Alan Carsrud

Alan Carsrud
Åbo Akademi University · School of Business and Economics

Ph.D., Ec.D. (hc), MA, BA

About

165
Publications
85,063
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10,496
Citations
Additional affiliations
March 2008 - present
Åbo Akademi University
Position
  • Visiting Research Professor and Docent
January 2006 - December 2009
January 2000 - December 2002
University of California, Los Angeles

Publications

Publications (165)
Article
Whilst everyone wants to write a good entrepreneurship and small business article, it requires skill, dedication and perseverance. Not to mention tenacity and intelligence in obtaining the right words to convey the intended meaning. This article discusses what to do in order to make sure authors write in a appropriate way regarding publishing in th...
Article
Full-text available
Language, as a form of contextual embeddedness, often defines how entrepreneurs enact their role identities, as well as restrict, or enable, the scope of their entrepreneurial activities. This study is an analysis of the role of linguistic embeddedness and role identities in the actions of two groups of minority entrepreneurs: immigrants and native...
Chapter
In this introduction we set the stage for the chapters that make up this book. We have clustered the invited contributions in a manner that should facilitate reader’s understanding of social media within an entrepreneurial context. This volume is not intended to be an exhaustive review of the literature on social media nor is it an extensive review...
Book
Social media offers an opportunity for people to enlarge their exposure to information; information about important changes and trends in technology, markets, government policies, or society in general that can facilitate entrepreneurship, business development, and more. Despite the widespread cultural and social effects of social media in the way...
Article
Purpose The purpose of this paper is to revisit the conceptualization and measurement of entrepreneurial intentions. Significant studies anchored in the Theory of Planned Behavior use causal statistical approaches to entrepreneurial intentions. This methodological approach, leads to the conclusion that there is a single pathway for all groups of pe...
Research
Full-text available
Despite the increased interest in recent years regarding social and gender-based entrepreneurship studies, there remains a significant lack of research relating to the topic of entrepreneurship amongst disadvantaged communities. In 2012, The International Journal of Entrepreneurship and Innovation featured a Special Issue on ‘Silent Minorities’ (Vo...
Article
Often owner/decision-makers in closely-held small businesses are overloaded with work and can become isolated from novel information that could improve their decisions and ultimately firm performance. These decision-makers become reliant on heuristics to ease their cognitive burdens and develop a strong bias for the status-quo. Research suggests th...
Article
Purpose The purpose of this paper is to examine the effects of market, technology, and entrepreneurial orientations (EOs) on both innovation and firm performance. It analyzes the mediating effects of incremental and radical innovation within the context of entrepreneurial firms in Turkey, an emerging economy. Design/methodology/approach This study...
Article
This article introduces the concept of strategic entrepreneurial agency (SEA) to describe the impromptu and improvised nature of strategy making by managers of ventures in emerging markets. The concept is at the intersection of strategy, international entrepreneurship (IE) and entrepreneurship literatures. Rather than customary firm-level approache...
Chapter
It is not often that the editors and authors of a research volume in entrepreneurship have the opportunity to revisit their work and discuss the “state of the art” since their respective chapters were written. However, we have been given that opportunity with this “revisiting” volume. A number of the authors of our first Mind book, along with some...
Chapter
In this chapter, the authors challenge the existing linear views of entrepreneurial intentions by proposing a contextual model of entrepreneurial intentions (EIM). This model, initially proposed by Elfving (2008), bridges self-efficacy, motivations, and intentions, in particular it addresses the role that specific goals and motivations play in inte...
Chapter
In this chapter, we show that cognitive maps are a viable way of both examining the cognitive structures of entrepreneurs and understanding the differences between entrepreneurs and managers in their cognitive structures. We demonstrate that these maps differ in their use and differ based on prior experience and perceptions. We tie this research st...
Chapter
This update on our original chapter on the contexts of intentions will focus on what additional work has been done on the topic since we wrote the original chapter in 2008–2008. Before we begin this update review it may be helpful to remind the reader of some assumptions we made in the original chapter and which focuses the efforts of this update....
Chapter
In this chapter various theories and approaches to motivational research are reviewed and applied to the study of the entrepreneur. These are discussed with respect to both necessity and opportunistic entrepreneurship. Various models that integrate internal and external motivation are explored and the concept of risk is examined as a form of motiva...
Chapter
In the original chapter we showed that cognitive maps were a viable tool for examining the cognitive structures of entrepreneurs and how we could reveal the differences in these structures between entrepreneurs and managers. Since then we have seen a growing interest toward entrepreneurial cognition (Mitchell et al. 2014), where it has become highl...
Chapter
Since the original chapter on entrepreneurial motivation by Carsrud et al. (2009), we have seen dozens of citations to the work and to a follow-up article (Carsrud and Brännback 2011) in various conference papers and published research articles. We are gratified to see the motivation of entrepreneurs regaining some of the attention of researchers (...
Book
The book explores various aspects of cognitive and motivational psychology as they impact entrepreneurial behavior. Building upon the 2009 volume, Understanding the Entrepreneurial Mind, the editors and contributors explore the cognitions, motivations, passions, intentions, perceptions, and emotions associated with entrepreneurial behaviors, in eac...
Article
This article presents a conceptual discussion and a theoretical framework explaining how the liabilities of newness, which are traditionally thought of as disadvantages that young companies face, contribute to early firm internationalization. Through a systematic analysis of the liabilities that international new ventures face, as well as the liabi...
Article
Full-text available
This research presents an examination of familial influence on strategic entrepreneurial behaviors within a transitional economic context. Utilizing a large sample of women-led family businesses, the study investigates the relationships between risk-taking propensity, entrepreneurial intensity, and opportunity recognition of the entrepreneur and th...
Chapter
One of us remembers sitting in a meeting at Stanford University in 2007 with a group of managing partners of a half dozen of Silicon Valley’s leading venture capitalist (VC) firms. The topic of the discussion was how VCs went about picking winners for their portfolios. One member of the audience asked, quite naively, if working with previous firms...
Chapter
Everything begins with something in history and entrepreneurship and growth are no exceptions. Historically, it is widely thought that entrepreneurship, as a concept, was coined by Jean Bertrand Say (1803), although some find even deeper historical roots with the work of Cantillion in the seventeenth century. In fact, in “The Early History of Entre...
Chapter
In this section, we look more closely at the relationship of growth and profit and why, despite the seeming ignoring of profit in the discussion of growth entrepreneurship it remains ultimately of critical importance. To start this discussion, it is appropriate to return to one of the intellectual founders of the field of entrepreneurship, Schumpet...
Chapter
There is an old adage that what gets measured is what gets done. This may clearly be at work when we look at measuring growth. One of the great banes for most authors trying to do research in entrepreneurship is levels and unit of analysis. When studying the growth of firms there are different levels of sampling and analysis to be considered: indiv...
Chapter
As we near the end of our journey through the mythical world of growth it is time to recap what we have covered. We started out this book by reflecting on our own experiences over a quarter of a century of personally researching, consulting, teaching, and helping to start hundreds of new ventures. As we showed in some of our examples, the firms we...
Chapter
A part of our reason for writing this book is our frustration with seeing stories in the public media that seems to perpetuate the growth myth. For example, each year Fortune magazine in the USA releases its “500 fasting growing firms” list which is widely reported on by other media outlets like television news shows. As we have indicated in the in...
Chapter
This book is the result of reflecting on a quarter of a century of personally researching, consulting, teaching, and helping to start hundreds of new ventures. These have been in industries as diverse as airlines, accounting, biotechnology, information technology, personal products, wineries, and food establishments. We could have subtitled this bo...
Article
Full-text available
Central to the discussion of strategies for achieving sustainability within non-profits is the interpretation of the contribution of concepts such as growth and profit to success measures. This qualitative study examines how leaders of non-profit organizations view the concepts of profit (efficiency) and growth within the context of their organizat...
Article
The literature on family business and entrepreneurship has not fully investigated the combined effects of cultural openness, religion, and nationalism on entrepreneurial intensity in a firm. This is especially true for firms outside of Western Europe and North America. To address this gap, the study examines the impact of these factors using a set...
Book
This thought provoking book builds on existing research traditions that make small business, entrepreneurship and family business a resource rich arena for study. It steps back to ask fundamental questions that every researcher should consider prior to engaging in data collection. It focuses on topics that have traditionally frustrated researchers...
Chapter
This chapter builds on previous work on entrepreneurial intentions and achievement motivation within the context of goal setting to show how these cognitions subsequently impact entrepreneurial behaviors. This chapter, like Carsrud and Bra7die;nnback (2011) and Carsrud et al. (2009), should not be considered a comprehensive review of the literature...
Chapter
In this chapter, we review in greater depth the core concepts being expressed in this book: entrepreneurship, growth, growth entrepreneurship, and high growth, from both a research and a policy perspective. We do this to show that these concepts are conceptualized very differently depending on which perspective we adopt as researchers, policy maker...
Article
Entrepreneurship studies started out as a young field, one where a mix of economists, psychologists, geographers and the occasional anthropologist came together to study the wonder and weirdness that is entrepreneurship, in a wide range of fashions and with few a priori assumptions to hold it back. Today, some of this eclecticism lives on in the fi...
Article
This study examines the factors influencing the intention of students to start up a new venture. Using both the "Theory of Planned Behavior" and "Theory of Reasoned Action", a model is tested using survey data collected from 353 undergraduate business students in Sri Lanka. Results of structural equation modeling show entrepreneurial intentions are...
Article
Full-text available
Given the increasing deterioration of the environment, understanding the strategies of nascent green-technology ventures developing clean technology to address environmental concerns is important. This study is one of the first to empirically examine the role of partnership diversity in nascent green-technology ventures in a quantitative empirical...
Article
Taking a Schumpeterian perspective on social entrepreneurship, this paper studies the relation between innovative orientation, profit, and turnover within social enterprises. A sample of Finnish social enterprises was studied principally by means of multiple regression analyses. The results highlight that the innovative orientation of the enterpris...
Article
While entrepreneurial leadership is embraced in the popular press and in classrooms, academic knowledge remains underdeveloped. We develop the construct of entrepreneurial leadership and argue that it involves influencing and directing the performance of group members toward achieving those organizational goals that involve recognizing and exploiti...
Chapter
Robert Frank and Chris Tuffli provided the initial research for this case which was edited by Pablo Brezman and Colleen Robb. The case was written under the supervision of Alan L. Carsrud. This case which has been deidentified, deals with succession within a family-owned technology-based firm.
Chapter
In reading a family business case you will see the unique issues faced by entrepreneurs and their family firms. To get the most from these cases you should ask yourself the following questions: What is the situational context of the case? Who are the principal players? Who do I identify within the case? What are the pertinent facts in case? Have I...
Chapter
This case was researched and developed by Janelle Fernandez and was written under the supervision of Alan Carsrud and Malin Brännback. This case examines how families can survive terrible economic and political turmoil and ultimately succumb to the ravages of family turf wars and intrigue. While not typical of the external crises that hit most firm...
Chapter
This case was researched and developed by Alex Galindo and was written under the supervision of Alan Carsrud and Malin Brännback. The names in this case have been changed, but the facts presented are based on a real family firm in Puerto Rico. This case examines the transition of an entrepreneurial firm to a family-owned one. It discusses the issue...
Chapter
This case was written by Alan Carsrud and Malin Brännback. It looks at the issues related to a large Catalan (Spanish) firm whose food industry is changing rapidly and who are faced with the issues of “cousin consortium” where there are family involved in the business and those whose only connection are dividend check. The firm and the individuals...
Chapter
Ilene Resnick and Thomas Murray provided the initial research for this case which was edited by Pablo Brezman and Colleen Robb. The final writing was under the supervision of Alan Carsrud and Malin Brännback. The names and information in this case are real and the case is based upon information from public sources and no information was provided by...
Chapter
This case was developed by Mark Gardhouse and Alan Carsrud. The names and some of the persons in the case have been changed at the request of the firm. This case is an example of how succession properly handled can provide for the long-term viability of the firm as it transitions through various succession cycles.
Chapter
This case was researched and developed initially by Naomi Overton and Anthony Perez and was written under the direction of Alan Carsrud. This case has not been de-identified. It does represent a model for effectively transferring the ownership and leadership of a highly successful firm.
Chapter
This is less a case in the traditional sense as it is an example of the outcome of one of the Turkish family business creating a mechanism for the governance of the family members with respect to the family business. This constitution has been ­“de-identified” in terms of names and firm. It does represent how a modern secular Turkish family has add...
Chapter
This case was developed by Randy Dorilag and Julie Khoe and written under the supervision of Alan Carsrud. The case is an example of how children often enter a parent’s business. This case does not provide a solution, but rather tells the story of how intentions of parents concerning children in the firm and how intentions of children about being i...
Chapter
Amanda Lazaridis, Laura Lopez, Laura Sinopoli, and Kristina Suhyun Im provided the initial research for this case. The case was prepared for publication under the supervision of Alan Carsrud and Malin Brännback. This case has been de-identified at the firm’s request.
Chapter
This case was initially researched by Jay Daniel and William Meyer. The final case was prepared by Alan Carsrud and Malin Brännback. The names and certain information in the case are disguised, although based on actual facts and issues.
Chapter
Daniele Rosenfeld and Hannah Tennyson prepared the case for publication under the supervision of Dr. Alan L. Carsrud. The names and information in this case are real and based upon information from public sources and interviews with current or former Bacardi Limited executives: Pepín Argamasilla, Jorge Fernández-Mascaró, Jorge Gutierrez-Mongil, Mar...
Chapter
The basic research for this case was done by Alex Karpazis, Richard Nguyen, and Shaun Tyler. The case was developed by Alan Carsrud and Malin Brännback. The firm and individuals in case has been de-identified at the request of the firm, but the facts presented have not been substantially changed.
Chapter
This case was initially researched by Farrah Alsabagh, Madelon Crothers, Katrina Davis, Kelli Kikcio, and Abiramy Srivbalachandran. The final case was prepared by Alan Carsrud and Malin Brännback. The names and certain information in the case are disguised, although based on actual facts and issues.
Chapter
This case was initially researched by Benjamin Gaw. The final case was prepared by Alan L. Carsrud and Malin Brännback. The names and certain information in the case are disguised although based on actual facts and issues. While the case is in the automotive business prior to the great recession of 2008–2010, many of its issues transcend automotive...
Chapter
This case was initially researched by Sanjeev Patel, Pablo Brezman, and Colleen Robb. The case was developed by Alan Carsrud and Malin Brännback. The names and certain information in the case are disguised although based on actual facts and issues.
Chapter
Pablo Brezman and Colleen Robb prepared the research for the case written under the supervision of Alan L. Carsrud and Malin Brännback. This case focuses on the challenges industries face when technology shifts occur, often causing turmoil for well-established family firms using traditional methods.
Chapter
The research for this case was done by Octavio Barahona and Jeloika Cruz which was pulled from public data available on Lennar Corporation and its management. The case was developed by Alan L. Carsrud. The sections using the management consultant as the protagonist in the case is the only portion of this case that has been fabricated. This case is...
Chapter
Diane Cercle, Kim Chapman, Garrett Ellberger, Naomi Geiner, and Sheila Lee ­provided the initial research for this case. Robert B. Chapman and Steven Liao prepared the case for publication under the supervision of Alan L. Carsrud while at the University of California, Los Angeles. This case is of a real family and firm and with their permission. It...
Chapter
Reading a family business case, you will see the unique issues facing entrepreneurs and their family firms. To get the most from these cases, you should ask yourself the following questions: What is the situational context of the case? Who are the principal players? Who do I identify with in the case? What are the pertinent facts in the case? Have...
Chapter
The research for this case was initially undertaken by Y. Lorenzo. The case was developed by Alan L. Carsrud and Malin Brännback. This case looks at the difficult decision of shutting down a family firm in the face of a changing economy.
Chapter
Helen Tung, Mark Wisneiwski, and Steven Liao did the initial research for this case which was prepared by Alan L. Carsrud. This case discusses the challenges facing a family firm dominated by women in a traditionally male-dominated industry and culture.
Chapter
The research for this case initially was undertaken by Geoff Gilpin, Taka Hayashi, David Hou, Tamara Wolfe, Chris Renner, and Nancy Wong. The case was developed by Alan L. Carsrud and Mark Wisniewski. This case looks not just at firm leadership, but the perceptions of who ought to run a family firm and the differing perceptions of those who are inv...
Chapter
Timothy Grahl and Yoni Arrieta did the research for this case which was written under the direction of Alan L. Carsrud and Malin Brännback. This case looks at the transition that occurs when a family trade is turned into a family business. In this case there are disputes among generations in the family as well as nonfamily employees in running the...
Chapter
Reading a family business case, you will see the unique issues facing entrepreneurs and their family firms. To get the most from these cases, you should ask yourself the following questions:
Book
Businesses owned and operated by families constitute the vast majority of firms around the world. These firms are found in all industrial segments, from retail and service establishments to heavy manufacturers. Their sizes and revenues range from the smallest venture of a husband and wife roadside food stall in rural India to the largest multinatio...
Article
This paper describes the development and growth of a virtual, internationally based, high technology business incubator in Australia, Chile, Finland and the United States. The UCLA Venture Development Program (UCLA-VDP) is a global educational program and "knowledge network" of strategic partners. The UCLA-VDP serves as the technology business incu...
Chapter
Despite the increased interest in family business as a field of research, many studies still lack theoretically sound and empirically robust measures and models (Dyer and Hoy 2003; Carsrud 2006). While entrepreneurial intentions are a highly established area of entrepreneurship research, it seems that intentions of family members to enter (not ente...
Chapter
Our interest in family businesses derives from not only participation in family firms but also by what we have observed over the years. It is also heavily influenced by our passion for understanding entrepreneurs (Carsrud and Brännback 2009) and the subsequent firms they create which often start out as family ventures. While what we have observed i...
Article
Social ventures are organized as nonprofit, for-profit or hybrid organizations whose primary purpose is to address unmet social needs and create social value. Partnerships are one of the key strategies employed by social ventures to gain resources. This study focuses on evaluating the role of partnerships on nascent social ventures participating in...
Article
This paper attempts to renew interest in a line of research that largely has been ignored for two decades but which is critical to the study of entrepreneurial cognitions, intentions, and their conversion into entrepreneurial behaviors. That area is entrepreneurial motivation. This is not a comprehensive review of all areas of motivation research b...
Article
Full-text available
Social entrepreneurship is increasingly recognized as a mechanism for creating social and economic value. By applying population ecology, resource dependency and resource-based view perspectives, this paper develops a conceptual model to provide greater insight into how social entrepreneurship ventures collaborate with other organizations in a netw...
Article
Full-text available
This study aims to discover relationships using a resource-based view of entrepreneurship and the social value creation characteristics of 70 social entrepreneurs. This study builds on existing research that commercial and social entrepreneurs share similar operational processes by providing empirical support for these relationships from a sample o...
Article
Full-text available
This paper analyzes the relationship between growth and profitability of high growth high technology start-up firms. We focus on the role of strategic orientation, strategic plans, business plans, and the role of knowledge and skills of executive management and the boards with respect to firm performance. Results show that while high growth firms a...
Article
In environments where information asymmetries and changing market conditions are ever-present, discerning between different macro-level and contextual factors that stimulate or inhibit entrepreneurial activity still needs to be validated. Utilizing our own primary data ( N = 1473 across 10 countries) as well as secondary data (World Bank Economic F...
Article
Previous research suggests that in order to excel in innovativeness, a firm should simultaneously be market oriented, proactive, and willing to take risks, as well as have access to superior technological assets and capabilities. However, the contribution of these factors on innovative outcomes has seldom been assessed in one study. This study inve...
Chapter
In this chapter, the authors challenge the existing linear views of entrepreneurial intentions by proposing a contextual model of entrepreneurial intentions (EIM). This model, initially proposed by Elfving (2008), bridges self-efficacy, motivations, and intentions, in particular it addresses the role that specific goals and motivations play in inte...
Chapter
In this chapter various theories and approaches to motivational research are reviewed and applied to the study of the entrepreneur. These are discussed with respect to both necessity and opportunistic entrepreneurship. Various models that integrate internal and external motivation are explored and the concept of risk is examined as a form of motiva...
Chapter
In this chapter, we show that cognitive maps are a viable way of both examining the cognitive structures of entrepreneurs and understanding the differences between entrepreneurs and managers in their cognitive structures. We demonstrate that these maps differ in their use and differ based on prior experience and perceptions. We tie this research st...
Article
This paper reports on a comparative quasi-experiment of how perceptions of entrepreneurial growth strategies differ between students, managers and technology entrepreneurs. The differences in perceptions as to what critical factors drive three strategies: no growth, market share growth and annual profit growth across to stages: start-up and take-of...
Article
Full-text available
We contribute to entrepreneurship research through a 3.5 year follow-up of young biotechnology ventures that have been established to develop and commercialize science based innovations. We want to understand why some of these promising ventures end up as the living dead as a part of an acquired or a merged entity. Previous literature on mergers an...
Article
Full-text available
This research examines the innovation process that includes sources, development, and uses of innovation in the field of modern biotechnology. Based on existing literature and primary qualitative data collected from 39 young, small American biotechnology firms we show how biotechnology innovations constantly cross boundaries of traditionally separa...
Article
Full-text available
This paper reports on preliminary findings on a study of the relationship of growth and profitability among small privately held Finnish Life Science firms. Previous research results concerning growth and profitability are mixed, ranging from strongly positive to a negative relationship. The conventional wisdom states that growth is a prerequisite...
Article
In both the academic literature and popular media, firm growth – especially high growth - is considered a sign of entrepreneurial success. While the existing literature considers firm growth a desirable goal research results on the relationship between growth and profitability is inconclusive. This desirability of growth for young ventures is chall...
Book
Why do some people start business and others do not? Is entrepreneurship a natural quality or can it be taught? Do entrepreneurs think differently from others? While there is a great deal of literature exploring the dynamics of new firm creation, policies to promote innovation and technology transfer, and the psychology of creativity, research on e...