Albert Duschl

Albert Duschl
University of Salzburg · Department of Molecular Biology

PhD

About

194
Publications
36,033
Reads
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9,467
Citations
Citations since 2017
52 Research Items
4937 Citations
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20172018201920202021202220230200400600800
20172018201920202021202220230200400600800
20172018201920202021202220230200400600800
Additional affiliations
February 2001 - April 2021
University of Salzburg
Position
  • Head of Department
February 2001 - April 2021
University of Salzburg
Position
  • Head of Department
January 2001 - present
University of Salzburg
Position
  • Full Professor of Biochemstry

Publications

Publications (194)
Article
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The incorporation of nanomaterials into consumer products has substantially increased in recent years, raising concerns about their safety. The inherent physicochemical properties of nanoparticles allow them to cross epithelial barriers and gain access to immunocompetent cells. Nanoparticles in cosmetic products can potentially interact with enviro...
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Extensive investigation and characterisation of nanoparticle-protein conjugates are imperative to assess potential nanoparticle-induced hazards for humans and the environment, predict adverse biological effects, and identify suitable nanoparticles for medical applications. Investigating the formation of the nanoparticle protein corona solely based...
Article
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Silica nanoparticles (SiNPs) are generally regarded as safe and may represent an attractive carrier platform for nanomedical applications when loaded with biopharmaceuticals. Surface functionalization by different chemistries may help to optimize protein loading and may further impact uptake into the targeted tissues or cells, however, it may also...
Article
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(1) Background: Posttranslational protein modifications have been demonstrated to change protein allergenicity. Previously, it was reported that pretreatment with highly nitrated food proteins induced a tolerogenic immune response in an experimental mouse model and in human immune cells. Here, we investigated a possible therapeutic effect of modifi...
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A detailed description of changes that occur during protein corona formation represents a fundamental question in nanoscience, as it is not only impacting the behaviour of the nanoparticles but also...
Article
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Innate immune memory, the ability of innate cells to react in a more protective way to secondary challenges, is induced by exposure to infectious and other exogeous and endogenous agents. Engineered nanoparticles are particulate exogenous agents that, as such, could trigger an inflammatory reaction in monocytes and macrophages and could therefore b...
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Citation: Johnson, L.; Aglas, L.; Soh, W.T.; Geppert, M.; Hofer, S.; Hofstätter, N.; Briza, P.; Ferreira, F.; Weiss, R.; Brandstetter, H.; et al. Abstract: Nanomaterials have found extensive interest in the development of novel vaccines, as adjuvants and/or carriers in vaccination platforms. Conjugation of protein antigens at the particle surface b...
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The incidence of severe COVID-19 in children is low, and underlying mechanisms for lower SARS-CoV-2 susceptibility and self-limiting disease severity are poorly understood. Severe clinical manifestations in adults require SARS-CoV-2 inoculation in the lower respiratory tract, establishing a pulmonary disease phase. This may be either accomplished b...
Chapter
Many properties of nanoparticles change when they enter a biological matrix. Biological liquids offer very specific conditions, defined example, by pH, ionic composition and strength, body temperature, and binding partners. Nanoparticles may perturb the interaction of cells with biomolecules, as the particles bind biomolecules at their surface and...
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The coming years are expected to bring rapid changes in the nanotechnology regulatory landscape, with the establishment of a new framework for nano-risk governance, in silico approaches for characterisation and risk assessment of nanomaterials, and novel procedures for the early identification and management of nanomaterial risks. In this context,...
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COVID-19, predominantly a mild disease, is associated with more severe clinical manifestation upon pulmonary involvement. Virion-laden aerosols and droplets target different anatomical sites for deposition. Compared to droplets, aerosols more readily advance into the peripheral lung. We performed in silico modeling to confirm the secondary pulmonar...
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Dendritic cells (DCs) shape immune responses by influencing T-cell activation. Thus, they are considered both an interesting model for studying nano-immune interactions and a promising target for nano-based bio-medical applications. However, the accentuated ability of nanoparticles (NPs) to interact with biomolecules may have an impact on DC functi...
Article
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The innate immune system evolved to detect and react against potential dangers such as bacteria, viruses, and environmental particles. The advent of modern technology has exposed innate immune cells, such as monocytes, macrophages, and dendritic cells, to a relatively novel type of particulate matter, i.e., engineered nanoparticles. Nanoparticles a...
Article
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Understanding how engineered nanomaterials affect immune responses of living organisms requires a strong collaborative effort between immunologists, toxicologists, ecologists, physiologists, inorganic chemists, nanomaterial scientists and experts in law and risk management. This perspective aims to provide a new viewpoint on the interaction between...
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Humans have always been in contact with natural airborne particles from many sources including biologic particulate matter (PM) which can exhibit allergenic properties. With industrialization, anthropogenic and combustion-derived particles have become a major fraction. Currently, an ever-growing number of diverse and innovative materials containing...
Article
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Type I hypersensitivity reactions against environmental entities, i.e. allergens, are an ever growing problem with increasing numbers of affected individuals in western countries. In parallel, nanotechnology has been growing during the past decades entering more and more areas of applications in every-day life. Exposure to allergens may occur in a...
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The increasing prevalence of allergic diseases demands efficient therapeutic strategies for their mitigation. Allergen-specific immunotherapy (AIT) is the only causal rather than symptomatic treatment method available for allergy. Currently, AIT is being administered using immune response modifiers or adjuvants. Adjuvants aid in the induction of a...
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The interaction of a living organism with external foreign agents is a central issue for its survival and adaptation to the environment. Nanosafety should be considered within this perspective, and it should be examined that how different organisms interact with engineered nanomaterials (NM) by either mounting a defensive response or by physiologic...
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The immune system is professional in recognizing and responding to non‐self, including nanomaterials. Immune responses by professional and nonprofessional immune cells are thus nearly inevitable upon exposure of cells and organisms to such materials. The state of research into taking the immune system into account in nanosafety studies is reviewed...
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The number of consumer products containing nanoparticles (NPs) experienced a rapid increase during the past decades. However, most studies of nanosafety have been conducted using only pure NPs produced in the laboratory while the interactions with other ingredients in consumer products have rarely been considered so far. In the present study, we in...
Article
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Even with the widespread use of nanomaterials (NMs) in everyday life, consumer knowledge about the functionality, benefits, and possible dangers of nanotechnology (NT) is still modest. As with any developing technology, its public perception has direct implications on future policies and has to be taken into account by academia and industry alike....
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Background: Transforming growth factor β1 (TGFβ1) is a cytokine that exerts immunosuppressive functions, as reflected by its ability to induce regulatory T (Treg) cell differentiation and inhibit Th1 and Th2 responses. Hence, peptides that mimic the active core domain of TGFβ1 may be promising candidates for modulation of the allergic response. Th...
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Food proteins may get nitrated by various exogenous or endogenous mechanisms. As individuals might get recurrently exposed to nitrated proteins via daily diet, we aimed to investigate the effect of repeatedly ingested nitrated food proteins on the subsequent immune response in non-allergic and allergic mice using the milk allergen beta-lactoglobuli...
Article
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Background: Food allergy is associated with a high personal health and economic burden. For immunomodulation towards tolerance, food compounds could be chemically modified, e.g. by posttranslational protein nitration, which also occurs via diet-derived nitrating agents in the gastrointestinal tract. Objective: We sought to analyze the effect of...
Article
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After the publication of this article [1] it was hihglighted that the number of deaths related to natural disasters was incorrectly reported in the second paragraph of the Hazards from Natural particulates and the evolution of the biosphere section. This correction article shows the correct and incorrect statement. This correction does not change t...
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Background Particles and fibres affect human health as a function of their properties such as chemical composition, size and shape but also depending on complex interactions in an organism that occur at various levels between particle uptake and target organ responses. While particulate pollution is one of the leading contributors to the global bur...
Article
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Engineered amorphous silica nanoparticles (nanosilica) are one of the most abundant nanomaterials and are widely used in industry. Furthermore, novel nanosilica materials are promising theranostic tools for biomedicine. However, hazardous effects of nanosilica especially after inhalation into the lung have been documented. Therefore, the safe devel...
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Researchers in the field of environmental safety and health of nanomaterials (nanosafety) were surveyed between September 2017 and January 2018 to obtain a snapshot on the state of investigations in this field. The data received from 84 respondents give information on exposure pathways, methods, biologic and toxic effects, dose metrics and range, c...
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Nanotechnology is a fast growing field and already a multi-billion dollar market with numerous products available for consumers. TiO2 and SiO2 are by mass the most produced nanomaterials and, thus, of particular interest regarding their biological effects upon inhalation – especially in combination with other inhalable biomolecules such as allergen...
Article
Benzene is a recognized human carcinogen; however, there are still some gaps in the knowledge regarding the mechanism of toxicity of this organic solvent and potential early biomarkers for the damage caused by it. In a previous study, our research group demonstrated that the adhesion molecules of the immune system (B7.1 and B7.2) could be potential...
Article
Dendritic cells play an important role in the initiation of immune reactions. Due to their high capacity to prime T-cell responses, the activation of dendritic cells must be tightly controlled. Because Interleukin-1β (IL-1β) is a key player in autoinflammatory diseases, we compared the ability of IL-1β to activate human dendritic cells and induce i...
Chapter
This chapter deals with adverse effects of engineered nanomaterials on the immune system. Giving special attention to the immune system in the context of nanosafety is well justified; the immune system is not only enriched at the portals of entry of pathogenic microorganisms, but also nanoparticles, into the body. Moreover, the immune system has ev...
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NOD1 belongs to the family of NOD-like receptors, which is a group of well-characterised, cytosolic pattern-recognition receptors. The best-studied function of NOD-like receptors is their role in generating immediate pro-inflammatory and antimicrobial responses by detecting specific bacterial peptidoglycans or by responding to cellular stress and d...
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Nanoparticles (NPs) are easily contaminated by bacterial endotoxin (lipopolysaccharide [LPS]). The presence of LPS can be responsible for many immune/inflammatory effects attributed to NPs. In this study, we examined the effects of LPS adsorption on the NP surface on the formation of a biocorona in biological fluids and on the subsequent inflammati...
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A new prototype air–liquid interface (ALI) exposure system, a flatbed aerosol exposure chamber termed NAVETTA, was developed to investigate deposition of engineered nanoparticles (NPs) on cultured human lung A549 cells directly from the gas phase. This device mimics human lung cell exposure to NPs due to a low horizontal gas flow combined with cell...
Article
The innate immune system provides the first line of defence against foreign microbes and particulate materials. Engineered nanoparticles can interact with the immune system in many different ways. Nanoparticles may thus elicit inflammation with engagement of neutrophils, macrophages and other effector cells; however, it is important to distinguish...
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Background Activity retention upon enzyme adsorption on inorganic nanostructures depends on different system parameters such as structure and composition of the support, composition of the medium as well as enzyme loading. Qualitative and quantitative characterization work, which aims at an elucidation of the microscopic details governing enzymatic...
Article
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The rapid development of nanotechnologies and increased production and use of nanomaterials raise concerns about their potential toxic effects for human health and environment. To evaluate the biological effects of nanomaterials, a set of reliable and reproducible methods and development of standard operating procedures (SOPs) is required. In the f...
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The type 2 immune response is an adaptive immune program involved in defense against parasites, detoxification, and wound healing, but is predominantly known for its pathophysiological effects, manifesting as allergic disease. Engineered nanoparticles (NPs) are non-self entities that, to our knowledge, do not stimulate detrimental type 2 responses...
Article
A new prototype air-liquid interface (ALI) exposure system, a flatbed aerosol exposure chamber termed NAVETTA, was developed to investigate deposition of engineered nanoparticles (NPs) on cultured human lung A549 cells directly from the gas phase. This device mimics human lung cell exposure to NPs due to a low horizontal gas flow combined with cell...
Article
Full-text available
Air pollution and climate change are potential drivers for the increasing burden of allergic diseases. The molecular mechanisms by which air pollutants and climate parameters may influence allergic diseases, however, are complex and elusive. This article provides an overview of physical, chemical and biological interactions between air pollution, c...
Article
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Low endotoxin recovery (LER) is a recently discovered phenomenon describing the inability of limulus amebocyte lysate (LAL)-based assays to detect lipopolysaccharide (LPS) because of a “masking effect” caused by chelators or detergents commonly used in buffer formulations for medical products and recombinant proteins. This study investigates the ma...
Article
Protein adsorption at nanostructured oxides strongly depends on synthesis conditions and sample history of the material investigated. We measured the adsorption of bovine serum albumin (BSA) to commercial Aeroxide TiO2 P25 nanoparticles in aqueous dispersions. Significant changes in adsorption capacity were induced by mild sample washing procedures...
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Background: Poly‑lactic acid nanoparticles (PLA‑NP) are a type of polymeric NP, frequently used as nanomedicines, which have advantages over metallic NP such as the ability to maintain therapeutic drug levels for sustained periods of time. Despite PLA‑NP being considered biocompatible, data concerning alterations in cellular physiology are scarce....
Chapter
Nanomedical diagnostics and therapeutics offer the opportunity to modulate immune functions in specific ways that exploit the properties of the nanoscale. Major factors driving the development of novel nanomedical agents include the possibility of reaching high local concentrations of a drug due to the large surface area of nanoparticles, the abili...
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Understanding the interaction between nanomaterials and the immune system provides us with endless possibilities of exploiting nano-objects for tuning immune responses towards preventing or curing diseases. We propose here strategies and actions that could help us strengthening and exploiting such knowledge.
Article
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Background The rapidly increasing number of engineered nanoparticles (NPs), and products containing NPs, raises concerns for human exposure and safety. With this increasing, and ever changing, catalogue of NPs it is becoming more difficult to adequately assess the toxic potential of new materials in a timely fashion. It is therefore important to de...
Chapter
A recent study on the needs of employers in industry and other sectors for graduate employees who have received education in nanotechnology shows a mismatch between the existing offers at European universities and the real needs of the labour market. In particular, industry expects to hire employees with skills in nanosafety, regulation and environ...
Article
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Allergic diseases are among the most prevalent immune-mediated diseases, with incidences of well over 20% of the population in industrialized countries. Nevertheless, the question of whether allergies should be considered as a risk factor for exposure to nanomaterials has rarely been addressed. Experimental studies have attempted to improve allergy...
Article
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The article reflects on current international trends in higher education in nanotechnology based on stakeholder discussions held within the EU funded project NanoEIS: Nanotechnology Education for Industry and Society. The discussions with stakeholders reflects on the main issues emerging from this project, that also includes surveys investigating t...
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Engineered nanomaterials (ENMs) interact with different biomolecules as soon as they are in contact, resulting in the formation of a biomolecule ‘corona’. Hence, the ‘corona’ defines the biological identity of the ENMs and could affect the response of the immune system to ENM exposure. With up to 40 % of the world population suffering from type I a...