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Citations since 2016
12 Research Items
Alan Sharp is Emeritus Professor of International History at Ulster University, from which he retired as Provost of its Coleraine campus in 2009. He is the author of 'The Versailles Settlement: Peacemaking after the First World War, 1919-1923' (Macmillan, 1991, third edition 2018) and was general editor of the 32 volume Haus series Makers of the Modern World to which he contributed' David Lloyd George: Great Britain' (2008) and 'Consequences of Peace: The Versailles Settlement: Aftermath and Legacy 1919-2010' (2010) revised and reissued as Versailles 1919: A Centennial Perspective' (2018). He is presently working on a short history of the organisation of British University sport to mark the centenary of the foundation of the Inter-Varsities Athletics Board in 1919.
Key decision-makers on both sides of the Channel agreed that an alliance between Britain and France in the aftermath of the First World War would represent a major step towards securing their hard-won victory and achieving European stability. Yet negotiations during and after the 1919 Paris Peace Conference failed to conclude terms satisfactory to...
A review of Conan Fischer's book on Franco-German relations in the Great Depression, 1929-1932
Only Lloyd George of the Big Four survived to play a major role in early post-war diplomacy, remaining as British premier until October 1922. This paper analyses the development of his ideas and policies with particular reference to his war aims speech of 5 January 1918, his peace conference Fontainebleau memorandum of 25 March 1919 and the paper h...
An overview of the year 1919 in terms of national self-determination and of the longer-term consequences of Wilson's 'troublesome principle'.
A study of the Paris peace conference and the various treaties that ended the First World War. Chapters on - the process of peacemaking, 1919-1923; the League of Nations; Reparations; the German settlement; the settlement in Eastern and Central Europe; the Colonial settlement in Africa, Asia and the settlements in the Near and Middle East. The thir...
This entry analyses the diplomatic style and skills of David Lloyd George, the British premier between December 1916 and October 1922, concentrating in particular upon the Paris Peace Conference of 1919 at which he was the principal British negotiator. It emphasises his ingenuity and dexterity in conjuring agreements out of impossible situations bu...
This entry offers an overview of diplomacy in the First World War under a series of headings: inter-allied negotiations; the search for new allies; dealings with neutrals and the events leading to the armistices of 1918. Traditional diplomacy came under critical scrutiny with alternatives prescribed by American president Woodrow Wilson and the Russ...
Georges Clemenceau (1841-1929), as French premier between 1917 and 1920, led France to victory in the First World War and assumed almost total control for French policy during the Paris Peace Conference. This entry examines his diplomatic style and achievements in securing his objectives for France in the postwar settlement.
A review of a well researched book on an under-explored aspect of inter-war British foreign policy
An overview of the ideas of critics of the existing international relations architecture after the outbreak of the First World War, the role of President Wilson in seeking to achieve the implementation of a 'New Diplomacy' and of the results achieved (or otherwise) during the peace settlements negotiated in Paris and elsewhere.
A review of Gordon Martel's volume
A survey of the major decisions of the Paris Peace Conference in 1919 and of its consequences. YOU DO NOT NEED TO REQUEST A FULL TEXT BECAUSE THE CHAPTER IS FREELY AVAILABLE AT https://encyclopedia.1914-1918-online.net/article/the_paris_peace_conference_and_its_consequences
Using the assassination of Franz Ferdinand and the signature of the Treaty of Versailles on 28 June 1914 and 1919 as symbolizing the start and end of the First World War, this collection of essays seeks to explain how each of the belligerent countries that signed the first of the five Parisian peace treaties came to be there, or, in the case of Rus...
An overview of the various schemes advanced for a collective security system since medieval times with particular reference to the League of Nations and the United Nations in the twentieth century. Accessible at http://ieg-ego.eu/en/threads/alliances-and-wars/alliances-and-treaties/alan-sharp-collective-security
A consideration of which parts of the settlement with Germany Lloyd George might have altered if, as he suggested, 'I had to go to Paris again'
This paper argues that, despite George Curzon’s contrary opinion, and the close juxtaposition of the Chanak crisis and the fall of the Lloyd George Coalition government in October 1922, foreign policy was not the major cause of its demise. It suggests that, on a number of central foreign policy issues, particularly relations with France, Bolshevik...
An assessment of the peace settlements at the end of the First World War in the light of criticisms that they were the root cause of a second major conflict within a generation
An overview of the long term effects of the Parisian peace treaties with particular reference to the German problem, international organisations, national self-determination, minority protection, disarmament and international law and the influence of the United States on the twentieth century
An international team of historians examine the practicalities of treaty enforcement after the First World War covering questions like the Allied occupation, reparations, disarmament and Germany's new frontiers
An analysis of British attempts to secure the disarmament of Germany after the First World War
A consideration of the origins, founding and performance of the League of Nations in the inter-war period.
This paper uses the episode of the Kapp putsch in March 1920 to isolate and analyze a number of high policy themes that dominated the period from the signature of the Treaty of Versailles through to the Franco-Belgian invasion of the Ruhr. These included: the questions of what mechanisms existed to enforce the treaty; the sanctions available to the...
After the First World War the Foreign Office was faced with revolutionary changes following the collapse of four great empires, the reappearance of ideology as a significant factor in foreign policy, the birth of new states and new methods of conducting international relations. It also faced internal criticism about its role and effectiveness, rely...
This article examines a number of issues of British foreign policy during the making of the First World War Peace Settlements from the armistice to the Locarno Pact, utilizing in particular the work of Michael Dockrill as a starting point. Particular attention is given to British relations, especially the tensions, with France, Germany, and the Uni...
George Curzon, the British foreign secretary from 1919 until 1924, believed that he had been bequeathed a fatally flawed inheritance by his predecessor at the Foreign Office, Arthur Balfour and by David Lloyd George, the first of three prime ministers whom he served as foreign secretary. In a sustained and vituperative attack written at the Lausann...
An analysis of Anglo-French relations in the six years after the First World War
Some thoughts on the nature of the peace settlements after the Revolutionary and Napoleonic Wars, the First and Second World Wars and their relevance for the post-Cold War world
A study of the role of national self-determination during the First World War and the subsequent peace conference
An analysis of British perceptions of France, with particular reference to their divergent views on Germany after the First World War
A study of the issues and problem in the compilation of Temperley's contemporary history of peacemaking in Paris
A study of Curzon's use of secret intelligence during the Lausanne conference
A study of Lloyd George's foreign policy in the post-First World War period
The role of the PID in advising the FO in war and especially at the Paris Peace conference.
A study of British attitudes and policies towards minority protection after the First Wor;d War
A centenary history of the bodies organising student sport in the UK since the foundation of the Intervarsity Sports Board in 1919 (basically the redbrick universities and university colleges in those days). Domestic and international competition and the various strands that coalesced to create the current unified British Universities and Colleges Sports organisation.