Alan C Gange

Alan C Gange
Royal Holloway · Biological Sciences

PhD

About

224
Publications
64,983
Reads
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10,403
Citations
Citations since 2016
79 Research Items
4711 Citations
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20162017201820192020202120220200400600800
20162017201820192020202120220200400600800
20162017201820192020202120220200400600800
Introduction
Alan C. Gange is Emeritus Professor of Microbial Ecology in the Department of Biological Sciences, Royal Holloway University of London. Alan is interested in the multitrophic interactions between fungi (mycorrhizas and endophytes), plants and insects. The applications of this work are in the biological control of invasive weeds, pests and diseases in natural communities, sports turf, cereal crops, soft and top fruit crops.
Additional affiliations
October 1992 - present
Royal Holloway, University of London
Position
  • Professor

Publications

Publications (224)
Article
Full-text available
Recent global warming affects species compositions at an unprecedented rate. To predict climate-induced changes in species assemblages, a better understanding of the link between species occurrence and climate is needed. Macrofungal fruit body assemblages are correlated with the thermal environment at the European scale. However, it is still unknow...
Article
Plant performance in any one generation is affected not only by the prevailing environmental conditions, but also by the conditions experienced by the parental generation of those plants. These maternal effects have been recorded in a many plant species, but the influence of external biotic (as opposed to abiotic) factors on shaping maternal effect...
Article
Full-text available
The phenology of fungal fruiting has changed in the UK over the last 70 years, but whether the associated mycophagous insects are able to exploit ‘out of season’ fruit bodies is unknown. This study focused on whether fungal baits can be used as a proxy to examine changes in fungal fruiting on insect communities. Using Agaricus bisporus as a bait, m...
Article
Evidence increasingly demonstrates nature engagement benefits. However, little evidence shows nature engagement provides children with a reflective perception of biodiversity, nor whether perception influ- ences children’s wellbeing and resilience. We explored the impact of weekly nature engagement in schoolgrounds on 509 eight-to-eleven- year-olds...
Article
Green roofs are a key to providing nature-based solutions in cities. However, most green roofs installed in the Northern hemisphere are shallow, stonecrop planted systems (“extensive” green roofs), which have been shown to support limited biodiversity and could be more effective at providing ecosystem services. One issue with this type of extensive...
Article
Full-text available
Background: Vegetated building envelopes (VBEs), such as vegetated roofs and facades, are becoming more frequent in urban planning nowadays. However, harsh growing conditions restrain the application of VBEs. Plant growth-promoting microbes (PGPMs) might help ease the stresses, but first, it is necessary to investigate how to ensure their survival...
Article
Plant growth‐promoting rhizobacteria in the genus Bacillus have been shown to reduce growth and increase parasitism of some aphids, but the generality of these interactions is unknown. All previous studies have taken place in temperate conditions. We studied the effects of seed application of three Bacillus species, singly and in mixture, on three...
Article
Full-text available
The conditions experienced by one plant generation can influence the growth of the offspring generation. These maternal effects can reduce performance of foliar-feeding insects, through accumulation of plant defences. Arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi (AMF) inhabit the roots of plants and are known to influence the performance of foliar-feeding insects....
Article
Full-text available
Almost all living plants can be simultaneously colonised by arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi in the roots and endophytes in the shoots, while also being attacked by insect herbivores. However, to date, no study has ever examined the multitrophic interactions between these two different fungal groups and insects on any species of forb. Here, we examined...
Article
Plant parasitic nematode (PPN) control has historically relied on the use of synthetic chemical nematicides, however many are toxic to both human health and the environment. The withdrawal of the more harmful nematicides coupled with increases in soil temperatures and increased occurrence of pests and diseases associated with climate change, may en...
Article
Himalayan balsam (Impatiens glandulifera) is one of the most prolific non-native species in Europe. Since 2014, the highly-specific rust fungus, Puccinia komarovii var. glanduliferae, has been released into Great Britain as a classical biological control agent for this invasive weed. Prior to its release, research focused on ensuring the safety of...
Article
Full-text available
European apple canker, caused by Neonectria ditissima, is a severe disease of apple. Achieving effective control is difficult with the currently available pesticides. Specific apple endophytes associated with cultivars may partially contribute to the cultivar response to the pathogen and thus could be used for disease management. We sought to deter...
Article
European apple canker, caused by Neonectria ditissima, causes serious damage to apple trees, particularly young trees. Canker management is difficult because of the limited availability of effective fungicides, the long latency period, inoculum abundance and host resistance in commercial cultivars as well as the need for costly manual pruning inter...
Article
European apple canker, caused by Neonectria ditissima, is an important disease of apple (Malus domestica). The fungus may reside asymptomatically in the tree for up to a few years, thus making canker control difficult. Asymptomatic infections established in the nursery can result in severe canker outbreaks in newly established apple orchards. It ha...
Article
Full-text available
The annual plant Impatiens glandulifera (Himalayan balsam) is the most widespread in-vasive non-native weed in the British Isles. Manual control is widely used, but is costly and laborious. Recently, biological control using the rust fungus Puccinia komarovii var. glanduliferae has been trialled. We designed an experiment to assess the impact of th...
Article
Gardening is a major pursuit in the UK, providing health and wellbeing benefits to individual gardeners, while providing important habitats for wildlife and supporting ecosystem services such as pollination. However, garden plants are afflicted by an array of pests and diseases, but until now, their importance has not been quantified, but only infe...
Article
The cover image is based on the Full Article Endophytic fungi in the invasive weed Impatiens glandulifera: a barrier to classical biological control? by Alan Gange, Carol Ellison, Amanda Currie et al., https://doi.org/10.1111/wre.12396.
Article
This investigation sought to discover whether engaging school children (aged 8–11) with nature could produce sustained improvements in mood and wellbeing in the long-term. We designed a program of biodiversity-focused activities carried out over one academic year in the school grounds. Participation in this program produced significant improvements...
Article
In this study, we aimed to understand the state of school grounds across Britain and how they are being used to support biodiversity conservation and pupils’ environmental education. We carried out an opt-in survey of schools across Britain, asking staff to report on habitats in their grounds and how they are used for learning. Our results showed t...
Article
Soil loss from riparian areas supporting the annual invasive weed, Impatiens glandulifera (Himalayan balsam), was measured and compared with equivalent values recorded at nearby, topographically similar areas supporting perennial vegetation over a cumulative seven‐year period, along sections of two separate river systems; one in Switzerland, and on...
Article
Full-text available
The rust fungus, Puccinia komarovii var. glanduliferae, has been introduced into the UK for biological control of the invasive weed, Impatiens glandulifera (Himalayan balsam). However, establishment of the pathogen has differed across the country, which may be partly explained by variation in plant genotype. The aim of this study was to examine whe...
Article
Full-text available
p>Thermal melanism theory states that dark-colored ectotherm organisms are at an advantage at low temperature due to increased warming. This theory is generally supported for ectotherm animals, however, the function of colors in the fungal kingdom is largely unknown. Here, we test whether the color lightness of mushroom assemblages is related to cl...
Article
Aim It is unknown whether fungi show similar trends to other organisms in their macroecological patterns of abundance and spatial distribution. Here, we investigated fungal abundance–occupancy relationships to determine whether fungi that are common at a local scale tend to be more widely distributed. Location UK and Switzerland. Time period 1950...
Article
Full-text available
Herbaceous plants harbour species‐rich communities of asymptomatic endophytic fungi. While some of these endophytes are entomopathogenic, many are not, and remarkably little is known about how the presence of these fungi in plant tissues affects phytophagous insects. Here we show through a meta‐analysis that both entomopathogenic and non‐entomopath...
Article
Full-text available
Premise of the Study Fungal diversity (richness) trends at large scales are in urgent need of investigation, especially through novel situations that combine long‐term observational with environmental and remotely sensed open‐source data. Methods We modeled fungal richness, with collections‐based records of saprotrophic (decaying) and ectomycorrhi...
Data
APPENDIX S3. Tukey's honest significant difference (HSD) for multiple comparisons in the types of dynamic land‐cover (ISAM‐HYDE), and whether there is a significant difference in ectomycorrhizal fungal diversity. The significant differences are shaded by values less than 0.05 (orange) or 0.01 (red).
Data
APPENDIX S6. The full, initial model output during backward selection processing to predict species richness of saprotrophic fungi.
Data
APPENDIX S4. Tukey's honest significant difference (HSD) for multiple comparisons in the types of dynamic land‐cover, and whether there is a significant difference in ectomycorrhizal fungal diversity. The significant differences are shaded by values less than 0.05 (orange) or 0.01 (red).
Data
APPENDIX S10. The intermediate model output, with one covariate for each environmental group, for backward selection predicting species richness of ectomycorrhizal fungi.
Data
APPENDIX S12. The patterns of the environmental covariate gradients of the data (shaded) are visible as used to predict richness (isolines) of saprotrophic fungi in central to northern Europe. All values are scaled. Lower values are lighter, grading to higher values that are darker.
Data
APPENDIX S13. The patterns of the environmental covariate gradients of the data (shaded) are visible as used to predict richness (isolines) of ectomycorrhizal fungi in central to northern Europe. All values are scaled. Lower values are lighter, grading to higher values that are darker.
Data
APPENDIX S1. Tukey's honest significant difference (HSD) for multiple comparisons in the types of dynamic land‐cover (ISAM‐HYDE), and whether there is a significant difference in saprotrophic fungal diversity. The significant differences are shaded by values less than 0.05 (orange) or 0.01 (red).
Data
APPENDIX S5. Model specifications, as R script, used for model selection, for both forward and backward procedures. See Methods section for further information and details.
Data
APPENDIX S8. Collinearity correlations, here including easting and northing, between the remaining covariates selected for the final consensus regression model, for saprotrophic fungi. See Methods for further details.
Data
APPENDIX S2. Tukey's honest significant difference (HSD) for multiple comparisons in the types of static land‐cover (CLC3), and whether there is a significant difference in saprotrophic fungal diversity. The significant differences are shaded by values less than 0.05 (orange) or 0.01 (red).
Data
APPENDIX S7. The intermediate model output, with one covariate for each environmental group, for backward selection predicting species richness of saprotrophic fungi.
Data
APPENDIX S11. Collinearity correlations, here including easting and northing, between the remaining covariates selected for the final consensus regression model, for ectomycorrhizal fungi. See Methods for further details.
Data
APPENDIX S14. The mean and range in each of the explanatory variables connected to the fruiting records, for the final consensus model for saprotrophic fungi, between each of the land‐use types of the dynamic (ISAM‐HYDE) variable. All variables are scaled.
Data
APPENDIX S9. The full, initial model output for backward selection predicting species richness of ectomycorrhizal fungi.
Data
APPENDIX S15. The mean and range in each of the explanatory variables connected to the fruiting records, for the final consensus model for ectomycorrhizal fungi, between each of the land‐use types of the dynamic (ISAM‐HYDE) variable. All variables are scaled.
Article
Full-text available
Solidago canadensis is one of the most destructive invasive plants in the East of China, yet nothing is known about its photosynthetic ability at the molecular level. In order to examine the mechanism aiding invasion from the photosynthetic and molecular perspective, transcriptome sequencing and de novo assembly of S. canadensis and its congener S....
Chapter
This book gives an overview on the current knowledge about endophytic fungi and bacteria, their diversity, their relationships with plant pests and pathogens, their distribution and activities inside the plant and their (potential) applications in developing more sustainable agricultural practices. Furthermore, the identification of chemical consti...
Chapter
Full-text available
Throughout their existence on Earth, fungi and plants have been intricately linked, and their interactions span a vast continuum from detrimental to beneficial. Although negative interactions have received more attention, due in part to their impacts on crops, forests and horticulturally important plants, positive plant–fungal interactions are not...
Article
Full-text available
Conserving populations of environmentally vulnerable insect species requires a greater understanding of the factors that determine their abundance and distribution, which requires detailed knowledge of their population and community ecology. Chemical ecological tools such as pheromones can be used for non-destructive monitoring of scarab beetle pop...
Data
Coupled GC-EAG traces of five male Gnorimus nobilis antennae from five individuals. The most abundant peak is 2-propyl (E)-3 hexenoate. (TIFF)
Data
Geometry of trans alkene. 1H NMR of natural 2-propyl (E)-3-hexenoate: δH (CD2Cl2, 500 MHz) 5.60 (1H, dt, J = 15.4, 6.1 Hz, H-4), 5.51 (1H, dt, J = 15.4, 6.7 Hz, H-3), 5.00 (1H, septet, J = 6.3 Hz, H-2 propyl), 2.98 (2H, dd, J = 6.7, 0.9 Hz, H-2), 2.04 (2H, m, H-5), 1.24 (6H, d, J = 6.3 Hz, H-1 propyl), 0.99 (3H, t, J = 7.5 Hz, H-6); m/z (EI) 156 (M...
Data
NMR analyses of natural and synthetic 2-propyl (E)-3-hexenoate. (TIFF)
Data
Coupling constants of the olefinic region of the 1H-NMR. (TIFF)
Chapter
Rhizobacteria are key belowground drivers of plant–insect higher trophic interactions aboveground. Conventionally, rhizobacteria have been studied in the context of their effects on plant growth and yield in agricultural situations. However, the focus of rhizobacterial studies shifted recently to explore their effects on plant biochemistry, defense...
Article
Full-text available
The use of microbial inoculants containing plant growth-promoting rhizobacteria as a promoter of plant fitness and health is becoming increasingly popular in agriculture. However, whether and how these bacteria affect indigenous bacterial communities in field conditions is sparsely explored. We studied the effects of seed inoculation and field soil...
Article
Full-text available
The uniformity of crop yield is extremely important for consumers and of as much relevance to the grower as overall yield. However, size inequality within a plant population is rarely measured and has never before been considered in relation to the use of beneficial microbes for yield enhancement. For the first time, we show that addition of soil b...
Article
Aim Macroecological scales of species compositional trends are well documented for a variety of plant and animal groups, but remain sparse for fungi, despite their ecological importance in carbon and nutrient cycling. It is, thus, essential to understand the composition of fungal assemblages across broad geographical scales and the underlying drive...
Conference Paper
Background: Airborne pollen and fungal spores are major causes of respiratory allergy worldwide. Although pollen has been extensively studied, still little is known about fungi. What are the environmental factors affecting fungal abundance? Is there a ‘safe’ place or time-period that we can ‘switch off’ fungal exposure and allergies? To answer thes...
Article
Here we assess the impact of geographically dependent (latitude, longitude and altitude) changes in bioclimatic (temperature, precipitation and primary productivity) variability on fungal fruiting phenology across Europe. Two main nutritional guilds of fungi, saprotrophic and ectomycorrhizal, were further separated into spring and autumn fruiters....
Article
Full-text available
As citizen science and digitization projects bring greater and larger datasets to the scientific realm, we must address the comparability of results across varying sources and spatial scales. Independently assembled fungal fruit body datasets from Switzerland and the UK were available at large, national-scales and more intensively surveyed, local-s...
Article
Read for free until May the 13th 2018: https://authors.elsevier.com/a/1Wmmq3JGmQz8ER Green roofs provide a range of ecosystem services, from stormwater retention to thermal insulation. They can also provide habitat for biodiversity, remediating land lost in development. However, few extensive green roofs are designed with this benefit in mind and,...
Article
Despite the dramatic phenological responses of fungal fruiting to recent climate warming, it is unknown whether spatial distributions of fungi have changed and to what extent such changes are influenced by fungal traits, such as ectomycorrhizal (ECM) or saprotrophic lifestyles, spore characteristics, or fruit body size. Our overall aim was to under...
Article
Full-text available
As plant mutualists, one would not expect arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi (AMF) to cause growth depression of their host plants. The mechanism responsible for negative effects of AMF is still debated and so here we review the possible abiotic and biotic reasons for AMF-induced growth depression in plants: 1) The Phytocentric explanations, include: a)...
Article
Green roofs are increasingly used in the urban environment to insulate buildings, reduce stormwater runoff and remediate biodiversity lost in construction. Most common in the Northern Hemisphere are extensive green roofs, due to their low-cost and low-maintenance requirements. However, plant growth on these roofs is often limited and this could hav...
Article
To date, conservation-status saproxylic beetle species in the UK have been monitored by chance findings or by monitor-based observational studies. Here, using Elater ferrugineus as our target species, we present the first national distribution survey carried out in the UK or across mainland Europe on such a species using chemicals produced by the i...
Article
Full-text available
Arbuscular mycorrhizal (AM) fungi are root symbionts that can increase or decrease aphid growth rates and reproduction, but the reason by which this happens is unknown. To investigate the underlying mechanisms of this interaction, we examined the effect of AM fungi on the English Grain aphid (Sitobion avenae) development, reproduction, attraction,...
Article
The use of pheromones to determine distributions of rare saproxylic insects is an increasingly popular technique. Pheromones may, however, also be used to elucidate the biology of these cryptic species, a vital requirement if they are to be accurately monitored and conserved. We used non-invasive aerial trapping to compare the effectiveness of chem...
Article
Full-text available
Species occurrence observations are increasingly available for scientific analyses through citizen science projects and digitization of museum records, representing a largely untapped ecological resource. When combined with open-source data, there is unparalleled potential for understanding many aspects of the ecology and biogeography of organisms....
Article
Full-text available
Green roofs are increasing in popularity in the urban environment for their contribution to green infrastructure; but their role for biodiversity is not often a design priority. Maximising biodiversity will impact positively on ecosystem services and is therefore fundamental for achieving the greatest benefits from green roofs. Extensive green roof...
Article
Full-text available
Truffle harvests are declining in Europe, due to droughts, and this offers an opportunity for production to be developed in countries such as the UK and Poland, where rainfall tends to be higher. Drier Medi-terranean summers seem to be associated with a decrease in the harvest of the P erigord truffle (Tuber melanosporum) in Spain, France and Italy...
Article
Full-text available
Soil-dwelling plant growth-promoting (PGP) Bacillus lives in intimate associations with plants; some species offer direct benefits via plant growth promotion while others confer protection against various pathogens. However, the roles of PGP Bacillus as elicitors of plant defences against agricultural pests and as a component of integrated pest man...
Article
Full-text available
Belowground tri-trophic study systems present a challenging environment in which to study plant-herbivore-natural enemy interactions. For this reason, belowground examples are rarely available for testing general ecological theories. To redress this imbalance, we present, for the first time, data on a belowground tri-trophic system to test the slow...
Article
Despite the critical importance of fungi as symbionts with plants, resources for animals, and drivers of ecosystem function, the spatiotemporal distributions of fungi remain poorly understood. The belowground life cycle of fungi makes it difficult to assess spatial patterns and dynamic processes even with recent molecular techniques. Here we offer...
Article
Full-text available
Soil microbes present a novel and cost-effective method of increasing plant resistance to insect pests and thus create a sustainable opportunity to reduce current pesticide application. However, the use of microbes in integrated pest management programs is still in its infancy. This can be attributed primarily to the variations in microbial inoculu...
Article
Full-text available
Impatiens glandulifera is one of the most widespread invasive plant species in the UK. Although aspects of its biology are known, there is little information about its association with microbial communities, both above ground and below ground. Furthermore, it is unknown whether this species exhibits any form of plant–soil feedback (PSF), commonly s...