Albert Carron

Albert Carron
The University of Western Ontario | UWO · School of Kinesiology

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78
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6,242
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Publications

Publications (78)
Article
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The purpose of the study was to develop and validate a conceptually and psychometrically sound conflict questionnaire for sport. The development process involved 3 phases: (a) a qualitative phase, (b) a content and factorial validity phase and (c) a construct validity phase. A total of 50 items were generated and sent to 6 experts to determine cont...
Article
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The study of conflict has been of primary interest in various fields such as organisational psychology for decades (e.g. Barki & Hartwick, 2004). In sport psychology, however, conflict research has been almost nonexistent (Lavoi, 2007) with few exceptions (e.g. Holt et al., 2012; Sullivan & Feltz, 2001). The importance of understanding conflict in...
Article
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The purposes were to determine if explanatory style (i.e. tendency toward optimism versus pessimism) (a) is a collective team belief that (b) differentiates between more and less successful sport teams. Team success was operationalised by winning percentage. For explanatory style, athletes (n = 442) from a heterogeneous sample of sport teams (k = 3...
Chapter
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The association of being at home with feelings of increased physical comfort, safety, and psychological well-being are reflected in a wealth of popular expressions and sayings, such as Home free; Home is where the heart is; East–west, home is best; Home sweet home; There's no place like home. Thus, it is hardly surprising that the term home advanta...
Article
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The general purpose of the two studies reported here was to examine perceptions of team cohesiveness in children aged 9 to 12 years. In Study 1, focus groups were used to examine individual perceptions of cohesion from the perspective of group integration—the group as a totality. In Study 2, open-ended questionnaires were used to examine individual...
Article
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The purpose of the meta-analysis was to examine the effectiveness of physical activity interventions on physical activity participation among preschoolers. A secondary purpose was to investigate the influence of several possible moderator variables (e.g., intervention length, location, leadership, type) on moderate-to-vigorous physical activity (MV...
Article
The purpose of the present study was to test the validity evidence of the Child Sport Cohesion Questionnaire (CSCQ). To accomplish this task, convergent, discriminant, and known-group differ-ence validity were examined, along with factorial validity via confirmatory factor analysis (CFA). Child athletes (N = 290, M age = 10.73 ± 1.13 years) from si...
Article
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The purpose of the study was to determine (via meta-analysis) whether team-oriented attributions in sport are team-serving. Analyses were carried out with 21 studies containing 99 effect sizes. The results indicated (a) the presence of a team-serving bias, (b) no temporal change in the pattern of results from studies using operational definitions b...
Article
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The purpose of the present study was to develop an inventory designed to measure cohesion in children's (ages 9–12) sport teams. In order to carry out this task, a three-phase research program was undertaken. Phase 1 involved the use of focus groups with 35 (n males = 14, n females = 21) children, open-ended questionnaires with 132 (n males = 63, n...
Article
The primary purpose was to examine the relationship between group goal setting and group performance in an exercise setting. The secondary purpose was to determine whether cohesion, self‐efficacy, and physical activity level influenced the magnitude of the group‐goal/group‐performance relationship. The sample consisted of 6,356 participants (N = 1,...
Article
The purpose of this study was to employ a multilevel framework to examine predictors of team‐referent attributions. The individual‐level variables of interest were athletes’ perceptions of group cohesion. The group‐level determinants were nationality, gender, performance outcome, performance history, group cohesion, and level of agreement on attrib...
Article
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One purpose of this article is to discuss the influence that others present (coactors or other group members) has on an individual's self-presentation behavior. A second purpose is to outline possible future directions in research. Discussion associated with the former is subdivided into three main sections. In the first section, implications for s...
Article
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Cohesion is an important small group variable within sport. However, the conceptualization and examination of cohesion have predominately been oriented toward adult populations. The purpose of the current study was to garner an understanding of what cohesion means to youth sport participants. Fifty-six team sport athletes (Mage = 15.63 ± 1.01 years...
Article
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The purpose of the current study was to initiate the development of a psychometrically sound measure of cohesion for youth sport groups. A series of projects were undertaken in a four-phase research program. The initial phase was designed to garner an understanding of how youth sport group members perceived the concept of cohesion through focus gro...
Article
The purpose of the present paper is to outline the results from research that has focused on cohesion effects in exercise groups. The review contains six sections. In the first section, the constitutive definition of cohesion is provided and typical operational definitions used to assess the construct in physical activity contexts are outlined. In...
Article
The purpose of the present study was to determine whether cohesion served to mediate the relationship between fitness leader behavior and an exerciser's affective state. The participants were 151 adults (115 females and 36 males) enrolled in various physical activity programs. Following one of their exercise classes, each participant completed a qu...
Article
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A common practice for counteracting response acquiescence in psychological measures has been to employ both negatively and positively worded items. However, previous research has highlighted that the reliability of measures can be affected by this practice (Spector, 1992). The purpose of the present study was to examine the effect that the presence...
Article
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A growing body of research suggests that older exercisers prefer to exercise alone rather than in group-based settings. One limitation of these studies, however, has been that researchers have failed to take into account the age-related characteristics of groups when asking adults about their preferences for exercise settings. The overall purpose o...
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ObjectiveThe primary purpose was to determine the physical activity contexts rated as most and least preferable by university students for both aerobic activity and weight training. Secondary purposes were to determine whether gender and/or social physique anxiety (SPA) influence the preferences for these contexts.MethodUniversity students (n=403 f...
Article
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This study examined the prospective relationships between multidimensional role ambiguity and role satisfaction using interdependent sports teams. Midseason perceptions of role ambiguity and role satisfaction were recorded by 246 British secondary school rugby (n= 156) and field hockey (n= 90) players. One month later, role satisfaction was assesse...
Article
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The purpose of the present study was to investigate the need for role clarity as a potential moderator of the role ambiguity–satisfaction relationship among interdependent sport athletes. Competitive "Junior B" ice hockey players (N = 112) representing eight teams completed the Role Ambiguity Scale, five subscales of the Athlete Satisfaction Questi...
Article
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The purpose of the study was to conduct a meta-analysis to empirically compare the relative merits of different contexts typically employed in the physical activity intervention literature for five categories of outcomes: adherence, social interaction, quality of life, physiological effectiveness, and functional effective- ness. Four contexts were...
Article
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The purpose of the study was to determine athletes’perceptions of the sources of role ambiguity in interactive sport teams. Athletes (N = 151; 97 females and 54 males) were asked to identify why ambiguity might exist in relation to the scope of their role responsibilities, the behaviors necessary to fulfill those responsibilities, the evaluation of...
Article
ObjectiveTo examine the potential moderating influence of team norms on the cohesion–self-reported performance relationship.DesignHierarchical linear modeling was used to (1) assess the individual- and group-level variability in self-reported performance, and (2) predict the variability in self-reported performance using three group-level predictor...
Article
The purpose of the study was to determine if perceptions of cohesion in exercise classes demonstrated sufficiently high consensus and between-group variance to support a conclusion that exercise classes are groups. Participants (N = 1,700) in 130classes were tested on either the Group Environment Questionnaire (GEQ) or the Physical Activity Group E...
Article
This paper had three aims. The first was to review research carried out on the home advantage from 1992 to the present. The second was to examine the extent to which a conceptual framework proposed by Courneya and Carron (199217. Courneya , KS and Carron , AV . 1992. The home advantage in sport competitions: A literature review. Journal of Sport...
Article
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Previous research shows that exercise context is important for exercise adherence--exercising alone is associated with reduced adherence whereas exercising with others is associated with increased adherence. The purpose of the study was to examine whether exercising in one or a combination of four contexts for physical activity (in a structured cla...
Article
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In the present study, a heterogeneous sample of 105 athletes (mean age = 21.4 years) was used to gain insight into the potential negative consequences of high team cohesion. Athletes were asked open-ended questions relating to the potential disadvantages of high task and high social cohesion. It was found that 56% of athletes reported possible disa...
Article
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The relationships between leadership behaviors and athletes’ perceptions of role ambiguity were investigated within interdependent team sports. Early to midway through their respective seasons, the degree to which coaches engaged in training and instruction and positive feedback behaviors was investigated in relation to athletes’ subsequent percept...
Article
Purpose: To determine if cohesion serves as a mediator between leader behavior and participant satisfaction.Participants: Ninety enrolled in recreational exercise programs.Method: Longitudinal with preferences for leadership behavior assessed in the initial stages of the exercise experience, both cohesion and perceptions of leadership behavior asse...
Article
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The general purpose of the present study was to examine the nature of role ambiguity in sport teams and to explore the construct validity of the operational definition of role ambiguity developed by Beauchamp, Bray, Eys, and Carron (2002). Role ambiguity was operationalized as a multidimensional construct (Scope of Responsibilities, Behavioral Resp...
Article
Reasons for cautious interpretation of the confirmatory factor analysis of the Group Environment Questionnaire by Sullivan, Short, and Cramer (2002) are specified.
Article
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The aim of this study was to examine the relationship between athletes' perceptions of role ambiguity and satisfaction. The relationship between these multidimensional constructs was investigated at the beginning and at the end of the season, as well as from early season to end of season. Consistent with the a prioi hypothesis, concurrent analyses...
Article
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The purpose of this study was to examine the relationship between role ambiguity and precompetition state anxiety (A-state). Consistent with multidimensional anxiety theory (Martens, Vealey, & Burton, 1990), it was hypothesized that role ambiguity would be positively related to cognitive but not to somatic A-state. Based on the conceptual model pre...
Article
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The general purpose of the present study was to determine if perceptions of team cohesion are related to the interpretation athletes attach to their precompetition anxiety. Specifically examined was the association between athlete perceptions of task cohesiveness (Individual Attractions to the Group–Task, ATG-T, and Group Integration–Task, GI-T) an...
Article
The purpose of the present study was to examine the influence of facility familiarity on the home advantage. In order to test for facility familiarity, archival data from professional basketball, hockey, and soccer games (n = 1,590) was classified into three blocks. The first block was games immediately prior to the relocation to a new venue; the s...
Article
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Male secondary school rugby players ( N=271) participated in a study examining role ambiguity, role efficacy, and role performance. A multidimensional measure was used to assess 4 manifestations of role ambiguity in offensive and defensive contexts. Multiple role ambiguity dimensions explained variance in efficacy and performance. Consistent with t...
Article
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The main aim of this study was to examine the relationship between task cohesiveness and team success in elite teams using composite team estimates of cohesion. A secondary aim was to determine statistically the consistency (i.e. 'groupness') present in team members' perceptions of cohesion. Elite university basketball teams (n = 18) and club socce...
Article
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The purpose of this study was to develop a cohesion inventory for exercise groups. Five projects were undertaken. In Projects 1 to 3, potential items were generated, content validity was established, and preliminary psychometric testing was carried out. In Project 4, concurrent validity was established. In Project 5, hypothesized relationships betw...
Article
Comments on the article by S. A. Carless and C. De Paola (see record 2000-13613-004) regarding measurement of cohesion in work teams. The current authors argue that the constitutive and operational definitions of group cohesion have varied across various disciplines in group dynamics. Carless and De Paola suggest that a conceptualization of cohesi...
Article
The constitutive and operational definitions of group cohesion have varied across various disciplines in group dynamics. Recently, it has been suggested that a conceptualization of cohesion proposed by Carron, Widmeyer, and Brawley could have broad research applicability for different types of groups. However, results from a few studies have raised...
Article
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This study examined whether social anxiety is diminished among women in the company of a group and, if so, whether it is associated with perceptions of anonymity, being distracted, feelings of security, or an expectation that any evaluation will be diffused across the members of the group. Two social scenarios were presented to 61 female undergradu...
Article
theoretical approaches to the study of groups are outlined / findings from three of the most-researched topics within sport groups, namely, group size, group composition, and group cohesion, are presented / problems associated with the study of group dynamics are delineated / suggestions for avoiding or minimizing these "pitfalls" are advanced (Psy...
Article
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The general focus in this paper is on indirect team building intervention strategies to enhance cohesiveness in sport and exercise groups. Initially, the objectives for team building interventions are presented. Then, an overview of the distinction between direct and indirect intervention strategies is discussed. Following this, a conceptual model...
Article
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The purpose of this investigation was to examine the relationship of group cohesion to self-handicapping. The first issue focused on the relationship between the personality trait of self-handicapping and perceptions of group cohesion. A significant negative relationship (p < .001) was found between individual differences in the self-handicapping t...
Article
Hypothesized that group goal clarity, commitment, behavioral influence, and group cohesion would predict satisfaction with group goals. The amount of perceived participative goal setting was hypothesized to relate to the above variables and cohesion and the proposed relationships were hypothesized to change in form over time. Ss were 145 athletes f...
Article
There were three general purposes in the present paper. One was to introduce a conceptual framework which provides a useful way to oonsider the activities and purposes of AAASP. This conceptual framework presents researchltheory, application and the quality of Life as equal, mutually interdependent components of a continuous cycle of professional a...
Article
Much of the contemporary research and practical literature in sport and psychology that concerns goals focuses on individuals. Several reviewers, however, have called for more investigation into group goal setting. To accomplish this, a basic understanding of the everyday goals of sport teams is necessary. The purpose of this exploratory investigat...
Article
Little research has been conducted on the role of various behaviors in contributing to the home advantage in sport competitions. The present study investigated whether player aggression mediated the relationship between game location and performance in professional ice hockey. Based on the subject-defined delineation between aggressive and nonaggre...
Article
A home advantage in sport competitions has been well documented. The strength and consistency of the home advantage has made it a popular phenomenon in sport today. Very little systematic research has been carried out, however, and the home advantage remains one of the least understood phenomena in sport. It appears that much of the game location r...
Article
In Study 1, archival data from 47 exercise classes with 5–46 members were used to examine the relationship between group size and behavior. Attention and retention were high in small and large exercise classes, but reduced in medium and moderately large classes. Study 2 examined the relationship between the size of exercise classes and specific soc...
Article
Although group size has been one of the most frequently examined small-group variables, it has rarely been studied in sport. In Study 1 the effects of number of team members on cohesion and performance were examined. Teams of 3, 6, and 9 members participated in a 3-on-3 basketball league. Discriminant function analyses indicated that team size was...
Article
Among possible definitions of optimal sizes of teams, participants in basketball, volleyball, soccer, and hockey agreed a roster size of about 25% greater and 25% smaller than perceived ideals of 11.9, 9.8, 16.3, and 16.1 respectively, were unsatisfactary for competition. Advantages and disadvantages of discrepant sizes were related to resources, t...
Article
Among possible definitions of optimal sizes of teams, participants in basketball, volleyball, soccer, and hockey agreed a roster size of about 25% greater and 25% smaller than perceived ideals of 11.9, 9.8, 16.3, and 16.1 respectively, were unsatisfactary for competition. Advantages and disadvantages of discrepant sizes were related to resources, t...
Article
Full-text available
One purpose of the present investigation was to examine whether tennis athletes have maladaptive achievement patterns associated with learned helplessness, and whether this condition is related to gender and/or skill level. A second purpose was to determine if there is a relationship between maladaptive achievement patterns and the attributional st...
Article
Conducted 2 studies using present and former participants from organized sport programs, physical recreation programs, and physical exercise programs to (a) determine whether cohesiveness was related to adherence behavior in sport and exercise settings and (b) assess the relationship of individual perceptions of group cohesion to absenteeism and la...
Article
Gross and Martin (1952), and Escovar and Sim (1974), proposed group resistance to disruption (GRD) as an alternative conception of cohesion, but the GRD/cohesion relationship has not been empirically examined. In Study 1, this relationship was examined using an extreme-groups design. It was a priori predicted that elite athletes perceiving high tea...
Article
Reports 3 studies concerning inspection of the Group Environment Questionnaire's (GEQ) concurrent, predictive, and construct validities, using a total of 438 athletes. In Study 1, the GEQ exhibited the predicted correspondence with similar measures of cohesion. In Study 2, the GEQ successfully discriminated team and individual sport athletes by pre...
Article
Outlines a conceptual model of group cohesion and describes the 4 projects conducted to obtain construct-related information and to develop an initial version of the Group Environment Questionnaire (GEQ). Two reliability and validity studies conducted with 2 sports teams reveal that an 18-item version of the GEQ was internally consistent, reliable...

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