Alan Friedlander

Alan Friedlander
University of Hawaiʻi at Mānoa | UH Manoa · Institute of Marine Biology

PhD

About

400
Publications
154,961
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Introduction
Alan Friedlander is currently Chief Scientist for National Geographic’s Pristine Seas Project where he leads research efforts to understand and conserve the last wild places in the ocean. The foci of his marine conservation work range from small-scale community-managed areas to some of the largest protected areas on the planet. Alan is also Director of the Fisheries Ecology Research Lab at the University of Hawai‘i.
Additional affiliations
September 2013 - present
National Geographic Society
Position
  • Principal Investigator
January 2009 - September 2013
University of Hawaiʻi at Mānoa
Position
  • Professor
September 1997 - May 1998
National Marine Fisheries Service
Position
  • National Research Council Postdoctoral Fellow
Education
August 1985 - August 1987
Old Dominion University
Field of study
  • Oceanography

Publications

Publications (400)
Article
Ancient Hawaiians developed a sophisticated natural resource management system that included various forms of spatial management. Today there exists in Hawai'i a variety of spatial marine management strategies along a range of scales, with varying degrees of effectiveness. State-managed no-take areas make up less than 0.4% of nearshore waters, resu...
Article
Full-text available
Abstract 1. Large declines in reef fish populations in Hawai’i have raised concerns about the sustainability of these resources, and the ecosystem as a whole. To help elucidate the reasons behind these declines, a comprehensive examination of reef fish assemblages was conducted across the entire 2500 km Hawaiian Archipelago. 2. Twenty-five datasets...
Article
Ancient Hawaiians developed sophisticated natural resource management systems that included various forms of spatial management. The state of Hawaiʻi established its first legislated marine protected area (MPA) in 1953, and today there exists a patchwork of spatial marine management strategies along a range of sizes, with varying levels of governan...
Article
Full-text available
Osa Peninsula in remote southwest Costa Rica harbors 2.5% of global terrestrial biodiversity in only 1,200 km ² and has the largest remaining tract of Pacific lowland wet forest in Mesoamerica. However, little is known about the marine ecosystems of this diverse region. Much of the coastline consists of soft sediment exposed to strong wave action....
Article
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Isolated coral reef habitats are unique systems to study the natural dynamics of coral traits and their natural acclimatization, adaptation, and recovery from global-scale stressors such as thermally induced bleaching events. This study evaluates the spatial and temporal changes in coral community attributes (diversity, live cover, and coral assemb...
Article
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Aim: Understanding the variation in community composition and species abundances (i.e., β-diversity) is at the heart of community ecology. A common approach to examine β-diversity is to evaluate directional variation in community composition by measuring the decay in the similarity among pairs of communities along spatial or environmental distance...
Article
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Human impact increasingly alters global ecosystems, often reducing biodiversity and disrupting the provision of essential ecosystem services to humanity. Therefore, preserving ecosystem functioning is a critical challenge of the twenty-first century. Coral reefs are declining worldwide due to the pervasive effects of climate change and intensive fi...
Article
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Marine protected areas (MPAs) are a key tool for achieving goals for biodiversity conservation and human well-being, including improving climate resilience and equitable access to nature. At a national level, they are central components in the U.S. commitment to conserve at least 30% of U.S. waters by 2030. By definition, the primary goal of an MPA...
Article
1. Spearfishing, a common activity among Pacific Islanders, has been described to strongly modify the behaviour of target fish species. 2. Rapa Nui (Easter Island), a remote Chilean oceanic island, has suffered a serious decline in its nearshore fish stocks through overfishing. 3. In this study, the flight initiation distance (FID) of the Pacific r...
Article
We used satellite tags to monitor the movements of yellowfin tuna, blue marlin, and sailfish in the Palau National Marine Sanctuary (PNMS) and provide a first look into their use of this large-scale marine protected area (LSMPA). Tagged fish ranged over a wide geographic area between 1°S to 17°N and 125 to 154°W. Both blue marlin and sailfish exhib...
Article
Marine protected area (MPA) designs, including large-scale MPAs (LSMPAs; >150,000 km2), mobile MPAs (fluid spatiotemporal boundaries), and MPA networks, may offer different benefits to species and could enhance protection by encompassing spatiotemporal scales of animal movement. We sought to understand how well LSMPAs could benefit nine highly-mobi...
Article
We report new records of the fisheries-harvested subtropical greater amberjack Seriola dumerili for the south-east Pacific Ocean. Previously, only one species of Seriola (the yellowtail amberjack Seriola lalandi) was scientifically recorded for Rapa Nui (also known as Easter Island) despite local fishers’ asserting that three Seriola morphotypes ar...
Article
Full-text available
Species overexploitation has simplified food webs worldwide, resulting in the degradation of ecosystems relative to their natural state. Fishes are the most important herbivores in many shallow coral reef environments, where they control algal successional processes and promote coral reef resilience. Nowadays, Rapa Nui (Easter Island) is suffering...
Article
We report the first survey of shallow-water foraminifera from the Selvagens Islands, an isolated archipelago located in the subtropical Northeast Atlantic. In our samples, we identified 62 species of foraminifera belonging to 43 genera in the >63 μm fraction, including eight species of symbiont-bearing Larger Benthic Foraminifera (LBFs). The assemb...
Article
Current best‐practice policy recommendations for managing fish stocks are achieved by a mixture of maintaining modest fishing mortality (restricting effort, times and gear), marine reserve networks and not subsidizing unprofitable fisheries. A seldom evaluated question is how effective these proposed approaches are for maintaining all fish stocks a...
Article
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Knowledge of the ecology of the fish fauna associated with kelp (primarily Macrocystis pyrifera ) forests in Southern Patagonia is scarce, especially in how abiotic and biotic variables influence their structure, diversity, and distribution. This information is important for the management and conservation of this unique ecosystem, which has minima...
Article
Marine Protected Areas (MPAs) are conservation tools intended to protect biodiversity, promote healthy and resilient marine ecosystems, and provide societal benefits. Despite codification of MPAs in international agreements, MPA effectiveness is currently undermined by confusion about the many MPA types and consequent wildly differing outcomes. We...
Article
Palau has a rich tradition of fisheries management and stewardship of its waters, and as in many island nations, small-scale coral reef fisheries are a vital part of the local culture, economy, and food security. However, reef fisheries in Palau are data-poor and there is increasing concern that reef fish stocks are declining. To evaluate the curre...
Chapter
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The Western Indian Ocean (WIO) region comprises almost 6% (about 15,180 km2) of the total global area of coral reefs, and the region is a globally important hotspot for coral reef biodiversity. The WIO includes sovereign states along the eastern and southern African mainland (Somalia, Kenya, Tanzania, Mozambique, South Africa), island states (Mauri...
Article
Full-text available
Aim Marine habitats and their dynamics are difficult to systematically monitor, particularly those in remote locations. This is the case with the sub-Antarctic ecosystem of the giant kelp Macrocystis pyrifera, which was already noted by Charles Darwin in his accounts on the Voyage of the Beagle and recorded on the nautical charts made during that e...
Article
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The Salas y Gómez and Nazca ridges are underwater mountain chains that stretch across 2,900 km in the southeastern Pacific and are recognized for their high biodiversity value and unique ecological characteristics. Explorations of deep-water ecosystems have been limited in this region, and elsewhere globally. To characterize community composition o...
Article
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Bathymetric features such as islands and seamounts, as well as dynamic ocean features such as fronts often harbour rich marine communities. We deployed mid-water baited remote underwater video systems on three expeditions in Ascension Island’s Exclusive Economic Zone (EEZ), surveying the waters associated with six different bathymetric and dynamic...
Article
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A Correction to this paper has been published: https://doi.org/10.1038/s41586-021-03496-1.
Article
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The ocean contains unique biodiversity, provides valuable food resources and is a major sink for anthropogenic carbon. Marine protected areas (MPAs) are an effective tool for restoring ocean biodiversity and ecosystem services1,2, but at present only 2.7% of the ocean is highly protected³. This low level of ocean protection is due largely to confli...
Article
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The newly created Kawésqar National Park (KNP) and National Reserve (KNR) in southern Chile consists of diverse terrestrial and marine habitats, which includes the southern terminus of the Andes, the Southern Patagonia Ice Fields, sub-Antarctic rainforests, glaciers, fjords, lakes, wetlands, valleys, channels, and islands. The marine environment is...
Preprint
Full-text available
Understanding the variation in community composition and species abundances, i.e., β-diversity, is at the heart of community ecology. A common approach to examine β-diversity is to evaluate directional turnover in community composition by measuring the decay in the similarity among pairs of communities along spatial or environmental distances. We p...
Article
Full-text available
Nearshore fisheries in Hawai‘i have been steadily decreasing for over a century. Marine protected areas (MPAs) have been utilized as a method to both conserve biodiversity and enhance fisheries. The composition of resource fishes within and directly outside of the recently established Hā‘ena Community Based Subsistence Fishing Area (CBSFA) on the i...
Article
Preface special issue: "Advances in science for ecology and sustainable management of oceanic islands" Oceanic island ecosystems are among the most fragile on the planet. A large number of recent species extinctions have been described from these ecosystems, which have been primarily driven by anthropogenic impacts (Wood et al., 2017). In the 17th...
Article
Full-text available
The Salas y Gómez and Nazca ridges are two seamount chains of volcanic origin, which include over 110 seamounts that collectively stretch across over 2,900 km in the southeastern Pacific. Ecosystems in this region are isolated by the Atacama Trench, the Humboldt Current System, and an extreme oxygen minimum zone. This isolation has produced a uniqu...
Article
Coral reef fisheries provide important ecosystem services to coastal communities, yet in the Pacific Islands, many of these contemporary fisheries are threatened by overexploitation. Historically, Pacific Island societies successfully utilized community-based management and spatial temporal closures to regulate the harvest of marine resources. In r...
Technical Report
Full-text available
Informe de las Expediciones de National Geographic Pristine Seas y Comunidades Kawésqar y Yagán.
Article
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Abstract Subtidal observations along the Cape Horn Archipelago, Chile (CHA) in February 2017 revealed an unusually large aggregation (or pod) of juvenile false king crabs, Paralomis granulosa (Hombron and Jacquinot, 1846), in association with kelp forests (Macrocystis pyrifera and Lessonia spp.). This is the first study to report a dense aggregatio...
Article
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• Marine protected areas (MPAs) are becoming a widely used tool for the conservation of biodiversity and for fishery management; however, most of these areas are designed without prior knowledge of the basic ecological aspects of the species that they are trying to protect. • This study investigated the movement of two top predators: the Galapagos...
Article
Full-text available
Marine protected areas (MPAs) are conservation tools that are increasingly implemented, with growing national commitments for MPA expansion. Perhaps the greatest challenge to expanded use of MPAs is the perceived trade-off between protection and food production. Since MPAs can benefit both conservation and fisheries in areas experiencing overfishin...
Article
Fig. 1 In situ imagery of Hydrolagus melanophasma (1367 m) at Clipperton Atoll (N 10.23993, W − 109.21736). a Adult male approaching camera; b aggregation of males; c adult female with egg cases visible; d female with egg cases co-occur with two males over rock and sand habitat with low relief Communicated by L. Menzel Electronic supplementary mate...
Article
• Reef fish biomass is increasingly recognized as a key indicator of fishery and biodiversity status linked to ecosystem integrity on coral reefs, and yet the evaluation of appropriate baselines for biomass, and what drives variation in potential baselines, is sparse. • Variability in reef fishable biomass was assessed to test for the existence of...
Article
Pacific Island nations and territories must build their capacity to harvest pelagic fishes to ensure domestic food security into the future. The Republic of Palau recently created the Palau National Marine Sanctuary, a Marine Managed Area that was intended to conserve marine resources and enhance local pelagic fisheries. However, the capacity of th...
Article
Full-text available
Knowledge of continental shelf faunal biodiversity of Antarctica is patchy and as such, the ecology of this unique ecosystem is not fully understood. To this end, we deployed baited cameras at 20 locations along~500 km of the Western Antarctic Peninsula (WAP) at depths from 90 to 797 m. We identified 111 unique taxa, with mud bottom accounting for...
Article
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Coral reefs are widely regarded as one of the top science and conservation priorities globally, as previous research has demonstrated that these ecosystems harbor an extraordinary biodiversity, myriad ecosystem services, and are highly vulnerable to human stressors. However, most of this knowledge is derived from studies on nearshore and shallow-wa...
Article
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Teleost fish that form predictable spawning aggregations and undertake reproductive migrations can be particularly vulnerable to overexploitation. To support community-based management of an artisanal fishery that targets bonefish (Albula glossodonta) spawning aggregations, we used a combination of acoustic telemetry, biological sampling, and remot...
Article
• The people of the Pacific have long relied on the ocean for sustenance, commerce and cultural identity, which resulted in a sophisticated understanding of the marine environment and its conservation. • The global declines in ocean health require new and innovative approaches to conserving marine ecosystems. Marine Protected Areas (MPAs) have been...
Article
Aim Species ranges provide a valuable foundation for resolving biogeographical regions, evolutionary processes and extinction risks. To inform conservation priorities, here we develop the first bioregionalization based on reef fish abundance of the Hawaiian Archipelago, which spans nearly 10° of latitude across 2,400 km, including 8 high volcanic i...
Article
Animals across vertebrate taxa form social communities and often exist as fission–fusion groups. Central place foragers (CPF) may form groups from which they will predictably disperse to forage, either individually or in smaller groups, before returning to fuse with the larger group. However, the function and stability of social associations in pre...
Article
Aim The ‘abundant centre’ hypothesis states that species are more abundant at the centre of their range. However, several recent large‐scale studies have failed to find evidence for such a pattern. Here we used extensive global data of reef fishes to test the ‘abundant centre’ pattern, and to examine variation in the abundance patterns across speci...
Article
Full-text available
Large‐scale marine protected areas (LSMPAs) have proliferated in recent years, now accounting for most of the world's MPA coverage. However, little is known about LSMPA outcomes and the factors that affect them. Here we argue that policy interactions—the cumulative effect of co‐existing policies for an issue and/or geographical area—can play a crit...
Article
Full-text available
Species distribution models (SDMs) are used to interpret and map fish distributions based on habitat variables and other drivers. Reef fish avoidance behavior has been shown to vary in the presence of divers and is primarily driven by spearfishing pressure. Diver avoidance behavior or fish wariness may spatially influence counts and other descripti...
Article
Social networks have been and remain important in Oceania for building and maintaining social-ecological resilience. However, there is little quantitative information on the role of fish and fishing in resource sharing networks and how networks may be impacted by socioeconomic and environmental changes, which is critical information for developing...
Article
The worldwide decline of coral reefs necessitates targeting management solutions that can sustain reefs and the livelihoods of the people who depend on them. However, little is known about the context in which different reef management tools can help to achieve multiple social and ecological goals. Because of nonlinearities in the likelihood of ach...
Article
Full-text available
The kelp forests of southern South America are some of the least disturbed on the planet. The remoteness of this region has, until recently, spared it from many of the direct anthropo-genic stressors that have negatively affected these ecosystems elsewhere. Re-surveys of 11 locations at the easternmost extent of Tierra del Fuego originally conducte...
Article
Reef fishes are an important component of marine biodiversity, and changes in the composition of the assemblage structure may indicate ecological, climatic, or anthropogenic disturbances. To examine spatial differences in the reef fish assemblage structure around Easter Island, eight sites were sampled during autumn and summer 2016–2017 with baited...