Alan Wayne Jones

Alan Wayne Jones
Linköping University | LiU · Division of Drug Research, Department of Biomedical and Clinical Sciences

BSc, PhD, DSc.

About

357
Publications
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Introduction
A book project together with CRC Press (Taylor & Francis). The book is entitled "Alcohol, Drugs and Impaired Driving - Forensic Science and Law enforcement Issues" and is scheduled to be published May 2020.

Publications

Publications (357)
Article
Full-text available
Peer-review of manuscripts submitted to scholarly journals for publication dates back ~ 350 years and this process represents the foundation of scientific publishing. After a manuscript has undergone and survived a rigorous peer-review, this conveys a stamp of approval, because it signifies the work has been checked by independent experts in the sc...
Article
Background & Objectives This study reports the prevalence and concentrations of sedative-hypnotic drugs as exemplified by benzodiazepines (BZD) and zolpidem (Z-hypnotic) in blood samples from drivers involved in road traffic accidents (RTA) in the Padova region of Italy. Another aim of the study was to estimate the prevalence of these drugs with co...
Article
Full-text available
A publically available database of the most highly cited scientists in all disciplines was used to identify people that belonged to the subject category “forensic science and legal medicine.” This bibliometric information was derived from Elsevier’s SCOPUS database containing eight million scientists with at least five articles as author or co-auth...
Article
Full-text available
Accurate determination of a person's blood alcohol concentration (BAC) is an important task in forensic toxicology laboratories because of the existence of statutory limits for driving a motor vehicle and workplace alcohol testing regulations. However, making a correct interpretation of the BAC determined in postmortem (PM) specimens is complicated...
Article
During the prosecution and defence of drink-driving cases, forensic practitioners are often required to engage in various blood-alcohol calculations, such as whether or not the statutory limit was exceeded (e.g. 80 mg/100 mL, 0.08 g/100 mL or 0.80 g/L). For this purpose, most forensic scientists utilize the Widmark equation, or some modification th...
Article
Full-text available
Variability in the blood–breath ratio (BBR) of alcohol is important, because it relates a measurement of the blood-alcohol concentration (BAC) with the co-existing breath-alcohol concentration (BrAC). The BBR is also used to establish the statutory BrAC limit for driving from the existing statutory BAC limits in different countries. The in-vivo BBR...
Article
Aim Gamma-hydroxybutyrate (GHB) is a common drug of abuse with an elimination half-life of 20-45 min. However, there is some evidence that GHB might exhibit saturation kinetics after ingesting high recreational doses. The aim of this study was to investigate the elimination kinetics of GHB from blood in people apprehended by the police for impaired...
Article
Full-text available
In mid-2019, medical, forensic and legal communities were notified that a certain shipment of evacuated blood sampling tubes were recalled by the manufacturer. This recall order described that the preservative sodium fluoride (100 mg) and anticoagulant potassium oxalate (20 mg) were missing from a small batch of 10 mL-evacuated tubes. This gave cau...
Article
In connection with medicolegal autopsies peripheral blood (e.g. from a femoral vein) is the specimen of choice for toxicological analysis, although alternative specimens are also sometimes submitted, such as bile, cerebrospinal fluid (CSF), vitreous humor (VH), bladder urine, pleural effusions and/or lung fluid. Ethanol concentrations were determin...
Chapter
A physiological relationship exists between the concentrations of ethanol and other volatile organic compounds (VOCs) in pulmonary capillary blood and in the alveolar air. The concentration of ethanol in exhaled breath is highly correlated with the peripheral blood-alcohol concentration (BAC), which supports the use of breath analysis as a test for...
Article
Full-text available
Alcohol (ethanol) is man's favorite recreational drug and the psychoactive substance most often encountered in forensic toxicology casework; impaired driving cases, sexual assaults, and drug intoxication deaths. Because of the legal consequences of a person's blood– or breath–alcohol concentration (BAC or BrAC), the analytical methods used must be...
Article
Important events in the history of driving under the influence of alcohol (DUI) and/or other drugs (DUID) are reviewed covering a period of approximately 100 years. This coincides with major developments in the pharmaceutical industry and the exponential growth in motor transportation worldwide. DUID constitutes an interaction between the driver, t...
Article
Full-text available
The ethanol contained in alcoholic beverages is rapidly absorbed from the gastrointestinal tract and the maximum blood‐alcohol concentration (BAC) is usually reached between 10 and 60 min postdosing. Once in the bloodstream, ethanol is distributed into the total body water (TBW) compartment, which comprises ~55–60% of body weight in nonobese males...
Article
Full-text available
This article is intended as a brief review or primer about cocaethylene (CE), a pharmacologically active substance formed in the body when a person co-ingests ethanol and cocaine. Reference books widely used in forensic toxicology contain scant information about CE, even though this cocaine metabolite is commonly encountered in routine casework. CE...
Article
Background: Inter-laboratory proficiency schemes are widely used to control the performance of clinical and forensic toxicology laboratories. In 2016 the Laboratory of Environmental Hygiene and Forensic Toxicology - Venice (Italy) initiated an inter-laboratory proficiency test of blood-alcohol analysis. The number of participating laboratories gra...
Article
The Widmark equation is commonly used when blood alcohol calculations are required in forensic and legal medicine, such as in road-traffic cases and alcohol-related deaths. An important biological variable in this connection is the volume of distribution (Vd) of ethanol, which is commonly referred to as the rho-factor. Although a person's Vd can be...
Article
Full-text available
Introduction: γ-Hydroxybutyric acid is an endogenous substance, a therapeutic agent, and a recreational drug of abuse. This psychoactive substance acts as a depressant of the central nervous system and is commonly encountered in clinical and forensic practice, including impaired drivers, poisoned patients, and drug-related intoxication deaths. Obje...
Article
Full-text available
This article reports the concentrations of gamma-hydroxybutyrate (GHB) in femoral blood and bladder urine in a case series of drug intoxication deaths (N = 37). GHB was determined in blood (B-GHB) and urine (U-GHB) by a GC-FID-GBL method and 30 mg/L was used as a cut-off concentration for reporting positive results. The mean (median) and range of G...
Article
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Gives a tribute to the life and work of a great scientist.
Article
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This article presents a review of medicolegal investigations of drug-related deaths among various Hollywood celebrities and popular music icons. The movie stars included: Marilyn Monroe, River Phoenix, John Belushi, Chris Penn, Heath Ledger and Philip Seymour Hoffman. The musicians are exemplified by Elvis Presley, Janis Joplin, Jimi Hendrix, Keith...
Article
Full-text available
Publications reporting concentrations of caffeine in postmortem blood were reviewed if the cause of death was attributed to overdosing (poisoning) with drugs. Age and gender of the deceased, the manner of death (accident, suicide or undetermined) and types of co-ingested drugs were evaluated in relation to the concentrations of caffeine in blood (N...
Article
The analysis of ethanol in exhaled breath is widely used in forensic science and legal medicine as a rapid test for overconsumption of alcohol. The police authorities use breath-alcohol instruments to control sobriety in people suspected of driving under the influence of alcohol. The noninvasive nature of breath sampling offers a definite advantage...
Article
Background: Reference concentrations of drugs in post-mortem femoral blood furnishes useful information when poisoning (intoxication) deaths are investigated. However, few publications compare the concentrations of drugs in single-drug fatalities with multi-drug intoxications. This article attempts to fill this gap in knowledge. Methods: We sear...
Article
Full-text available
Background: The stability of ethanol was investigated in blood specimens in glass or plastic evacuated tubes after storage in a refrigerator at 4 °C for up to 12 months. Methods: Sterile blood, from a local hospital, was divided into 50 mL portions and spiked with aqueous ethanol (10% w/v) to give target concentrations of 0.20, 1.00, 2.00 and 3....
Article
Full-text available
Excessive drinking and drunkenness are tightly linked to many types of intentional and unintentional injuries involving trauma and blood loss, which often necessitate emergency medical intervention. This article considers the impact of trauma, massive blood loss, and the administration of life-saving replacement fluids on a person's blood alcohol c...
Article
Background: Multiple arrests for use of illicit drugs and/or impaired driving strongly suggests the existence of a personality disorder and/or a substance abuse problem. Methods: This retrospective study (1993-2010) used a national forensic toxicology database (TOXBASE), and we identified 3943 individuals with two or more arrests for use of illi...
Article
This article pays homage to the life and work of a veritable pioneer in toxicology and drug metabolism, namely a Welshman, Richard Tecwyn Williams, FRS. Professor Williams, or RT as he was known, made major contributions to knowledge about the metabolism and toxicology of drugs and xenobiotics during a scientific career spanning nearly 50 years. Au...
Chapter
Alcohol (ethanol) is the psychoactive substance contained in all alcoholic beverages; it acts as a depressant of the central nervous system. Alcohol has been aptly referred to as the Jekyll and Hyde of the drug world to signify that moderate drinking is harmless, whereas heavy drinking and drunkenness represent a major public health problem. In for...
Chapter
Science would be hard to imagine without scientific journals. The prestige of a scientific journal within its particular subject category or discipline is increasingly being judged by the journal impact factor (JIF), which for more than 8000 journals falls within the range zero to 50. The JIF represents the frequency with which the average article...
Article
The analysis of volatiles in post-mortem blood by gas chromatography sometimes shows the presence of acetone at concentrations exceeding 0.10g/L, which is the analytical cut-off used in many laboratories. Whether these results reflect ante-mortem ingestion of isopropanol and subsequent oxidation to acetone or if the deceased suffered from a metabol...
Article
Knowledge about the history and development of therapeutic agents holds a central position in the education and training of pharmacists and pharmacologists. Students enjoy learning about the discovery of drugs, including details about the pioneer workers involved (apothecaries, organic chemist, pharmacologists and physiologists) and the role played...
Research
Full-text available
Book published by the Swedish National Board of Forensic Medicine (Rättsmedicinalverket) in 2010.
Book
The predecessor to this Applications Manual, Building Energy and Environment Modelling (BEEM) was first published in 1998. Much has happened over the last two decades in the modelling fields, including computer power and software advances but, more significantly, those in the optimisation of building and system performance for energy reductions and...
Article
Amphetamine, and to a lesser extent the secondary amine methamphetamine, are major recreational drugs of abuse in Sweden. These central stimulant amines are identified in blood from roughly 50% of people arrested for driving under the influence of drugs (DUID). However, much less information is available about the presence of amphetamine in blood o...
Article
Full-text available
The illicit recreational drug of abuse, γ-hydroxybutyrate (GHB) is a potent central nervous system depressant and is often encountered during forensic investigations of living and deceased persons. The sodium salt of GHB is registered as a therapeutic agent (Xyrem®), approved in some countries for the treatment of narcolepsy-associated cataplexy an...
Article
Full-text available
The stability of γ-hydroxybutyrate (GHB) was determined in 50 blood samples from impaired drivers after storage at 4 °: C for up to 12 months. GHB was determined in whole blood by gas chromatography-flame ionization detector (GC-FID) after conversion into γ-butyrolactone (GBL) and results were compared with LC-MS-MS. Both analytical methods showed...
Book
Full-text available
History of forensic toxicology in Sweden and compilation of research work published 1956-2013.
Article
Use and abuse of alcohol are common findings when unnatural deaths are investigated as evidenced by high blood- and urine- alcohol concentrations (BAC and UAC) at autopsy. Because ethanol is metabolized in the liver until the time of death, the autopsy BAC or UAC might be negative even though the deceased had consumed alcohol in the immediate ante-...
Chapter
This chapter discusses toxiciology of various substances such as alcohols, illegal drugs, narcotics, toxic chemical elements and their ions, and pesticides and insecticides. Some pharmacokinetic parameters for sedative-hypnotics are given in the chapter. Acute or chronic poisonings caused by some gases or solvents occur with various incidences worl...
Chapter
This chapter reviews the methods used to determine alcohol in blood and breath for legal purposes along with the statutory alcohol limits, which differ between countries. Demographics of typical drinking drivers are reported along with the distribution of blood alcohol concentrations (BACs) when apprehended. The problem of dealing with people who r...
Article
Full-text available
The concentrations of cocaine and its major metabolite benzoylecgonine (BZE) were determined in femoral blood from 132 cocaine-related deaths and compared with venous blood from 988 apprehended drivers. Cocaine and BZE were determined by solid-phase extraction and isotope dilution gas chromatography-mass spectrometry with limits of quantitation of...
Article
Background: Drunk or drug-impaired drivers represent a major public health and societal problem worldwide. Because over 95% of drivers killed on the roads in Sweden are autopsied, reliable information is available about the use of alcohol and/or other drug before the crash. Methods: This retrospective 4-year study (2008-2011) used a forensic tox...
Article
Over-consumption of alcohol and/or abuse of other drugs are closely linked to attempted or completed suicides. In this retrospective 10-year study (2001-2010), we compared the toxicology findings in hanging suicides (n = 4551) with drug poisoning (intoxication) suicides (n = 2468). The mean age of hanging deaths was 49 ± 19 y (±SD) and 80% were mal...
Article
The aim of this study was to evaluate the characteristics of traffic offenders with unusually high blood-alcohol concentrations (BAC>0.4g%) when arrested. The BAC that kills one person might be easily tolerated by another, depending on, among other things, the person's age, pattern of drinking, and the development of tolerance. The archives of two...
Article
Amphetamine is a major drug of abuse in Sweden and in the other Nordic countries. The demographics of amphetamine abusers in Sweden and the concentrations of this stimulant in blood are reported for 10 years of forensic blood samples (2001-2010). Using a forensic toxicology database (TOXBASE), we studied 1183 amphetamine-related deaths, 20,452 user...
Article
Full-text available
Alprazolam is a benzodiazepine anxiolytic widely prescribed for treatment of panic-disorder and social phobias, although this medication is also subject to abuse. In this paper, the concentrations of alprazolam in venous blood samples from impaired drivers were compared with femoral blood samples from forensic autopsies classified as intoxication o...
Article
Full-text available
Methadone (MTD) is widely used for detoxification of heroin addicts and also in pain management programs. Information about the distribution of methadone between blood, plasma, and alternative specimens, such as oral fluid (OF), is needed in clinical, forensic, and traffic medicine when analytical results are interpreted. We determined MTD and its...
Article
Full-text available
Using a forensic toxicology database, the authors investigated cases of driving under the influence of drugs (DUID) if methamphetamine (MA) was identified in the blood samples (N = 9,310). The concentrations of MA and amphetamine (AM) in blood were determined after liquid–liquid extraction by gas chromatography–mass spectrometry at limits of quanti...
Article
Full-text available
Using an in-house forensic toxicology database, we selected 1000 cases of driving under the influence of drugs (DUIDs) over a 12-month period if diazepam (D) and nordiazepam (ND) were both present in the blood samples. Quantitative analysis of D and ND in blood was done by solvent extraction (butyl acetate) and capillary column gas chromatography (...
Article
The toxicological analysis of blood and urine samples from victims of alleged sexual assault represents a crucial part of the forensic evidence when this crime is investigated. We searched a national forensic toxicology database (TOXBASE) to find cases registered as sexual assault, rape, including date-rape that the police had requested the analysi...
Chapter
Adverse drug–alcohol interactions represent a major problem in today’s society because of the increasing use of prescription medication in the aging population and the recreational use and abuse of alcoholic beverages throughout adult life. Heavy drinking and drunkenness are major public health problems and ethanol is the drug most frequently encou...
Article
Using a forensic toxicology database (TOXBASE), the toxicological results from 10years of forensic blood samples from people arrested for driving under the influence of alcohol and/or other drugs were reviewed. Alcohol was the only drug identified in blood in N=35,704 cases at a median blood-alcohol concentration (BAC) of 1.63mg/g. The mean age (±S...
Article
The concentrations of zolpidem and zopiclone were determined in peripheral blood samples in two forensic materials collected over a 10-year period (2001-2010). The z-hypnotics were determined in venous blood from living subjects (impaired drivers) and in femoral blood from deceased persons (forensic autopsies), with the latter classified as intoxic...
Article
Full-text available
Concentrations of d,l-methadone were determined in blood samples from people arrested for driving under the influence of drugs (DUID), users of illicit drugs, and methadone-related deaths. In drug overdose deaths (N = 346), mean (median) and highest concentrations of methadone in femoral blood were 0.53 mg/L (0.40 mg/L) and 6.7 mg/L, compared with...
Article
Full-text available
Fifty years is a long time in science and also a long time in the life of a scientific journal. This article commemorates 50 years of continuous publishing by BLUTALKOHOL and pays tribute to the people involved, including the authors of articles, the editors and editorial board, the publisher and not least the many anonymous peer-reviewers. The wor...
Article
Background: Amphetamine is a major drug of abuse worldwide. Here we compare the concentrations of this stimulant amine in femoral blood in drug fatalities with venous blood from impaired drivers. Method: Amphetamine was determined in blood by isotope-dilution GC-MS after liquid-liquid extraction. Results: Amphetamine was the only drug identifi...
Article
Full-text available
A reliable method for the quantitative analysis of ethanol in microvolumes (50-100 μL) of blood became available in 1922, making it possible to investigate the absorption, distribution, metabolism, and excretion (ADME) of ethanol in healthy volunteers. The basic principles of ethanol pharmacokinetics were established in the 1930s, including the not...
Article
This case report describes the police investigation of a road-traffic accident involving a collision at night (01.00 am) between a car and a truck in which a passenger in the car was killed. The driver of the truck was found responsible for the crash although a roadside breath-alcohol test was negative (<0.1 mg/L breath or 20 mg/100 mL blood). Beca...
Article
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A 19-year-old non-diabetic female suffering from irritable bowel syndrome was found unconscious outdoors in the month of October. She was severely hypothermic and rushed to hospital for life-saving treatment. Evidence emerged that the victim had attempted suicide by drinking denatured alcohol (T-Red). According to the manufacturer of this product,...
Article
Full-text available
Studies in the field of forensic pharmacology and toxicology would not be complete without some knowledge of the history of drug discovery, the various personalities involved, and the events leading to the development and introduction of new therapeutic agents. The first medicinal drugs came from natural sources and existed in the form of herbs, pl...
Article
Over a 10-year period (1998-2007) all deaths in Sweden classified by forensic pathologists as fatal drug poisonings (N = 6894) were retrieved from a toxicology database (TOXBASE) belonging to the National Board of Forensic Medicine. The deaths were further classified as suicides N = 2288 (33%), undetermined N = 2260 (33%) and accidental N = 2346 (3...
Article
The concentrations of free-morphine (Mo), free-codeine (Co) and 6-monoacetyl morphine (6-MAM) were determined in femoral blood in N=747 heroin-related deaths. The opiates were determined by isotope dilution gas chromatography-mass spectrometry after solid-phase extraction. The median blood concentrations of 6-MAM, free-morphine and free-codeine wer...
Article
The concentration of free-morphine was determined in peripheral (femoral) blood from heroin-related deaths and compared with the concentration in venous blood from impaired drivers. The presence of 6-MAM in blood or urine served as a biomarker for recent use of heroin. Males dominated over females (p<0.001) in both the autopsy cases (88%) and the d...
Article
This article discusses cases of drug-poisoning death in which 6-acetylmorphine (6-AM) was identified in blood as evidence for recent use of heroin. We report the demographics of the victims, previous drug-related offences, polydrug use, and the concentrations of free morphine in peripheral blood. After solid-phase extraction, morphine, codeine, and...
Article
Specimens of blood and other body fluids were obtained at autopsy from all deaths in Sweden classified as suicide covering a 10-year period (N=11,441 cases). The mean age (+/-standard deviation, SD) of the victims was 51.3+/-18.8 years with a clear predominance of males 71% (mean age 51.3+/-18.8 years) compared with 29% females (mean age 51.4+/-18....
Article
Reliable information about the elimination rate of alcohol (ethanol) from blood is often needed in forensic science and legal medicine when alcohol-related crimes, such as drunken driving or drug-related sexual assault are investigated. A blood sample for forensic analysis might not be taken until several hours after an offence was committed. The c...
Article
For various reasons, many people suspected of driving under the influence of alcohol (DUIA) are not apprehended sitting behind the wheel, but some time after the driving. This gives them the opportunity to claim they drank alcohol after the time of driving or after they were involved in a road-traffic crash. Alleged post-offence drinking is not eas...
Article
Full-text available
Interpreting the concentrations of drugs determined in post-mortem blood is not an easy task owing to poly-drug use, adverse drug-drug interactions, as well as a host of pre-analytical factors and various artefacts in post-mortem toxicology. Highly sensitive and specific methods (GC-FID, GC-NPD. GC-MS and LC-MS) were used to determine the concentra...
Chapter
The determination of alcohol (ethanol) in blood, urine, and other biological media represents the most frequently requested service from forensic science and toxicology laboratories worldwide. Likewise, the analysis of alcohol in expired air is widely performed by traffic police authorities when motorists are breath-tested as evidence for prosecuti...