortified foods and supplements may be estimated in population subgroups. MethodsSML were estimated for adults and 7- to 10-year-old children for six nutrients (retinol, vitamins B6, D and E, folic acid, iron and calcium) using data on usual daily nutrient intakes from Irish n...