Alan Tapp

Alan Tapp
University of the West of England, Bristol | UWE Bristol · Bristol Business School

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75
Publications
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Introduction
Skills and Expertise

Publications

Publications (75)
Article
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Background: Technological progress has enabled the provision of personalised feedback across multiple dimensions of physical activity that are important for health. Whether this multidimensional approach supports physical activity behaviour change has not yet been examined. Our objective was to examine the effectiveness of a novel digital system a...
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Background: Funding shortages and an ageing population have increased pressures on state or insurance funded end of life care for older people. Across the world, policy debate has arisen about the potential role volunteers can play, working alongside health and social care professionals in the community to support and care for the ageing and dying...
Article
Recent studies have demonstrated that financial incentives can improve driving behaviour but high-value incentives are unlikely to be cost-effective and attempts to amplify the impact of low-value incentives have so far proven disappointing. The present study provides experimental evidence to inform the design of 'smart' and potentially more cost-e...
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Background Road injury is the leading cause of death for young people, with human error a contributing factor in many crash events. This research is the first experimental study to examine the extent to which direct feedback and incentive-based insurance modifies a driver's behaviour. The study applies in-vehicle telematics and will link the inform...
Article
Levels of support for 20 mph limits in Great Britain are consistently high. However, these positive attitudes are not translating into similarly positive behaviour changes in terms of complying with these new speed limits. Recent research from the authors studied the complex relationship between support and compliance, with qualitative findings sug...
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In its neglect of cycling, the transport policy history of Great Britain is typical of many car-dependent societies. Policy inertia with respect to sustainable travel may be driven by the assumptions that, firstly, most households have access to the use of a car and are keen to preserve the mobility advantages the current system offers them, and se...
Chapter
This chapter is written for academics and professionals who are interested in behavioural change and wish to obtain a better understanding of what social marketing has to contribute. It offers updated perspectives on the field of social marketing and its contribution to behaviour change, focusing in particular on typical misunderstandings surroundi...
Article
Background: To establish an estimate of prevalence in a nationally representative sample of community adolescents. To examine associations between self-harm and wellbeing. Methods: An anonymous self-report survey completed by 2000 adolescents aged 13-18 years across England. Wellbeing was measured using the Warwick-Edinburgh Mental Wellbeing Sca...
Chapter
Introduction This chapter presents quite a different picture of social marketing from that in Chapter Six, one in which social marketing can make an important and valued contribution to behaviour change and specifically a field of behaviour change that encompasses multidisciplinary thinking. Social marketing is generally poorly understood, with the...
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Low physical activity is a major public health problem. New cost-effective approaches that stimulate meaningful long-term changes in physical activity are required, especially within primary care settings. It is becoming clear that there are various dimensions to physical activity with independent health benefits. Advances in technology mean that i...
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There are a number of challenges relating to both the support of and compliance with speed limits. The introduction of 20 mph limits in Great Britain is no exception: the recent rise in the deployment of these limits in urban settings has created a need to understand these issues in more depth. This paper reports a study undertaken by the authors t...
Chapter
Social marketing aims to improve the health and wellbeing of society; however the development and implementation of interventions may have ethical repercussions for both intended and incidental targets, and in general ethical terms. To date there is little systematic analysis in the literature of these issues or possible solutions. There is a lack...
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Purpose – This research suggests that understanding problem behaviours through a cultural lens may offer multifarious layers of insight and provide opportunities for more effective intervention than the classical psychological perspective and cognitive models. The paper aims to discuss these issues. Design/methodology/approach – In this ethnograph...
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Purpose – In this paper, the authors aim to contend that the 4Ps of social marketing have been stretched beyond breaking point. Originally designed for social marketing mixes that contained products and prices, the social marketing 4Ps are no longer fit for purpose in an age where social marketing interventions are so wide ranging. There is an urge...
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Young men from poorer backgrounds are associated with high road traffic collision levels. However, solving this problem has proven very difficult. Hence this paper summarises the findings of a UK government funded two-year trial of a cross-discipline intervention to reduce aggressive driving amongst this group. The intervention reported on here dep...
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Purpose ‐ This purpose of this paper is to report on a study of the possible role of social marketing in encouraging breastfeeding amongst teenage mothers. UK teenage mothers are particularly prone to low levels of breastfeeding and there has been a lack of response to traditional health education approaches. The purpose of this paper is to report...
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Purpose – The purpose of this paper is to explore the scope of social marketing by re-examining some of its core concepts: the balance between the “wants” of individuals with the “needs” of society; the nature of exchange; the inclusion of techniques not explicitly considered part of the panoply of marketing; techniques available to social marketin...
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Aim To explore teenagers’ experiences of the breastfeeding promotion and support delivered by health professionals. Design A qualitative study conducted in an English city. Methods Pregnant teenagers and teenage mothers (n = 29) took part in semi-structured interviews and focus groups between March and July 2009. Results Breastfeeding is present...
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Purpose – The image of cyclists has been increasingly recognised as an important factor in social marketing programmes aimed at increasing cycling. The purpose of this paper is to present findings from a multi-stage research project exploring image incongruencies between cyclists and non-cyclists in the UK. Design/methodology/approach – The theoret...
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In this article the authors report on primary research undertaken with young people in a deprived area of northwest England who use regular binge drinking as the lynch pin of their social group. Traditional health messaging approaches have had little success with this hard to reach group. Findings were analyzed using neotribal concepts. We found th...
Article
Social marketing has traditionally been dominated by an individualistic model of design. In this work, the authors apply a social ecology model to the theory and practice of social marketing, demonstrating that a multilevel framework is required to fully expose and account for the complexity of sociocultural and environmental effects. The authors h...
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Purpose – This paper seeks to explore the applicability and implications of Bourdieu's field-capital theory for marketing using original research with a typical European society. Bourdieu's field-capital theory proposes that people acquire economic, social and cultural capital which they deploy in social arenas known as “fields” in order to compete...
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This work examines the use of class-cultural theory within social marketing as a way of influencing the behaviour of groups defined by their social class. Theories in common use in social marketing (such as the Theory of Planned Behvaiour) only implicitly acknowledge the importance of social class. In this paper the authors present research that su...
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Purpose – The purpose of this paper is to highlight what the authors regard as serious problems with the continuing dominance of a “hard science” view of what constitutes “top quality” research, and to present evidence that a “softer” approach will yield work that more closely aligns with the everyday reality of marketing. Design/methodology/approa...
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Commercial marketers have long understood the value of cool in designing and selling their products, and have invested heavily in keeping in touch with the latest trends among their consumers. In this article, we contend that social marketers could use “cool” to achieve goals of behavioral change, especially with teenagers. We trace the history of...
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Marketing management research and teaching has been criticised for some time as being divorced from practice. However, there has been little research into the nature of knowledge exchange between academics and practitioners in the marketing field. In the exploratory research reported in this paper the authors conducted interviews with academics and...
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In this paper the authors present and debate the theoretical case for the use of social marketing to help reduce problem gambling in the public health context of the UK. Is triangulated between the key theories and principles of social marketing, the key literature and its theoretical application to the debate about reducing problem gambling in the...
Article
This paper explores the use of geodemographic population classifications to identify and predict ‘hotspots’ of Great Britain (England, Scotland and Wales) prone to greater than expected alcoholic liver disease. MOSAIC geodemographic codes were overlaid onto Hospital Episode Statistics (HES) for Great Britain. The HES data included gender, MOSAIC Ty...
Article
Purpose – This paper seeks to identify and discuss a phenomenon with a hidden but severe impact on the conduct of research and teaching in marketing. Design/methodology/approach – Solicited as a viewpoint contribution, with permission to think aloud. Findings – Physics, as the archetypal “proper” science, has exerted an undue and malign influence w...
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Aim: In this article the authors illustrate using a case study approach how primary care professionals can use the combination of geodemographic data with hospital episode statistics (HES) to predict the location of people ‘at risk’ of diabetes mellitus (Type 2 diabetes) in the population of England. This approach facilitates social marketing of th...
Article
In this paper, the authors develop a conceptual and implementation framework for `fan relationship management' (FRM) that learns from the successes and failures of conventional customer relationship management (CRM) but considers the special nature of football. Although often not explicitly described as such, in reality most CRM is a mixture of tra...
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`Media-neutral planning' has recently replaced `integrated marketing' as the buzz phrase of the moment. Specialist agencies have built up business on the back of the cachet of this phrase with marketers. But this is arguably just the latest example of marketers reinventing the wheel. This opinion piece argues that the confusion stems from poor atte...
Article
This article questions the value of much of academic marketing?s ?top? journal literature. The argument made is that the current strong pressures (driven by the RAE) to publish in journals that are dominated by positivistic approaches is damaging to both pure and applied academics. A detailed critique of some recent articles is used to highlight sp...
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The last year or two has seen media neutral planning emerge as the `hottest new thing'. There has been little published, however, that explains to practitioners how to assess direct marketing media objectively. This paper introduces a simple-to-use framework, AIMRITE, that takes managers methodically through a series of steps that they need to take...
Article
Marketing in higher education is changing. There is a need to be on the one hand ever more cost-effective and on the other more socially responsible in recruiting applicants. Most university faculties have to deal in very competitive sectors in order to attract applicants. In this paper the authors analyse the results of a recent study of the custo...
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“Research has a value that does not depend on how true it is” is a quote from Griseri's call for management researchers to concern themselves less with scientific validity and more with relevance, striking a chord within the marketing academy in the light of criticism of the lack of progress in building a body of theory in marketing and creating mo...
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The arrival of Nectar has reignited interest in multi-partner loyalty schemes. Industry experts were invited to comment on the implications of the chequered history of other loyalty programmes for Nectar. There are two central issues: first, the set-up of the scheme to make it attractive to consumers, and secondly, the use of customer data to gener...
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Marketing practice is increasingly being affected by new technologies, creating opportunities and threats for marketing practitioners. Much of the literature has concentrated on effects external to the firm such as the Internet's impact on market structure, or new business paradigms. However, the research reported on here highlights how new technol...
Article
This commentary was stimulated by two things. First, the apparently growing concerns within marketing academia with the gap between academia and practice. Throughout Europe academics are expressing the need to link their work closely with practitioners, yet there is little sign of urgency from those who influence research output. Second, the opport...
Article
The conventional wisdom among football fans is that every supporter is unstintingly loyal to their adopted team. Indeed this was accepted by Parker and Stuart in their award winning paper `The West Ham Syndrome'. However, more recent work by Tapp and Clowes describes a much more complex and interesting picture than was hitherto thought to be the ca...
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Mobile Marketing — The Message Revolution; Author: Matt Haig; Reviewer: Alan Tapp. Scoring Points: How Tesco is Winning Customer Loyalty; Authors: Tim Phillips, Clive Humby and Terry Hunt; Reviewer: Merlin StoneJournal of Database Marketing & Customer Strategy Management (2003) 11, 183–184; doi:10.1057/palgrave.dbm.3240218
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Digital Marketing; Author: Will Rowan; Reviewer: Alan Tapp. Data Mining; Author: Mehmed Kantardzic; Reviewer: John OzimekJournal of Database Marketing (2003) 10, 279-280; doi:10.1057/palgrave.jdm.3240116
Article
The purpose of this research was to investigate the attendance range of spectators at an English Football Association Premier League club. The numbers of spectators in both percentage and absolute terms were calculated and allocated to three segments (heavy, medium, light attendance). The findings were compared to an earlier reported study in the U...
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Academically constructed segments may often fail to be implemented by practitioners. There may be a number of reasons for this, but at the heart of the matter for practitioners must be an economic reward that outweighs the incremental costs of segmenting. Central to this issue is the ease with which different types of data can be collected and used...
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This paper explores implications for marketing education curricula of developments in marketing practice. Research from a variety of sources is drawn together and suggests that many marketing graduates are not being well equipped for 'the new marketing'. Marketing curricula should be reconsidered with respect to the nature of the learning outcomes,...
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The Internet is set to have an influence on direct and database marketing which is more profound than its standing as merely another media option. A number of writers have already commented on the Internet's facility to shift power from businesses to customers, and hence change customers' behaviour. For example, it could be that increasingly it wil...
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This is the second of a series of three papers. The first paper of this series criticised the lack of foundation in much current thinking about the strategic role of direct and database marketing. This paper outlines an alternative direction for the industry based on a new model for the role of marketing. Experienced commentators in the field of ma...
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A lot of confusion is generated by the use of different terms to describe similar developments in marketing. This has led to a lack of clarity about the most important strategic imperatives impacting on direct marketing. This first of three papers takes on the task of reviewing the existing strategic position of direct marketing today. It concludes...
Article
In the past eight years, English Premier League football has become increasingly commercial, and there has been a consequent growth in the importance of club marketing. The Internet and cybermarketing have simultaneously developed as commercial phenomena over the same period. The main aim of this paper is to examine the scope, nature and content of...
Article
The recent use of the Internet by business and commerce world-wide has proliferated dramatically. Indeed, many commentators are now claiming that the technology is leading to a new era in marketing. Sport has not been immune to such rapid developments and is increasingly using the Internet as a medium through which clubs and teams can effectively c...
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Literature findings suggest a powerful role for Web sites in football club marketing. The authors used this as a springboard for an exploratory study which combined qualitative interviews with empirical observations of football Web sites. Links were discovered between clubs’ marketing orientation, departmental structure and subsequent Web site mana...
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One of the authors recently developed a framework of strategic orientations that charities will typically move through during their life cycle; these were termed cause, funding and need. Another author also recently investigated appropriate branding strategies for charities. It was clear that as charities move through their life stages, their strat...
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Football clubs have traditionally adopted a product-focused approach to their business activity and have in recent years moved to a more promotion-orientated strategy. These approaches are still based on the traditional'transactions' paradigm developed from the US market for consumer goods. This paper argues that it is now appropriate to offer a re...
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A number of fundraising managers and directors of UK charities were interviewed with the objective of understanding to what extent branding was used in the sector, what development possibilities exist for commercial techniques in charities, and what the constraints may be on such practices. It was found that many charities already use day-to-day br...
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Charities are under using one of their most powerful assets: their brands. This paper provides an analysis of how charities could use commercial branding tools to help with brand development. It is argued here that there are two areas in particular that are ripe for development by charities. Firstly, charities could look for ways to increase the sy...
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In this paper the authors present an argument for academic marketing to shift away from a purely positivistic approach to its 'top journal' research and towards a critical realist approach that better accounts for the ontological reality of the discipline. We argue that this debate matters because, at present, 'top quality' research is, wrongly in...

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