Alan M. Saks

Alan M. Saks
University of Toronto | U of T

About

96
Publications
274,722
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16,907
Citations
Citations since 2017
14 Research Items
9309 Citations
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201720182019202020212022202305001,0001,500
201720182019202020212022202305001,0001,500
Introduction
Skills and Expertise

Publications

Publications (96)
Article
To better understand the identity-shaping experiences of students during their school-to-work transition, we developed and tested a model of how students' future work selves change during their job search. We propose that a job seeker's future work self becomes more or less salient depending on how they manage job search challenges. We further prop...
Article
Purpose Employee engagement has received a considerable amount of research attention over the last decade. However, most of the research has been on job or work engagement. Much less attention has been given to organization engagement, which is a distinct but related target of employee engagement. In this paper, we review the research on organizati...
Article
Although caring and an ethics of care have been part of the nursing and education literature for many years, it has seldom been the focus of research and models in the HRD literature which has tended to be dominated by masculine rationality and models that focus on performance. In this paper, I argue that caring represents an important positive att...
Article
Research on employee engagement has demonstrated that human resource management (HRM) practices and systems are positively related to employee engagement. However, it is not clear what HRM practices or system of practices is most important for employee engagement or the theoretical mechanisms that intervene and explain the link between HRM and empl...
Article
What is work good for? A positive organizational psychology perspective - Volume 12 Issue 4 - Jamie A. Gruman, Alan M. Saks
Article
Purpose In 2006, Saks (2006) published one of the first empirical studies of the antecedents and consequences of employee engagement. Since then dozens of studies on engagement have been published and most of them have used the Utrecht Work Engagement Scale (UWES) to measure work engagement. The purpose of this paper is to revisit Saks (2006) to t...
Article
Full-text available
Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to apply and test a theory specifying which resources are most important for employee engagement. Specifically, this paper draws on resource theory to outline six resources (love, status, services, information, goods, money) provided by the organization that employees will exchange for engagement. Design/method...
Article
Purpose Although work engagement has become an important topic in management, relatively little attention has been given to newcomers’ work engagement in the socialization literature. The purpose of this paper is to explain how newcomers’ work engagement can fluctuate during the first year of organizational entry and the role of organizational soci...
Article
Hyland, Lee, and Mills (2015) make a strong case for research and practice on mindfulness within the industrial–organizational community. Their main argument is that mindfulness has the potential to provide physical, psychological, and performance benefits to employees and organizations. However, to realize these benefits, organizations must first...
Article
Full-text available
Research on job search and the theory of planned behavior (TPB) has identified job search attitude, subjective norm, and job search self-efficacy as the most proximal determinants of job seekers’ search intentions and subsequently job search behaviors. However, we do not yet know how more distal individual differences (e.g., personality) and situat...
Article
Purpose – The purpose of this paper is to argue in support of a model that shows how four key HRM practices focused on engagement influence organizational climate, job demands and job resources, the psychological experiences of safety, meaningfulness and availability at work, employee engagement, and individual, group and organizational performance...
Chapter
This chapter focuses on the implications of the transfer of training for organizational socialization. It reviews the literature on organizational socialization and the transfer of training and argues that research and practice on organizational socialization can be significantly improved and advanced by applying what we know about the transfer of...
Article
Purpose – The purpose of this paper is to consider the potential effects of organizational socialization on organizational-level outcomes and to demonstrate that organizational socialization is an important human resource (HR) practice that should be included in research on strategic human resource management (SHRM) and should be part of a high-per...
Article
Full-text available
New employees can accelerate and optimize their socialization by behaving proactively, although the key behaviors vary across studies. Recent research suggests that newcomer proactive behaviors influence socialization through the mediating effect of corresponding proactive outcomes. This may partly explain differences across studies, along with pos...
Article
Full-text available
The purpose of this study was to bridge the gap between micro-training research on the transfer of training and macro-training research on training and firm performance by testing the relationship between transfer of training and firm performance. Training and development professionals completed a survey about the training methods used in their org...
Data
The purpose of this study was to bridge the gap between micro-training research on the transfer of training and macro-training research on training and firm performance by testing the rela-tionship between transfer of training and firm performance. Training and development professionals completed a survey about the training methods used in their or...
Article
Employee engagement has become one of the most popular topics in management. In less than 10 years, there have been dozens of studies published on employee engagement as well as several meta-analyses. However, there continue to be concerns about the meaning, measurement, and theory of employee engagement. In this article, we review these concerns a...
Chapter
From the start, organizational socialization has been all about learning. In fact, most definitions of organizational socialization are very explicit about this and the general notion that socialization involves learning “the ropes” of a particular organizational role (Fisher, 1986). Socialization has been described as a sense-making and learning p...
Article
Full-text available
This study investigated the validity of two measures of work engagement (the Utrecht Work Engagement Scale (UWES) and the May, Gilson and Harter scale) that have emerged in the academic literature. Data were collected using surveys with 139 employees in the Auckland-based call centers of two finance organizations, to assess the validity of the two...
Article
Full-text available
The purpose of this study was to investigate the relationship between training evaluation and the transfer of training in organizations. We hypothesized that training evaluation frequency will be related to higher rates of transfer because evaluation information can identify weaknesses that lead to improvements in training programs and create great...
Article
There are many practices and methods that organizations can employ to socialize new hires and get them on board. In this chapter, we review five socialization practices that have received the most attention in the socialization literature: orientation programs, training programs, socialization tactics, job characteristics, and socialization agents....
Article
Aim A longitudinal field experiment was conducted to test the effects of absenteeism feedback and goal-setting interventions on nurses’ (1) fairness perceptions, (2) discomfort feelings and (3) absenteeism. Nurses’ obstacles to reducing absenteeism were also explored. Background Absenteeism is a significant issue in health care and there is a need...
Article
Interest in workplace spirituality and employee engagement has increased considerably over the last decade among practitioners and scholars. However, even though both topics focus on the importance of the spirit at work, they have emerged independent of each other with little attention to how they are related. In this paper, I describe how workplac...
Article
The purpose of this study was to investigate student preferences for socialization tactics and their intentions to be proactive when they begin a new job. We examined the relationship between the Five Factor Model of personality and proactive personality with socialization tactics preferences and proactive behavior intentions in a sample of 243 und...
Article
This study examined the direct, mediating, and moderating effects of proactive outcomes in the relationship between newcomer proactive behaviors and socialization outcomes. Based on a sample of 204 co-op university students who completed surveys at the end of their work term, the results indicated that newcomers who more frequently engaged in a pro...
Article
Purpose The purpose of this study is to examine the relationship between socialization tactics and newcomer engagement and the mediating role of person‐job (PJ) and person‐organization (PO) fit perceptions, emotions, and self‐efficacy. Design/methodology/approach A survey was completed by 140 co‐op university students at the end of their work term...
Article
Many contemporary organizations are placing a greater emphasis on their performance management systems as a means of generating higher levels of job performance. We suggest that producing performance increments may be best achieved by orienting the performance management system to promote employee engagement. To this end, we describe a new approach...
Article
Full-text available
This study investigates perceptions of organisational image and attractiveness among 200 potential applicants for the Belgian Defense and the person (e.g. friend, parent) accompanying them to a job fair. The instrumental-symbolic framework is applied to conceptualise the key dimensions of an organisation's image as an employer. The results indicate...
Article
The purpose of this paper is to advocate a shift in research and practice on organizational socialization towards one based on positive organizational behaviour (POB). First, we demonstrate how the prevailing perspectives of organizational socialization are based on a cognitive-learning process that emphasizes information and knowledge acquisition....
Article
Purpose The purpose of this study was to investigate the sequential effects of recruitment information on applicant reactions following three recruitment stages (campus fair, recruitment interview, and site visit) and the timing of communications independently, across stages, and in combination. Design/methodology/approach A simulation of the recru...
Article
Full-text available
Decades have been spent studying training transfer in organizational environments in recognition of a transfer problem in organizations. Theoretical models of various antecedents, empirical studies of transfer interventions, and studies of best practices have all been advanced to address this continued problem. Yet a solution may not be so elusive....
Article
Full-text available
We argue that because conventional organizational controls have limited relevance for temporary employees, work ethic values may be a critical predictor of employee perseverance and commitment. A field study was conducted to examine the relationships between belief in the work ethic, job attitudes, intentions to quit, and turnover in a sample of te...
Article
Social cognitive theory was used to explain the relationships between career-relevant activities (environmental and self career exploration, career resources, and training), self-regulatory variables (job search self-efficacy and job search clarity), variables from the Theory of Planned Behavior (job search attitude, subjective norm, job search int...
Article
Full-text available
This study investigated the relationship between job search objectives (finding a new job/ turnover, staying aware of job alternatives, developing a professional network, and obtaining leverage against an employer) and job search methods (looking at job ads, visiting job sites, networking, contacting employment agencies, contacting employers, and s...
Article
Cette recherche s'est donnée pour objectif 17apos;étude des effets combinés des profils de poste réalistes (R.J.P.), de l'intérêt du travail et de l'impact du responsable de recrutement sur la décision des candidats d'accepter ou non le poste. Soixante étudiants de 1* cycle ont joué le rôle de candidat à un emploi; its ont été distribués au hasard...
Article
Full-text available
This paper aims to advance understanding of the effects of training on organizational-level outcomes by reviewing the results of previous studies that have investigated the relationship between training and human resource, performance, and financial outcomes. The results of meta-analysis from 67 studies suggest that training is positively related t...
Article
Full-text available
The purpose of the study was to examine how socialization processes (socialization tactics and proactive behavior) jointly affect socialization content (i.e., what newcomers learn) and adjustment. Longitudinal survey data from 150 business and engineering graduates during their first 7 months of work indicate that: (1) institutionalized socializati...
Article
One of the most popular and often studied topics in the organizational socialization literature is Van Maanen and Schein’s [Van Maanen, J., & Schein, E. H. (1979). Toward a theory of organizational socialization. In B. M. Staw (Ed.), Research in organizational behavior (Vol. 1), pp. 209–264. Greenwich, CT: JAI Press.] theory of organizational socia...
Article
Two experiments were conducted to investigate the hypothesis that perceptions of self-efficacy influence, in various ways, behavior in escalation situations. Self-efficacy beliefs for finding oil were measured for 527 petroleum geologists as they decided, at increasing levels of negative feedback in the form of dry wells, whether to persist with an...
Article
Full-text available
This longitudinal field study was designed to examine the relationships between job information sources, self-esteem, and perceptions of person-job (P-J) and person-organization (P-O) fit, as well as the relationships between perceptions of fit and work outcomes (job satisfaction, organizational commitment, organizational identification, intentions...
Article
The purpose of this study was to investigate the extent to which organizations implement training activities for facilitating the transfer of training before, during, and after training and the relationship between these activities and the transfer of training across organizations.Training professionals from 150 organizations reported that 62%, 44%...
Article
Full-text available
Purpose – Employee engagement has become a hot topic in recent years among consulting firms and in the popular business press. However, employee engagement has rarely been studied in the academic literature and relatively little is known about its antecedents and consequences. The purpose of this study was to test a model of the antecedents and con...
Article
The purpose of this study was to examine the relationship between organizational socialization tactics, newcomers’ self-efficacy, proactive behaviors, and socialization outcomes. Based on a sample of 140 co-op university students who completed surveys at the end of their work term, the results indicated that newcomers’ self-efficacy and institution...
Article
The purpose of this study was to examine the combined and differential effects of five job search behaviors (informal sources, formal sources, preparatory search intensity, active search intensity, job search effort) on five criteria of job search success (job interviews, job offers, employment status, person-job fit, and person-organization fit) a...
Article
The present study examines the role of trait affect in job search. One hundred and twenty-three university students completed measures of positive and negative affectivity, conscientiousness, job search self-efficacy, job search clarity, and job search intensity during their last year of school while on the job market. At the end of the school year...
Article
Justice and signalling theory were used to explain the effects of discriminatory interview questions on applicant reactions. Participants were randomly assigned to a hypothetical interview condition with four, two or no discriminatory questions. Discriminatory questions had a significant negative effect on participant’s reactions to the interview a...
Article
A longitudinal quasi experiment tested the effects of a relapse prevention and transfer enhancement posttraining intervention on the self-efficacy, transfer behavior, and performance of a sample of nurses who attended a two-day training program on the McGill Model of Nursing. ANCOVA results failed to support the effectiveness of the intervention; i...
Article
The purpose of this study was to investigate managers' reactions to two posttraining transfer interventions (relapse prevention and supervisor support training) and two types of information about their effectiveness (utility analysis and research information). One hundred seventy-four managers and students received one of four scenarios and were th...
Article
Full-text available
Research on organizational socialization has usually focused on what organizations do to socialize newcomers or on what newcomers do to socialize themselves. The purpose of this study was to integrate these two perspectives of socialization by investigating the relationships between socialization tactics, newcomers' information acquisition (i.e. fe...
Article
Full-text available
One of the most theoretically developed models of organizational socialization is Van Maanen and Schein's (1979) typology of six tactics. Jones' (1986) operationalization of these tactics has been used in most survey studies of the Van Maanen and Schein model. However, questions remain concerning the dimensionality of the operationalization. Self-r...
Article
Full-text available
In this longitudinal study on job search, fit perceptions, and employment quality, 113 graduates completed surveys prior to organizational entry and 4 months after entry. Job search behavior and career planning were positively related to pre-entry person-job (P-J) and person-organization (P-O) fit perceptions, and pre-entry P-J fit perceptions medi...
Article
Full-text available
In this longitudinal study on job search, fit perceptions, and employment quality, 113 graduates completed surveys prior to organizational entry and 4 months after entry. Job search behavior and career planning were positively related to pre-entry person-job (P-J) and person-organization (P-O) fit perceptions, and pre-entry P-J fit perceptions medi...
Article
Full-text available
In the October issue of TIP, Robert Fitzpatrick called attention to the fact that many studies on transfer of training cite an unscientific and dated estimate of training transfer. The estimate in question comes from an article published almost 20 years ago about the importance of management support for the transfer of training (Georgenson, 1982)....
Article
The purpose of this study was to test the effects of an Absenteeism Feedback Intervention (AFI) on employee absenteeism. Three hundred and seventy-one employees working in 14 experimental and 13 control groups in a medium sized hospital participated in the study. Employees working in the experimental groups received absenteeism feedback at three ti...
Conference Paper
The purpose of this study was to test the effects of an Absenteeism Feedback Intervention (AFI) on employee absenteeism. Three hundred and seventy-one employees working in 14 experimental and 13 control groups in a medium sized hospital participated in the study. Employees working in the experimental groups received absenteeism feedback at three ti...
Article
Full-text available
This study examined the change in job-search behaviors and employment outcomes of 121 recent university graduates who had not found employment in their final term prior to graduation. Participants completed a questionnaire prior to graduation and again 4 months later. The results of repeated measures analysis of variance indicated that job seekers...
Article
Full-text available
Personal control over one's work environment is an important theme in many branches of the social sciences. In the present study, longitudinal field data were used to assess a model of personal control in organizational settings. Business school graduates completed questionnaires prior to graduation and after 4 months (n = 297) and 10 months (n = 2...
Article
Full-text available
This longitudinal field study examined the combined effects of dispositions, entry stressors, and behavioral plasticity theory in predicting newcomers' adjustment to work after four and 10 months of organizational entry. Recent graduates completed a questionnaire prior to entry that measured two dispositions (negative affectivity and general self-e...
Article
Full-text available
This study examined the effects of individual difference variables (self-esteem, job search self-efficacy, and perceived control over job search outcomes) and job search behaviors (preparatory and active job search behavior, and job search intensity) on the employment status of recent university graduates at the time of graduation and 4 months late...
Article
Examined the relationship between age and job performance evaluations by focusing on newcomers in an entry-level job with a typically narrow age distribution and potentially strong age norms. Mean self-reported grade average (3.66), mean number of jobs (1.53), mean overall job performance on a 7-point likert scale (4.63) and other variables were me...
Article
Full-text available
Research on how the context of work affects HRMpractices in general, and socialization practices inparticular, is relatively scarce. The present studyassesses a model linking context, socialization, and newcomer adjustment. Self-report data frombusiness school graduates after 4 months (N = 295) and10 months (N = 223) on the job revealed that mechan...
Article
Full-text available
There has been a remarkable resurgence of research in organizational socialization in the past 5 years. In fact, there have been more published studies in this period than in any previous period. The diversity of topics and the use of longitudinal designs has provided a substantial increase in our understanding of the socialization process. In this...
Article
The search for individual differences relevant to behavior in escalation situations has met with little success. Continuing the search, this study investigated self-efficacy judgments as a potentially important individual difference in escalating commitment to a losing course of action. Predictions derived from self-efficacy theory suggest that sel...
Article
One of the most theoretically developed models of organizational socialization is Van Maanen and Schein's (1979) typology of six tactics. Jones' (1986) operationalization of these tactics has been used in most survey studies of the Van Maanen and Schein model. However, questions remain concerning the dimensionality of the operationalization. Self-r...
Article
The purpose of this study was to investigate the effects of job previews and compensation policy on applicant attraction and job choice. A laboratory study was conducted in which subjects were asked to choose between a job described by a realistic job preview (RJP) and a job described by a traditional job preview (TJP). The conditions varied by the...
Article
Full-text available
Examined behavioral self-management (BSM) as a form of newcomer proactive socialization behavior in 153 newly hired entry-level accountants (mean age 23.8 yrs). Ss completed scales of self-management strategies and measures of the mediating variables of general anxiety and stress during their 1st mo of entry and 6 mo after entry. The socialization...
Article
The purpose of this study was to examine the relationship between the amount and helpfulness of entry training and work outcomes for newcomers during organizational socialization. A sample of 152 newly-hired entry-level professionals completed a questionnaire after the first 6 months of socialization. Supervisor ratings of job performance were obta...
Article
Full-text available
In this longitudinal field study, we used self-report data provided by business school graduates after four months and ten months on. new jobs to assess (1) the effects of the six socialization tactics from Van Maanen and Schein's (1979) typology on newcomer adjustment and (2) refinements of existing measures of the investiture tactic and role inno...
Article
In the present study, 136 undergraduate commerce students participated in a simulation of the job application process by completing one of two application blanks (discriminatory versus non-discriminatory), that did or did not include a statement about the organization's commitment to employment equity. The results indicated that subjects who comple...
Article
Work-role transitions theory (N. Nicholson; see record 1984-30159-001) maintains that entry into a new role induces personal and/or role development. Personal development is argued to be a function of role novelty and the newcomer's desire for feedback, while role development is argued to be a function of role discretion and desire for control. Ut...
Article
A longitudinal field study examined the moderating and mediating effects of self-efficacy on the relationship between training and the adjustment of newcomers during their 1st year of employment. The results provided some support for the hypothesis that initial self-efficacy moderates the relationship between training and adjustment. Training was m...
Article
The purpose of this study was to examine the moderating effect of self-efficacy for the relationship between training method and newcomers' anxiety and stress reactions. The two methods of training examined were formal orientation and training and tutorial training. A sample of 198 newly-hired entry-level accountants completed a questionnaire follo...
Article
This study investigated the effects of discriminatory interview questions on applicants' perceptions and intentions toward an organization. Participants included 118 graduate business students (59 percent male), average age of 31 with more than eight years of full-time work experience. Discriminatory questions addressed handicaps, plans for marriag...
Article
Although the self-selection matching hypothesis is considered to be an integral part of the psychological effects of realistic job previews (RJPs), several writers have concluded that self-selection is not a valid explanation for the effect of RJPs on job survival (Colarelli, 1984; Reilly, Brown, Blood, & Malatesta, 1981). This conclusion, however,...
Article
The purpose of this study was to examine the psychological processes for the effects of recruitment source and organization information on newcomers' job survival. Formal sources of recruitment were compared to informal sources, and a model based on the realism and met expectations hypotheses for the effects of information accuracy received from on...
Article
In this study on self-efficacy, training and newcomer adjustment, interactions between training and pre-training self-efficacy indicated that a greater amount of training was of particular benefit for the adjustment of newcomers with low pre-training self-efficacy. Further, the relationship between training and adjustment was in part mediated by po...
Article
Research on realistic job previews (RJPs) has failed to consider applicant job choice in terms of job offers from competing organizations in the external work environment. In the present study subjects were assigned to one of three conditions: a traditional job preview (TJP) vs no job; an RJP vs no job; or a TJP vs an RJP vs no job. As in previous...
Article
A laboratory experiment was conducted to investigate the role of three possible mediating variables (job attitude, job knowledge, and job acceptance intention) to explain the effects of realistic job previews (RJPs) on entry-level outcomes. In addition, the effectiveness of an oral realistic job preview presented by an employment interviewer was co...
Article
Full-text available
Reviews the major contributions that industrial-organizational psychology has made to the understanding of the effects of training. The authors discuss the psychological states of trainees, especially motivation, self-efficacy, and perceived control, and the realities of the organizational context which influence the outcomes of training. Issues in...

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The best textbook for undergraduate college and university training and development courses.