Alan Penn

Alan Penn
University College London | UCL · Bartlett School of Environment Energy and Resources

About

171
Publications
130,033
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7,002
Citations
Additional affiliations
September 1987 - present
University College London
Position
  • Dean, The Bartlett Faculty of the Built Environment

Publications

Publications (171)
Article
This paper presents a preliminary study into the spatial features that can be used to distinguish creativity andefficiency in design layouts, and the distinct pattern of cognitive and metacognitive activity that is associated with creative design. In a design experiment, a group of 12 architects were handed a design brief. Their drawing activity wa...
Chapter
This paper presents a preliminary study into the spatial features that can be used to distinguish creativity and efficiency in design layouts, and the distinct pattern of cognitive activity that is associated with creative design. In a design experiment, a group of 12 architects were handed a design brief. Their drawing activity was recorded and th...
Article
Full-text available
Reorientation depends greatly on the perceived geometric information, which constantly changes during navigation in urban environments. Environmental novelty, as a driver of exploratory behavior, is likely to engender this spatial Aha! moment. The paper investigates the contribution of two qualitatively different types of novelty, corresponding to...
Article
Full-text available
Big data analytics and artificial intelligence, paired with blockchain technology, the Internet of Things, and other emerging technologies, are poised to revolutionise urban management. With massive amounts of data collected from citizens, devices, and traditional sources such as routine and well-established censuses, urban areas across the world h...
Conference Paper
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Previous research suggests that community detection methods, which defines subgraph that maximises internal ties and minimise external ties, can be applied on the street network dual graph in identifying Street-based Local Area (Law et al 2016; Law 2017). The method was successful in identifying isolated local area but were unsuccessful in identify...
Article
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Built structures, such as animal nests or buildings that humans occupy, serve two overarching purposes: shelter and a space where individuals interact. The former has dominated much of the discussion in the literature. But, as the study of collective behaviour expands, it is time to elucidate the role of the built environment in shaping collective...
Article
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The search for general common principles that unify disciplines is a longstanding challenge for interdisciplinary research. Architecture has always been an interdisciplinary pursuit, combining engineering, art and culture. The rise of biomimetic architecture adds to the interdisciplinary span. We discuss the similarities and differences among human...
Poster
Full-text available
Architectural and healthcare architecture theories followed non-corresponding paths. This academic separation prevented cross-fertilization and seamless design. Among the exceptions, Foucault’s theory of total institutions influenced both sectors. First, he introduced the phenomenon of institutionalization. Then, Hillier in his generic theory of sp...
Article
Full-text available
One role of the city is often overlooked. This is its role in providing a common sett ing for social action. This paper reviews research into the geometry and topology of urban built space and the way that these confi gurational structures appear to be appropriated for human individual and social purposes. It links economic, cultural and political...
Conference Paper
Full-text available
Architectural and healthcare architecture theories followed non-corresponding paths. This academic separation prevented cross-fertilization and seamless design. Among the exceptions, Foucault's theory of total institutions influenced both sectors. First, he introduced the phenomenon of institutionalization. Then, Hillier in his generic theory of sp...
Article
Background Various techniques have been used for evaluating the accessibility of urban spaces for pedestrians, but these are rarely grounded in a thorough analysis of the perceptual task that the pedestrian is faced with. We adopt an embodied cognition approach that allows us to analyse the pedestrian's task while taking into account both the first...
Conference Paper
Full-text available
Spatial network accessibility was found to be significant when associating with house prices using the hedonic price approach. These results suggest some individuals are willing to pay more for spatial isolation while some individuals will pay more for spatial co-presence. An obvious limitation of earlier research is a lack of comparative analysis...
Conference Paper
Full-text available
Virtual Reality environments in combination with brain activity recordings using electroencephalography (EEG) offer a fruitful method to investigate the emergence of specific experiential events in response to the built environment. However, real-world experimental settings involve dynamic and complex conditions which are difficult to be controlled...
Chapter
With the increase in urban complexity, plausible analytical and design models became highly valued as the way to decode and reconstruct the organization that makes urban systems. What they lacked is a mechanism by which an analytical description of urban complexity could be translated into a design description. An attempt to define such a mechanism...
Conference Paper
With the increase in urban complexity, plausible analytical and design models became highly valued as the way to decode and reconstruct the organization that makes urban systems. What they lacked is a mechanism by which an analytical description of urban complexity could be translated into a design description. An attempt to define such a mechanism...
Article
Full-text available
Space syntax theory has extensively examined the role of socio-economic processes in cities, whereas in spatial economics, location and distribution of land uses are modelled to understand urban processes. It is suggested that neither field has been robustly based on a more fully conceived level of local city design, and often overlooking the morph...
Conference Paper
The pervasive deployment of “smart building” projects world-wide is driving innovation on many fronts including; technology, telematics, engineering and entrepreneurship. This paper focuses on the technical and engineering perspectives of BIM, by extending building morphology studies as to respond to the challenges posed by Big Data, and smart infr...
Conference Paper
Full-text available
Bringing together the notions of mental impasses in problem solving and perceptual restructuring of spatial information during reorientation the present study investigates brain activity in two real-world pilot experiments on spatial reasoning: an orientation pointing task and a Sudoku puzzle. The working hypothesis of this research is that if we a...
Article
Full-text available
Cities appear to display similar features and mechanisms across different geographies. This phenomenon seems to hold despite planning intentionality. In questioning the nature of this behaviour, an attempt is made in this paper to examine how cities retrieve their relational dependencies between street structures and other form-function attributes...
Conference Paper
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Housing submarkets can be defined as a set of dwellings that are reasonably close substitutes with one another, but poor substitutes between other submarkets. This research argues similarities within submarkets are not only captured by its building and location characteristics but also in how each dwelling is inter-connected within its local area a...
Conference Paper
The pervasive deployment of "smart city" and "smart building" projects in cities world-wide is driving innovation on many fronts including; technology, telematics, engineering and entrepreneurship. This paper focuses on the technical and engineering perspectives of BIM and smart cities, by extending building and urban morphology studies as to respo...
Conference Paper
Cities appear to display similar features and mechanisms across different geographies. This phenomenon seems to hold despite planning intentionality. In questioning the nature of this convergent behaviour and the role of path dependence in urban evolution, an attempt is made in this presentation to examine how cities retrieve their relational depen...
Conference Paper
Full-text available
The “Space Syntax Toolkit” is a QGIS plug-in for spatial network and statistical analysis. It provides a front-end for the depthmapX software within QGIS, offering user-friendly space syntax analysis workflows in a GIS environment. It is primarily aimed at supporting the space syntax methodology, and enhancing it with GIS data, analysis and visuali...
Article
Full-text available
Revisiting Jane Jacob's notion of locality knowledge, this paper argues that combining commercial space and dwelling fosters social, economic and architectural processes that come about by factors of local urban economies. The mixing of uses merges the relation of 'what one does' and 'where one lives' in a particular building whereby urban and arch...
Conference Paper
Full-text available
There has been a shift in aesthetics from the modern orthogonal building envelope to more elaborate curved and folded forms. Non-orthogonal forms are often associated with complete freedom of geometry, entrusting the advancement in custom manufacturing and robotic fabrication of one-off building parts to realise the design. This paper presents a me...
Article
Full-text available
This paper investigates the relationship between urban space and urban economy focusing on the way centralities emerge across scales. A method is presented that combines space syntax theories and an economic model of trade-off that refers to the relation between rent and access. With the argument that economies take place in differences of space, a...
Book
Space Syntax methodology is a highly readable and accessible textbook on understanding network representations of space for the purpose of architectural and urban research and design. The textbook addresses Space Syntax theory, both as a conceptual framework and as a tool for thinking the relationship between space and society via the UCL Depthmap...
Article
Full-text available
There has been a shift in aesthetics from the modern orthogonal building envelope to more elaborate curved and folded forms. Non-orthogonal forms are often associated with complete freedom of geometry, entrusting the advancement in custom manufacturing and robotic fabrication of one-off building parts to realise the design. This paper presents a me...
Conference Paper
Full-text available
This paper reports on a study of the emergence of creative insights in the architectural design process. Using detailed ethnographic observations of designers working on an architectural design task, and coding these using linkographs, we identify two poles of design creativity: incremental improvement and the sudden creative insight. We show how t...
Conference Paper
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Add Section Posts1 CV Edit Email t.el-khouly@ucl.ac.uk Location Room G.11 Ground Floor Central House 14 Upper Woburn Place London WC1H 0NN UK http://www.bartlett.ucl.ac.uk/graduate/people/mphil-phd-students/space/tamer-el-khouly http://ucl.academia.edu/TamerElKhouly Add Social Profiles(Facebook, Twitter, etc.) Tamer El-Khouly University Colleg...
Article
Full-text available
We describe a novel methodology that examines perceptions of urban space, and present a study using this methodology that explores people’s perceptions of their neighbourhood. Previous studies of spatial cues have involved a variety of tasks such as pointing and sketching to externalise participants’ internal spatial maps. Our methodology extends t...
Chapter
This paper is an effort to understand the role of branded architecture as a potential manifesto of organisational identity in the globalisation of economy. The aim is to bring to the fore the ways architectural space can define the composition of branded narrations and influence customer behaviour within branded spaces. The significance of architec...
Article
Full-text available
What has urban space to do with economics? This paper investigates the relationship between urban space and urban economy focusing on the way centralities emerge across scales. A method is presented that combines space syntax theories and an economic model of trade-off that refers to the relation between rent and access. This is based on proposing...
Conference Paper
This paper analyses the relationship between spatial configuration, organisational change and collaboration networks of academics by investigating results from an empirical case study of a single academic department at three points in time. Previous research has often excluded academia as an organisational and spatial context or has not brought the...
Conference Paper
Full-text available
This paper introduces a methodology to analyse design linkographs by quantifying entropy at each single move throughout the design process. The method adopts the deterministic information theory proposed by Titchener [1], [2], [3] to develop a quantitative model aiming to highlight the significant nodes by coding the de-pendency relations (backlink...
Article
Full-text available
This research is an effort to understand the theoretical foundations of how the configuration of space is interrelated with the economic properties that sustain the built fabric. The hypothesis is based on unfolding accessibility in two perspectives: As a spatial parameter that understands urban form as a system of relational patterns of connection...
Conference Paper
Full-text available
THEME: Methodological Development and Modeling Abstract: There has been great interest in the use of linkographies to describe the events that take place in design processes with the aim of understanding when creativity takes place and the conditions under which creative moments emerge in the design. Linkography is a directed graph network and bec...
Conference Paper
Full-text available
THEME: Methodological Development and Modeling Abstract ABSTRACT: There has been great interest in the use of linkographies to describe the events that take place in design processes with the aim of understanding when creativity takes place and the conditions under which creative moments emerge in the design. Linkography is a directed graph networ...
Article
Full-text available
This paper draws on the findings of an on-going research project into the relationship between spatial networks and socio-economic activities in urban environments. It makes particular reference to spatial morphology, advancing a fresh perspective on a range of economic factors by showing how they can be translated into the ‘qualitative’ values of...
Article
Full-text available
This paper investigates the role of spatial parameters in relation to economic properties embedded in the city's urban form. The key element to explore in the study of the configuration of space is accessibility. The role of markets has always been a factor of constant transformation that influence how a city develops and functions at different sca...
Article
Full-text available
Understanding the way in which design interventions in an office affect everyday users, and thus shape organisational behaviour, should be high on the agenda for architects, designers and consultants alike. Surprisingly, this seems rarely to be the case. Here we aim to help close this gap by studying a variety of organisations in depth both before...
Conference Paper
Theories of space and the physical reality of organisations have been widely ignored by organisational theory, as Clegg and Kornberger asserted in their 2006 edited volume on „Space, Organisations and Management Theory‟. To contribute to the understanding of the spatiality of organisations and the organisational implications of space, this paper su...
Article
Full-text available
Moving human-computer interaction off the desktop and into our cities requires new approaches to understanding people and technologies in the built environment. We approach the city as a system, with human, physical and digital components and behaviours. In creating effective and usable urban pervasive computing systems, we need to take into accoun...
Chapter
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In this chapter, we explore the types of encounters that technology enables. We consider the differences between digital and nondigital encounters through two pilot studies carried out in the city of Bath, United Kingdom. We investigate how technology can be appropriated for shared interactions that support conscious (or unconscious) social encount...
Article
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Evidence-based design is a practice that has emerged only relatively recently, inspired by a growing popularity of evidence-based approaches in other professions such as medicine. It has received greatest attention in design for the health sector, but has received less in office architecture, although this would seem not only to be beneficial for c...
Conference Paper
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In this paper we report on research into patterns of shopper movement and behaviour in a supermarket. It is an underlying assumption of much space syntax research that the population is relatively homogeneous in terms of the way it uses space, introduced by the theory of natural movement in urban environments where the density distribution of facil...
Article
Full-text available
It is widely considered that the physical layout of workplace environments has an influence on social interaction and therefore the social structure of an organisation. However, there is little accordance among scholars from different disciplines on exactly how the relationship between space and organisation is constituted. Empirical studies often...
Article
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Many complex human and natural phenomena can usefully be represented as networks describing the relationships between individuals. While these relationships are typically intermittent, previous research has used network representations that aggregate the relationships at discrete intervals. However, such an aggregation discards important temporal i...
Conference Paper
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Architectural researchers and design practitioners mostly segregate in distinct communities with hardly any overlap, collaboration or exchange of ideas. This gap between research and practice leads to a wide-spread ignorance and inability to make practical use of evidence produced by research, resulting too often in poor designs and a self-absorbed...
Article
Full-text available
In this paper we address the role of the spatial environment in the construction of organizational culture. Using the example of a large and long lived museum institution we show that two quite distinct organizational cultures characterize different departmental groups. We show how these relate to organizational role and to spatial behaviour. We ar...
Conference Paper
Full-text available
It is often proposed that the design of the physical workplace influences social interaction and therefore organisational behaviour in one way or the other. Yet there is little accordance among scholars on how exactly the relationship between the social space and the social structure of an organisation is constituted. In order to explore this relat...
Article
Full-text available
Software agents that use direct (or active) perception of the environment have recently been shown to correspond well with pedestrian movement within building and urban systems. The algorithm, based on Gibson's theory of affordances, combines random selection of destination from their field of view with reassessment of the destination every few ste...
Article
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A conceptual framework describes three aspects of designing and analyzing pervasive systems in an urban environment. A systematic approach to designing the urban environment as an integrated system of architecture and pervasive technologies requires drawing on knowledge, theory, and methods from the disciplines of architecture and computer science....
Conference Paper
Full-text available
We approach the design of ubiquitous computing systems in the ur-ban environment as integral to urban design. To understand the city as a system encompassing physical and digital forms and their relationships with people's behaviours, we are developing, applying and refining methods of observing, re-cording, modelling and analysing the city, physic...
Article
Architecture, the art and science of designing the built environment, has proved to be a highly challenging area of application for computer science. This may be partly to do with the difficulty experienced by those without an architectural training in trying to understand exactly what design of the built environment entails. This is hardly helped...
Conference Paper
We outline initial investigations into how choices of spatial configuration, input devices and display technologies influence action and interaction in hybrid electronic and physical spaces. Joe Blogg is a socially situated public display for receiving MMS and SMS messages and we describe our first installation of this system, giving an account of...
Article
Full-text available
This paper examines the 19th century Jewish immigrant quarters of Manchester and Leeds. It uses original census data to look at the entire population of the two areas of initial settlement. Analysis of family and kin structure, occupations of head of household, country of origin and length of time in the country as well as analysis of the settlemen...
Conference Paper
Full-text available
Mixed Reality Architecture (MRA) supports distributed teams in their everyday work activities by linking multiple physical spaces across a shared three-dimensional virtual world. User configurable audio-visual connections give the inhabitants of MRA full control over whom they want to be in contact with and when they make themselves available, as w...
Article
As organisation theory has developed from its foundations in administration and management to incorporate sociological concepts, it has become subject to some of sociology's concerns with method. In particular the separability of people from organisational structures comes into question. Here I review the place of architectural research which studi...