Alan Scoboria

Alan Scoboria
University of Windsor · Department of Psychology

PhD, Universiy of Connecticut

About

73
Publications
45,304
Reads
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3,706
Citations
Citations since 2016
18 Research Items
1486 Citations
2016201720182019202020212022050100150200250
2016201720182019202020212022050100150200250
2016201720182019202020212022050100150200250
2016201720182019202020212022050100150200250
Introduction
IN MEMORIUM -- Dr. James Ost. Dr..James Ost, collaborator and one the best colleagues ever, passed away due to a short illness February 10, 2019. His humour and graceful intelligence is dearly missed by his family and brilliant colleagues at the University of Portsmouth, UK. James and I published a mega-analysis of false memory implantation studies to which he contributed data, a chapter on interviewing, and shared many stimulating conversations in Portsmouth, while traveling, and at conferences. Dr. Alan Scoboria is a Professor of Psychology in the Department of Psychology, University of Windsor. Alan conducts research in Cognitive Science, Applied memory, Clinical and Experimental Psychology.
Additional affiliations
January 2013 - present
University of Windsor
Position
  • Research Methods in Clinical Psychology (Graduate)
September 2006 - present
University of Windsor
Position
  • Ethics and Profesisonal Issues in Clinical Psychology
September 2004 - present
University of Windsor
Position
  • Abnormal Psychology

Publications

Publications (73)
Article
Full-text available
Understanding that suggestive practices can promote false beliefs and false memories for childhood events is important in many settings (e.g., psychotherapeutic, medical, legal). The generalizability of findings from memory implantation studies has been questioned due to variability in estimates across studies. Such variability is partly due to fal...
Article
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This paper examines the idea that believing that events occurred in the past is a non-memorial decision which reflects underlying processes that are distinct from recollecting events. Research on autobiographical memory has often focused on events that are both believed to have occurred and remembered, thus tending to overlook the distinction betwe...
Article
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Recent studies of metamemory appraisals implicated in autobiographical remembering have established distinct roles for judgments of occurrence, recollection, and accuracy for past events. In studies involving everyday remembering, measures of recollection and accuracy correlate highly (>.85). Thus although their measures are structurally distinct,...
Article
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In this paper, we review the state of knowledge about a previously assumed to be rare memory phenomenon called nonbelieved memories. Nonbelieved memories refer to a counterintuitive phenomenon in which vivid autobiographical memories are no longer believed to have happened although vivid recollective features remain present. Such memories stand in...
Article
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Previous studies have shown that many people hold personal memories for events that they no longer believe occurred. This study examines the reasons that people provide for choosing to reduce autobiographical belief in vividly recollected autobiographical memories. A body of nonbelieved memories provided by 374 individuals was reviewed to develop a...
Article
We investigated how focusing on the details (experience focus) versus self-narrative significance (coherence focus) of valenced transitions informs appraisals and emotions at recall. Participants (N = 302) selected a negative or positive transition and rated their emotion. Two weeks later, they described their event using an experience or coherence...
Article
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When queried about events in the past, a person may face questions that concern details that have been witnessed – answerable questions – and details that have not been witnessed – unanswerable questions. With regard to answerable questions, the person’s willingness to answer these questions increases as a function of not only information available...
Article
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The False Memory Archive is a unique art collection containing hundreds of false memory reports submitted by members of the general population. The current study aimed to analyse these reports. Specifically, we examined whether some of the memories reported in these submissions were better described as nonbelieved memories (NBMs). Furthermore, we i...
Article
Recent studies suggest that different forms of episodic simulation—mental representations of past, future, or atemporal events—recruit many of the same underlying cognitive and neural processes. This leads to the question whether there are distinctive hallmark characteristics of episodic future thinking: the subjective sense that imagined events be...
Article
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Belief in occurrence is theorized to play a central role in remembering autobiographical events. Ernst and D'Argembeau (2017) proposed that belief in occurrence also plays a key role in determining the "realness" of future events, or the subjective sense that imagined future events will genuinely occur. They reported data indicating that belief in...
Article
Preceding research has documented that the remembered events that become nonbelieved memories (NBMs) are frequently, but not exclusively, dated in early to midchildhood. We extend discussion of this apparent anti-reminiscence bump, which indicates that childhood memory may be a period of vulnerability such that, when vivid childhood memories are br...
Article
Few studies have examined the impact of alcohol on metacognition for witnessed events. We used a 2x2 balanced placebo design, where mock-witnesses expected and drank alcohol, did not expect but drank alcohol, did not expect nor drank alcohol, or expected but did not drink alcohol. Participants watched a mock-crime in a bar-lab, followed by free rec...
Preprint
Full-text available
Preceding research has documented that the memories that become nonbelieved memories (NBMs) are frequently, but not exclusively, dated to early to mid-childhood. We extend discussion of this apparent anti-reminiscence bump which indicates that childhood memory may be a period of vulnerability such that, when vivid childhood memories are brought int...
Article
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The term, false memory, describes outcomes to various procedures and techniques, such as coming to believe that suggested false events occurred, acceptance of post-event misinformation, and recognition of critical lures in the Deese-Roediger-McDermott (DRM) procedure. The literature to date indicates that these memory errors inter-correlate poorly,...
Article
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When receiving disconfirmatory social feedback about recollected events, people sometimes defend and sometimes reduce the belief that the event genuinely occurred. To improve estimates of the rates of memory defense and reduction, and the magnitude of the change in belief in occurrence that results, the current studies examined the effect of discon...
Article
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Henry Otgaar, Alan Scoboria & Giuliana Mazzoni; Introduction to Special Issue: Theoretical and legal issues regarding autobiographical belief and recollection. Memory, 25 (7), 865-868 Special Issue Contents: Hartmut Blank (2017). Recollection, belief and metacognition: a reality check. Memory, 25, 869-875 Alan Scoboria, Robert A. Nash & Giuliana...
Article
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Nonbelieved memories (NBMs) highlight the independence between distinct metamemorial judgements that contribute to the experience of remembering. Initial definitions of NBMs portrayed them as involving the withdrawal of belief in occurrence despite sustained recollection. While people rate belief for their NBMs as weaker than recollection, the aver...
Article
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Brewin and Andrews (2016) make many cogent observations on the state of knowledge about the development of false autobiographical beliefs and false recollections. Owing to inconsistent use of terminology and imprecise definitions, the framework they propose does not clearly map onto the studies that are summarized, making the resulting estimates of...
Article
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Studies have demonstrated that false memories can be implanted using narratives and photographs as suggestive media. We examined whether the influence of photos on false memory formation is influenced by the specificity of the photograph relative to the event being suggested. Participants completed a memory implantation procedure, in which a false...
Article
Full-text available
Nonbelieved memories (NBMs) highlight the independence between distinct metamemorial judgments that contribute to the experience of remembering. Initial definitions of NBMs portrayed them as involving the withdrawal of belief in occurrence despite sustained recollection. While people rate belief for their NBMs as weaker than recollection, the avera...
Article
Full-text available
Research on how people respond to social challenges to existing memories indicates that they sometimes defend belief in the veridicality of the memory, and sometimes relinquish belief in memories. In some instances, they report retaining a strong sense of recollection despite the loss of belief. The current research explored how adults and children...
Chapter
Memory is central to investigative interviews with witnesses and suspects, yet decades of research have shown that remembering is subject to constructive and reconstructive processes that can adversely impact the reliability of accounts that are elicited at interview. In this chapter we first outline research concerning our memory for events (?epis...
Article
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Nonbelieved memories (NBMs) are vivid memories that people no longer believe represent events that happened. This study examined NBMs across the adult lifespan. Participants (N=138, ages 18-72) described a nonbelieved memory, why they stopped believing the memory, dated the memory, and rated the memory on metacognitive and recollective features. Pa...
Article
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We combined data across eight published experiments (N= 1369) to examine the formation and consequences of false autobiographical beliefs and memories. Our path models revealed that the formation of false autobiographical belief fully mediated the pathway between suggesting to people that they had experienced a positive or negative food-related eve...
Article
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Two studies examined whether belief in the occurrence of events, recollecting events, and belief in the accuracy of recollections are distinct aspects of autobiographical remembering. In Study 1, 299 student participants received a cue to recall five childhood events, after which they rated each event on these constructs and other characteristics a...
Article
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Older adults’ memory reports are often less complete and accurate than those by younger adults. The current study assessed the suitability of the Self-Administered Interview (SAI) as retrieval support for older eyewitnesses, and examines whether experience with the SAI leads to improved performance on subsequent events where the SAI is not used. Pa...
Article
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Objective: This research examined how instructions to focus on the concrete details (experience focus) versus broader life significance (coherence focus) influence present perceptions of transitional impact and self-relevance for past and future transitional events. Method: Participants (Study 1, N=119; Study 2, N=251) selected a past or future tr...
Article
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The Cognitive Interview (CI) is known to elicit high quality information from cooperative witnesses. The present study examined whether the CI protects against two suggestive interview techniques: repeated questioning and negative feedback. Young adults (n = 98) watched one of two crime videos and were interviewed with either a CI or a Free Recall....
Article
Full-text available
Studies that distinguish among believed memories, believed-not-remembered events (e.g., family stories), and nonbelieved memories (i.e., memories no longer believed to have occurred) typically rely on experimenter provided or overtly elicited events. These methods may mis-estimate the frequency and nature of such events in everyday memory. Three st...
Article
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This research examined the effect of a brief training procedure for enhancing responding to questions about witnessed events. The training was based in research on metacognition and memory, and emphasized: attending to questions, searching for multiple responses, and weighing confidence in and considering the source of responses. In the main study,...
Article
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Investigative interviewers seek to obtain complete and accurate accounts of events from witnesses. Two studies examined the influence of instructions about the use of “don’t know” (DK) responses and of clarifying the meanings of DK responses on the quality of responding to questioning. Participants watched a video, and after a delay (Study 1, 30 mi...
Article
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The Self-Administered Interview# (SAI) is a novel investigative interview tool with potential practical benefits. Research revealed that the SAI increases the recall of correct information without a decrease in accuracy. In addition, it seems to prevent forgetting. Participants who had completed the SAI after viewing an event remembered more correc...
Article
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The role of the plausibility of suggested events in the formation of false autobiographical beliefs and memories has long been debated. In two studies, the shape of the relationship between presuggestion personal plausibility and the development of postsuggestion false beliefs was examined. Participants rated personal plausibility and autobiographi...
Article
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We report on the 1st experimental elicitation of nonbelieved memories for childhood events in adults (Study 1) and children (Study 2) using a modified false memory implantation paradigm. Participants received true (trip to a theme park) and false (hot air balloon ride) narratives and recalled these events during 2 interviews. After debriefing, 13%...
Article
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Although false memory formation is a well-documented phenomenon, the strength and rates of false memory formation vary across studies. Research indicates that the types of details provided in suggestions differentially influence memory formation, with some details enhancing and others impeding memories. This study explored the facilitation of false...
Article
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False memory implantation studies are characterised by suggestions indicating that specific unremembered events occurred, attributing suggested events to a knowledgeable source (e.g., parents), and including true events that provide evidence that this source was consulted. These characteristics create a particular retrieval context that influences...
Article
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Self-esteem, skill in responding, and skill appraisals have each been posited to influence the quality of information gathered during interviews about witnessed events. This study examined whether self-esteem exacerbates or buffers skill related deficits and awareness of skill. Participants viewed a video, completed measures of self-esteem, estimat...
Article
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In this paper, we describe our experience with a recently devised teaching method termed interteaching (Boyce & Hineline, 2002). This educational approach provides a rich rehearsal of material, and emphasizes student engagement, peer discussion, and student/instructor interaction. We describe the method, provide pragmatic tips for implementation in...
Article
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Analogous to false memories for the past, gambling behavior may be influenced by the development of vivid, believed false "memories" for future gambling outcomes. We examined the degree to which believed memory-like representations for future gambling wins and losses were associated with prior substantial win experiences, frequency of gambling, ris...
Article
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This article reviews highlights in the literature on existing recommendations for ethical use of deception in psychological research. We conclude that ethical guidelines and aspirational statements set out by research policies and advisory panels on ethics must eventually be operationalized into concrete terms when introducing deception into a rese...
Article
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This is the first empirical study of vivid autobiographical memories for events that people no longer believe happened to them. Until now, this phenomenon has been the object of relatively rare, albeit intriguing, anecdotes, such as Jean Piaget's description of his vivid memory of an attempted abduction that never happened. The results of our study...
Chapter
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Interteaching is a theoretically-based teaching method with an emerging empirical base. Interteaching stands in contrast to traditional lecture-based educational methods by shifting responsibility for engagement with material away from instructors and onto students. This is accomplished through the use of preparation guides, in class discussion and...
Article
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We examined whether script knowledge contributes to the development of children's false memories. Sixty 7-year-old and 60 11-year-old children listened to false narratives describing either a high-knowledge event (i.e., fingers being caught in a mousetrap) or a low-knowledge event (i.e., receiving a rectal enema) that were similar in terms of plaus...
Article
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To examine the effects of event plausibility on people's false beliefs and memories for imagined childhood events, subjects took part in a three-stage procedure. First, subjects rated how confident they were that they had experienced certain childhood events. They also rated their memories of the events. Second, 1 week later, subjects imagined one...
Article
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A novel approach to teaching large undergraduate courses using methods derived from 'interteaching' was investigated. Students in two large sections of undergraduate abnormal psychology received preparation guides, and took part in in-class discussion sessions during which instructors circulated to answer questions. Following discussion, students c...
Chapter
Full-text available
A recently devised, novel teaching method termed ‘interteaching’ is discussed. This approach emphasizes student engagement, student to student and student to instructor interaction, rehearsal of material, and discussion of key concepts. The method is introduced, advantages and disadvantages are discussed, and empirical evidence is presented. Pragma...
Chapter
Full-text available
recently devised, novel teaching method termed ‘interteaching’ is discussed. This approach emphasizes student engagement, student to student and student to instructor interaction, rehearsal of material, and discussion of key concepts. The method is introduced, advantages and disadvantages are discussed, and empirical evidence is presented. Pragmati...
Article
Full-text available
The effectiveness of Critical Incident Stress Debriefing (CISD) as a tool remains, at best, inconclusive. Yet in many locales CISD is mandatory for emergency services workers, including firefighters. To our knowledge, to date no study has investigated firefighters' preferences for psychological intervention following traumatic events. To examine th...
Article
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"Don't know" (DK) responses to interview questions are conceptually heterogeneous, and may represent uncertainty or clear statements about the contents of memory. A study examined the subjective intent of DK responses in relation to the objective status of information queried, in the context of memory distorting procedures. Participants viewed a vi...
Article
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Two studies were conducted to provide the first empirical examination of the factor structure of a revised version of the clinically derived Structured Interview for Disorders of Extreme Stress, a structured interview designed to assess associated features of posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) thought to be related to early onset, interpersonal,...
Article
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Previous studies have shown that suggesting childhood events can influence current self-reported attitudes towards future behavior. This study shows that suggesting a false past event (i.e. becoming sick on a specific food during childhood) can modify present behavior (i.e. reduce eating of the food). Participants screened to be normal eaters recei...
Chapter
IntroductionModifying Memories for Experienced EventsFalse Memories for Completely New EventsFuture Directions for False Memory ResearchConclusion References
Article
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Meta-analyses of antidepressant medications have reported only modest benefits over placebo treatment, and when unpublished trial data are included, the benefit falls below accepted criteria for clinical significance. Yet, the efficacy of the antidepressants may also depend on the severity of initial depression scores. The purpose of this analysis...
Article
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Rates of false memory reports vary markedly in the published literature. In an effort to explain these differences, the present study investigated the effects of including different types of details in a false narrative upon subsequent false memory formation. Participants were assigned to one of four conditions in which the inclusion of self-releva...
Article
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We investigated changes in autobiographical belief and memory ratings for childhood events, after informing individuals that forgetting childhood events is common. Participants received false prevalence information (indicating that a particular childhood event occurred frequently in the population) plus a rationale normalizing the forgetting of chi...
Article
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Theoretical predictions of a recently proposed ‘nested’ model of factors involved in the creation of false memories for childhood events (general plausibility, personal plausibility, autobiographical belief and autobiographical memory) were tested. Prevalence and/or script-relevant information related to one of two unlikely childhood events was adm...
Article
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In 2002, the first author and colleagues reported data indicating that both hypnosis and misleading questions decreased the accuracy of memory reports and decreased "don't know" response rates, that the effects of misleading questions were significantly greater than those of hypnosis, and that the two effects were additive. Using a sample of 194 un...
Article
Although perceived support is influenced by both the personality traits of support recipients as well as various social factors, it is unknown to what extent these two types of influences account for perceived support's link to mental health. We investigated these relations using multivariate generalizability analyses. In three samples, both the tr...
Article
People who judge their relationships as more supportive enjoy better mental health than people who judge their relationships more negatively. We investigated how people made these judgments; specifically, how people weighed different types of information about targets under three different conditions: when judgments reflected the personality of per...
Article
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Investigations of the recovery and falsification of childhood memories have used one construct in lieu of another. Autobiographical memories have typically not been distinguished from autobiographical beliefs, and researchers have assumed that plausibility and schematic knowledge measure identical constructs. We tested the hypothesis that plausibil...
Article
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Post-hypnotic testimony by witnesses is subject to a per se exclusion in approximately 2/3 of the US states. This ruling is based upon a lack of evidence that hypnosis promotes increases in accurate recall, and that it promotes confabulation and increased confidence in inaccurate recall. However, little work has been done comparing the effects of h...
Article
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This article reports an analysis of the efficacy data submitted to the U.S. Food and Drug Administration for approval of the 6 most widely prescribed antidepressants approved between 1987 and 1999. Approximately 80% of the response to medication was duplicated in placebo control groups, and the mean difference between drug and placebo was approxima...