Alan Godfrey

Alan Godfrey
Northumbria University · School of Computing, Engineering and Information Sciences

BEng, PhD, MBA

About

192
Publications
86,930
Reads
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4,127
Citations
Introduction
Interests: wearable system in connect healthcare, signal processing and algorithm development to examine individuals in clinic and free-living environments. Also interested in wearables for sports applications. On going research focuses on innovation and informatics in healthcare. Associate editor Journal of NeuroEngineering & Rehabilitation, Editor Maturitas, international advisory board Physiological Measurement.
Additional affiliations
October 2017 - present
Northumbria University
Position
  • Professor (Associate)
September 2016 - October 2017
Newcastle University
Position
  • Fellow
September 2010 - December 2016
Newcastle University
Position
  • Research Associate
Education
September 2016 - August 2017
Newcastle University
Field of study
January 2005 - November 2008
University of Limerick
Field of study
  • Biomedical Electronics
September 2000 - May 2004
University of Limerick
Field of study
  • Electronic Engineering

Publications

Publications (192)
Article
Highlights • Maximum resting period (MRP) was assessed in community-based ambulation • Ambulation was objectively assessed with an accelerometer in 97 adults for 7 days • MRP impacts on volume, variability, pattern outcomes and attainment of guidelines • Standardised algorithms are needed to aid ambulatory interpretation The aim of this study was...
Article
Full-text available
The aims of this study were to (i) investigate instrumented physical capability (iCap) as a valid method during a large study and (ii) determine whether iCap can provide important additional features of postural control and gait to categorise cohorts not previously possible with manual recordings. Cross-sectional analysis involving instrumented tes...
Article
retirement is a major life change that is likely to affect lifestyles and yet little is still known about its influence on physical activity (PA). This study objectively quantified sedentary behaviour and ambulatory activity outcomes in retired and non-retired older, community-dwelling adults. PA was quantified in 98 community-dwelling older adults...
Article
Background Running gait assessment has traditionally been performed using subjective observation or expensive laboratory-based objective technologies, such as 3D motion capture or force plates. However, recent developments in wearable devices allow for continuous monitoring and analysis of running mechanics in any environment. Objective measurement...
Article
Full-text available
Background Falls in older adults are a critical public health problem. As a means to assess fall risks, free-living digital biomarkers (FLDBs), including spatiotemporal gait measures, drawn from wearable inertial measurement unit (IMU) data have been investigated to identify those at high risk. Although gait-related FLDBs can be impacted by intrins...
Conference Paper
Contemporary approaches to gait assessment use wearable devices within free-living environments to capture habitual information, which is more informative compared to data capture in the lab. Wearables range from inertial to camera-based technologies but pragmatic challenges such as analysis of big data from heterogenous environments exist. For exa...
Article
Running gait assessment and running shoe recommendation is important for the injury prevention of runners who exhibit different skill-levels and running styles. Traditionally, running gait assessment for shoe recommendation relies upon a combination of trained professionals (e.g., sports-therapists, physiotherapists) and complex equipment such as m...
Chapter
Eye movements are an important aspect of neurological clinical assessment, as abnormal eye movements can indicate underlying neurological and disease processes. Eye-tracking recordings are also often performed following neurological injury or disease in order to study the underlying neurological mechanisms involved in controlling eye movement. The...
Chapter
This chapter will provide an overview of the past and current topics in eye movement research, which will be more widely addressed within the proceeding chapters in this book. A greater understanding of eye movements and how eye-tracking technology works, as well as what populations it is used with, will allow its application and adoption within pr...
Article
Full-text available
Background: Physical function remains a crucial component of mild traumatic brain injury (mTBI) assessment and recovery. Traditional approaches to assess mTBI lack sensitivity to detect subtle deficits post-injury, which can impact a patient’s quality of life, daily function and can lead to chronic issues. Inertial measurement units (IMU) provide a...
Article
Purpose of the study: Ambulatory activity (walking) is affected after sarcoma surgery yet is not routinely assessed. Small inexpensive accelerometers could bridge the gap. Study objectives investigated, whether in patients with lower extremity musculoskeletal tumours: A) It was feasible to conduct ambulatory activity assessments in patient’s homes...
Conference Paper
Running gait assessment is critical in performance optimization and injury prevention. Traditional approaches to running gait assessment are inhibited by unnatural running environments (e.g., indoor lab), varied assessor (i.e., subjective experience) and high costs with traditional reference standard equipment. Thus, development of valid, reproduce...
Conference Paper
Wearables are objective tools for human activity recognition (HAR). Advances in wearables enable synchronized multi-sensing within a single device. This has resulted in studies investigating use of single or multiple wearable sensor modalities for HAR. Some studies use inertial data, others use surface electromyography (sEMG) from multiple muscles...
Chapter
Advancements in Microelectromechanical systems (MEMS) have enabled the manufacture of affordable and efficient wearable devices. In sensor-based gait analysis, motion and biofeedback sensor devices are easily attached to different parts of the body. Instrumentation of gait using different sensor technologies enables researchers and clinicians to ca...
Article
Full-text available
Objective: Older adults’ falls are a critical public health problem. The majority of free-living fall risk assessment methods have investigated fall predictive power of step-related digital biomarkers extracted from wearable inertial measurement unit (IMU) data. Alternatively, the examination of characteristics and frequency of naturally-occurring...
Article
Full-text available
Introduction: Gait impairment occurs across the spectrum of traumatic brain injury (TBI); from mild (mTBI) to moderate (modTBI), to severe (sevTBI). Recent evidence suggests that objective gait assessment may be a surrogate marker for neurological impairment such as TBI. However, the most optimal method of objective gait assessment is still not we...
Article
Full-text available
Background Pragmatic challenges remain in the monitoring and return to play (RTP) decisions following suspected Sports Related Concussion (SRC). Reliance on traditional approaches (pen and paper) means players readiness for RTP is often based on self-reported symptom recognition as a marker for full physiological recovery. Non-digital approaches al...
Poster
Full-text available
Background In clinics and rehabilitation centres, assessment of human motion, especially kinematics of the lower limb, is very important to determine suitable treatments for patients[1]. Motion capture systems and electronic goniometers are perceived as the reference standards for estimation of joint kinematics but are costly and have low accessibi...
Presentation
Full-text available
Examining The Use Of Wearables For Remote Monitoring Of Balance, Gait And Sleep In Sports- Related Concussion : A Single Subject Study In Rugby Union
Presentation
Purpose: Following a mild traumatic brain injury (mTBI) diagnosis, patients are often advised based on current guidelines to restrict cognitive and physical activity (energy demands) until full symptom resolution, which is followed by a graduated return of increasing cognitive and physical activity levels. However, research has found extended peri...
Poster
Full-text available
Purpose: The severity of traumatic brain injury (TBI) ranges from mild (mTBI) to severe, with impairment in motor function across the spectrum. TBI can transcend from acute (days to weeks) to chronic (months to years) time periods, significantly impacting physical function and quality of life. Traditional TBI functional assessment is based on subje...
Presentation
Purpose: Concussion is prevalent in young adult (YA) rugby players and can impact motor, cognitive and sensory dysfunction. Mobility Lab (v1) is a research-grade wearable sensor system for comprehensively assessing balance and gait. The use of wearable sensors within sports such as rugby may enable pitch-side physiotherapists and doctors to instant...
Poster
Full-text available
Purpose: Gait characteristics such as turning are commonly impaired in neurological conditions such as Parkinson’s disease and traumatic brain injury (TBI). Traditionally, these characteristics have been measured in a laboratory setting using expensive 3D motion capture or research-grade inertial sensor systems, such as the Opal (APDM Inc., Portlan...
Presentation
Full-text available
Athletes that participate in contact sport are at risk of suffering Sports-Related Concussion (SRC). A traditional approach of SRC testing relies on the 5th version of the pen-and-paper based sports concussion assessment tool (SCAT5). An open, digital equivalent may facilitate more efficient and transparent assessment. We describe a co-created deve...
Article
Instrumented balance and gait test are an important component of physical capability assessment in clinical examinations. This study provides insight to a new generation Open Movement inertial-based wearable (AX6, Axivity, UK) compared to a previously validated reference (AX3). The AX6 was assessed for its ability to quantify a battery of tasks tha...
Article
Objective Challenges remain in sports-related concussion (SRC) assessment to better inform return to play. Reliance on self-reported symptoms within the Sports Concussion Assessment Tool means that there are limited data on the effectiveness of novel methods to assess a player’s readiness to return to play. Digital methods such as wearable technolo...
Article
Objectives This interventional pilot study aimed to 1) examine whether a novel wearable vibro-tactile feedback device (‘UpRight Go’) effective and feasible to improve postural alignment in Parkinson’s disease (PD); 2) explore relationships between postural alignment and attention in PD; 3) explore effect of vibro-tactile device on balance and gait;...
Article
Full-text available
Wearable inertial measurement units (IMUs) are used in gait analysis due to their discrete wearable attachment and long data recording possibilities within indoor and outdoor environments. Previously, lower back and shin/shank-based IMU algorithms detecting initial and final contact events (ICs-FCs) were developed and validated on a limited number...
Article
Gait abnormalities are typically derived from neurological conditions or orthopaedic problems and can cause severe consequences such as limited mobility and falls. Gait analysis plays a crucial role in monitoring gait abnormalities and discovering underlying deficits can help develop rehabilitation programs. Contemporary gait analysis requires a mu...
Article
Full-text available
Sports-Related Concussion (SRC) is defined as a mild traumatic brain injury (mTBI) leading to complex impairment(s) in neurological function with many seemingly hidden or difficult to measure impairments that can deteriorate rapidly without any prior indication. Growing numbers of SRCs in professional and amateur contact sports has prompted closer...
Conference Paper
Running gait assessment for shoe type recommendation to avoid injury often takes place within commercial premises. That is not representative of a natural running environment and may influence normal/usual running characteristics. Typically, assessments are costly and performed by an untrained biomechanist or physiotherapist. Thus, use of a low-cos...
Conference Paper
Gait assessment is emerging as a prominent way to understand impaired mobility and underlying neurological deficits. Various technologies have been used to assess gait inside and outside of laboratory settings, but wearables are the preferred option due to their cost-effective and practical use in both. There are robust conceptual gait models devel...
Article
Introduction Worldwide, there are 657 million women aged 45–59 and around half contribute to the labor force during their menopausal years. There is a diversity of experience of menopause in the workplace. It is shaped not only by menopausal symptoms and context but also by the workplace environment. It affects quality of life, engagement, performa...
Conference Paper
Free-living assessment and remote monitoring is important for healthcare researchers. Moving research beyond the laboratory provides habitual environments for remote assessment that allows research to remain agile even when facing uncontrollable external factors e.g., the SARS-COV-2 pandemic. Emergent technologies have the potential to make this fo...
Article
Biometric Monitoring Technologies (BioMeTs) attracted the attention of the health care community because of their user-friendly form factor and multi-sensor data collection capabilities. The potential benefits of multimodal remote monitoring for collecting comprehensive, longitudinal, and contextual datasets spans therapeutic areas, and both chroni...
Presentation
Introduction Wearable technology allows for continuous analysis of movement (e.g. running) in an unobtrusive manner in any environment, unlike traditional movement analysis methods (e.g. 3D motion capture)1. Quantitative assessment of running gait can enhance clinical assessment and benefit performance related metrics, but technologies used for ass...
Article
Monitoring Indoor Environmental Quality (IEQ) is of growing interest for health and wellbeing. New building standards, climate targets and adoption of homeworking strategies are creating needs for scalable, monitoring solutions with onward Cloud connectivity. Low-cost Micro-Electromechanical Systems (MEMS) sensors have potential to address these ne...
Chapter
Wearable technology has emerged as useful tools in the assessment of individuals within controlled settings. By utilising wearables during assessments objective digital data can be used to better inform clinical decisions. Of recent pragmatic interest has been the emergence of inertial sensor based wearables (e.g. accelerometers, gyroscopes) that c...
Chapter
Low-cost wearable sensors that are capable of accurately and robustly measuring and monitoring various markers of health or wellbeing will allow a new era of sports medicine provision. Technological advancements now allow clinicians to monitor individual athletes and groups or teams within a range of environments (clinic, home, training or matches/...
Preprint
Full-text available
Background: Physical function remains a crucial component of mild traumatic brain injury (mTBI) assessment and recovery. Traditional approaches to assess mTBI lack sensitivity to subtle deficits post-injury, which can impact quality of life, daily function and can lead to chronic issues. Inertial measurement units (IMU) provide an objective alterna...
Article
Full-text available
In adults 65 years or older, falls or other neuromotor dysfunctions are often framed as walking-related declines in motor skill; the frequent occurrence of such decline in walking related motor skill motivates the need for an improved understanding of the motor skill of walking. Simple gait measurements, such as speed, do not provide adequate infor...
Poster
Full-text available
Background Technologies are used to digitalise human walking (gait) using quantitative data. Motion capture systems, instrumented walkways and force platforms are perceived as the reference standards but are costly and have low accessibility. Wearable devices (inertial measurement units, IMUs) are effective and affordable to assess gait with additi...
Conference Paper
Full-text available
Introduction : Occurrence of sports related concussion (SRC) has risen. Heterogeneous signs and symptoms make it difficult to clinically diagnose and determine when it is safe for return to play (RTP). Typically, subjective pen and paper tests are used for diagnosis and RTP decisions, as no accepted gold standard or objective assessment exists (1,2...
Poster
Full-text available
SRC is common in rugby and returning to play before complete recovery increases the risk of secondary injury. Pitch-side medical staff make return-to-play decisions based on brief post-injury subjective observations of motor tasks, e.g. gait and balance. Subtle deficits that last for long periods may be missed. We investigated an open-source inert...
Presentation
Full-text available
Prevalence of sports related concussion (SRC) has grown, but methods to accurately diagnose and assess are lacking. Typically, subjective pen-and-paper tests during physical functional tasks are used as no objective gold/reference standard exists. Digital inertial-based wearables (e.g. accelerometer) may provide valid, objective digital biomarkers...
Poster
Full-text available
Poster presentation from the North East Post Graduate Conference 2020. The poster was presented under the population health and systems medicine category on 13 November 2020. The topic presented an overview of a recent study (reference #1), which reviewed and investigated IoT technologies for use in healthcare monitoring.
Article
Full-text available
Gait assessment is an essential tool for clinical applications not only to diagnose different neurological conditions but also to monitor disease progression as it contributes to the understanding of underlying deficits. There are established methods and models for data collection and interpretation of gait assessment within different pathologies....
Article
Full-text available
Healthcare studies are moving toward individualised measurement. There is need to move beyond supervised assessments in the laboratory/clinic. Longitudinal free-living assessment can provide a wealth of information on patient pathology and habitual behaviour, but cost and complexity of equipment has typically been a barrier. Lack of supervised cond...
Article
Full-text available
Biometric Monitoring Technologies (BioMeTs) are becoming increasingly common to aid data collection in clinical trials and practice. The state of BioMeTs, and associated digitally measured biomarkers, is highly reminiscent of the field of laboratory biomarkers two decades ago. In this review, we have summarized and leveraged historical perspectives...
Article
Currently, there are major EU-based projects to better utilise wearables as useful diagnostic aids/tools in clinical settings as well for deployment in the home to capture ageing processes. To date, there has been little investigation of the translation of those tools beyond the geographical regions in which they were developed and implemented. Our...
Article
Full-text available
Wearing inappropriate running shoes may lead to unnecessary injury through continued strain upon the lower extremities; potentially damaging a runner’s performance. Many technologies have been developed for accurate shoe recommendation, which centre on running gait analysis. However, these often require supervised use in the laboratory/shop or exhi...
Article
Full-text available
Indoor environment quality (IEQ) can negatively impact occupant health and wellbeing. Air quality, as well as thermal, visual and auditory conditions, can determine how comfortable occupants feel within buildings. Some can be measured objectively, but many are assessed by interpreting qualitative responses. Continuous monitoring by passive sensors...
Article
Full-text available
Technology is advancing at an extraordinary rate. Continuous flows of novel data are being generated with the potential to revolutionize how we better identify, treat, manage, and prevent disease across therapeutic areas. However, lack of security of confidence in digital health technologies is hampering adoption, particularly for biometric monitor...
Article
Purpose Rugby union has one of the highest incidences of sport related concussion of any contact sport. Despite considerable media interest and research, the underlying relationship between participation in university rugby union and the manifestation of concussion is poorly understood. To address this problem, novel, non-invasive technologies have...
Article
Purpose: Concussion is common in rugby and can lead to motor, cognitive and sensory dysfunction. Returning to participation before complete recovery increases risk of secondary injury. Yet, pitch-side medical staff make return-to-play decisions based on brief post-injury subjective observations, which may miss subtle deficits that objective assessm...