Alain Morin

Alain Morin
Mount Royal University | MT Royal · Department of Psychology

Ph.D

About

74
Publications
225,341
Reads
How we measure 'reads'
A 'read' is counted each time someone views a publication summary (such as the title, abstract, and list of authors), clicks on a figure, or views or downloads the full-text. Learn more
1,548
Citations
Introduction
Alain Morin was born in Quebec city (Canada) where he got his PhD in social cognition at Laval University (1991). Between 1990 and 2001 he taught at various institutions in Eastern Canada, and since then has been teaching at Mount Royal University in Calgary, Alberta. Morin’s research has consistently focused on self and inner speech, for which he has developed explanatory models published in various journals and book chapters. Other research interests include self-recognition and other self-related phenomena, inner experiences, and consciousness. Recently, Morin and his colleagues have been using a open format thought-listing approach to assess naturally occurring inner speech; the team is currently developing a more ecological inner speech questionnaire based on these results.

Publications

Publications (74)
Preprint
Full-text available
In this chapter we summarize results obtained in five studies (n = 1027) using an open format self-report procedure aimed at collecting naturally occurring inner speech in young adults. We look at existing inner speech measures as well as their respective strengths and limitations, emphasizing the appropriateness of an open format self-report metho...
Article
Full-text available
Inner speech is frequently assessed using self-report scales, but their validity is understudied. Uttl et al. (2011) found moderate correlations, perhaps because measures tap into different dimensions of inner speech. We expand on these preliminary results by investigating reliability and concurrent validity of seven inner speech questionnaires in...
Article
Full-text available
Using correlations and hierarchical regression analysis, Verhaeghen and Mirabito (2021) found that while self-awareness was associated with self-regulation, inner speech was not, suggesting that the latter does not play a causal role in either self-awareness nor self-regulation. This motivated the authors to claim that "inner speech is easiest unde...
Chapter
Full-text available
Personality is increasingly being viewed as a complex and changing system. Self-processes are worth considering in this context because of their highly dynamic quality: they interact and influence one another in extremely intricate ways. In this chapter, we first classify self-related terms and examine the following key processes in detail: self-aw...
Article
Full-text available
The experience of inner speech is a common one. Such a dialogue accompanies the introspection of mental life and fulfills essential roles in human behavior, such as self-restructuring, self-regulation, and re-focusing on attentional resources. Although the underpinning of inner speech is mostly investigated in psychological and philosophical fields...
Article
Full-text available
Imagined interactions (IIs) occur when individuals recall past conversations with others as well as anticipate future ones. IIs intersect with the concept of inner speech, yet little is known about what elements IIs and inner speech share as well as how they differ. Information is offered about both Imagined Interaction Theory and inner speech, fol...
Article
Full-text available
The construction of existing self-report measures of inner speech is guided by a priori theoretical views regarding how it is experienced or what functions it serves. We present two studies aimed at constructing and validating a more ecologically valid tool called the General Inner Speech Questionnaire (GISQ). Study 1 employed an open-format though...
Presentation
Full-text available
Article
Full-text available
Remarkably little is known regarding what people talk to themselves about (inner speech use) in their everyday lives. Existing self-directed speech measures (e.g., thought sampling and questionnaires) either uniquely capture inner speech frequency and neglect its content or classify self-reported thoughts instances in overly simplistic categories d...
Article
Full-text available
Some scholars have noted that an impressive number of self-related terms have been gradually introduced in the scientific literature. Several of these terms are either ill-defined or synonymous, creating confusion, and redundancy. In an effort to minimize this problem, I present a novel and systematic way of looking at possible relations between se...
Article
Full-text available
Reviews the book The voices within: The history and science of how we talk to ourselves by Charles Fernyhough. The book raises intriguing questions such as: Is it normal to talk to ourselves and to have different voices in our head? We learn that self-talk is normal and serves important cognitive functions such as self-regulation and reading. Sever...
Article
Full-text available
Healthy volunteers engaged in self-referential tasks such as reflecting on their personality traits exhibit mostly left lateralized brain activation, yet patients with lack of awareness of their deficit suffer from predominantly right hemisphere damage. How can the same basic process of self-awareness be associated with opposite sides of the brain?...
Article
Full-text available
It is safe to posit that human beings have been interested in their own inner mental experiences from the moment they became aware of them, arguably over 60,000 years ago (Leary, 2004). In sharp contrast, growth in the actual scientific examination of these inner experiences is remarkably recent (e.g., Csikszentmihalyi and Figurski, 1982; Klinger a...
Article
Full-text available
Researchers such as Leary argue that both interpersonal and intrapersonal processes should be considered in psychological theory and research, contrary to much research that has focused on only intrapsychic motives such as maintenance of cognitive or affective states. Therefore, authors in this issue have examined common psychological constructs wi...
Chapter
Full-text available
Several complex links are postulated to exist between self-reflection, self-talk, and mentalizing. We explore some of these connections by selectively reviewing the pertinent literature. Although some have proposed that thinking about others' mental states (Theory-of-Mind; ToM) gradually leads to reflecting on one's own mental activity (self-awaren...
Article
Two studies were conducted to test the hypothesis that fame induces chronic self-awareness, which in turn is avoided through strategic self-destruction (Schaller, 1997). In Study 1 analyses of Ernest Hemingway's short stories indicated increased use of first-person voice after he attained celebrity. In Study 2 private and public self-consciousness,...
Article
Full-text available
Undergraduate Students' interest in taking quantitative vs. non quantitative courses has received limited attention even though it has important consequences for higher education. Previous studies have collected course interest ratings at the end of the courses as part of student evaluation of teaching (SET) ratings, which may confound prior intere...
Chapter
Full-text available
Glossary Ecological validity The degree to which the thoughts recorded in a study reflect the thoughts that actually occur in natural settings. Inner speech The activity of talking to oneself in silence. Left inferior frontal gyrus Also known as Broca's area, the brain region that gets reliably activated during inner speech production. Predicativen...
Article
Full-text available
Inner speech involvement in self-reflection was examined by reviewing 130 studies assessing brain activation during self-referential processing in key self-domains: agency, self-recognition, emotions, personality traits, autobiographical memory, and miscellaneous (e.g., prospection, judgments). The left inferior frontal gyrus (LIFG) has been shown...
Chapter
Full-text available
Data
Full-text available
This study obtained information about the frequency, content, and functions of inner speech by asking 380 participants what they typically say to themselves using an open-format thought-listing procedure. Participants mostly reported talking to themselves about themselves—i.e., evaluating the self, emotions, physical appearance, and relationships....
Data
Full-text available
People often talk to themselves for various reasons, including self-regulation, problem solving, and decision making. We examined the reliability and validity of several self-report measures of inner speech in a sample of 380 undergraduate students. Participants were asked to list as many instances of what they talk to themselves about as they coul...
Data
Full-text available
The present review of literature surveys two main issues related to self-referential processes: (1) Where in the brain are these processes located, and do they correlate with brain areas uniquely specialized in self-processing? (2) What are the empirical and theoretical links between inner speech and self-awareness? Although initial neuroimaging at...
Article
Full-text available
Self-awareness represents the capacity of becoming the object of one’s own attention. In this state one actively identifies, processes, and stores information about the self. This paper surveys the self-awareness literature by emphasizing definition issues, measurement techniques, effects and functions of self-attention, and antecedents of self-awa...
Article
Hughes and Nicholson (2010) suggest that recognizing oneself is easier from face vs. voice stimuli, that a combined presentation of face and voice actually inhibits self-recognition relative to presentation of face or voice alone, that the left hemisphere is superior in self-recognition to the right hemisphere, and that recognizing self requires mo...
Article
Full-text available
A fashionable view in comparative psychology states that primates possess self-awareness because they exhibit mirror self-recognition (MSR), which in turn makes it possible to infer mental states in others ("theory-of-mind"; ToM). In cognitive neuroscience, an increasingly popular position holds that the right hemisphere represents the centre of se...
Article
Full-text available
Inner speech represents the activity of talking to oneself in silence. It can be assessed with questionnaires, sampling methods, and electromyographic recordings of articulatory movements. Inner speech has been linked to thought processes and self-awareness. Private speech (speech-for-self emitted aloud by children) serves an important self-regulat...
Article
Full-text available
In her 2006 book "My Stroke of Insight" Dr. Jill Bolte Taylor relates her experience of suffering from a left hemispheric stroke caused by a congenital arteriovenous malformation which led to a loss of inner speech. Her phenomenological account strongly suggests that this impairment produced a global self-awareness deficit as well as more specific...
Article
Full-text available
To test the hypothesis of a participation of inner speech in self-referential activity we reviewed 59 studies measuring brain activity during processing of self-information in the following self-domains: agency, self-recognition, emotions, personality traits, autobiographical memory, preference judgments, and REST. The left inferior frontal gyrus (...
Article
Full-text available
Merker's definition of consciousness excludes self-reflective thought, making his proposal for decorticate consciousness not particularly ground-breaking. He suggests that brainstem sites are neglected in current theories of consciousness. This is so because broader definitions of consciousness are used. Split-brain data show that the cortex is imp...
Article
Full-text available
Quite a few recent models are rapidly introducing new concepts describing different levels of consciousness. This situation is getting confusing because some theorists formulate their models without making reference to existing views, redundantly adding complexity to an already difficult problem. In this paper, I present and compare nine neurocogni...
Data
A neurocognitive and socioecological model of self-awareness has been recently proposed (Morin, 2003; 2004). The model takes into account most known mechanisms and processes leading to self-awareness, and examines their multiple and complex interactions. Inner speech is postulated to play a key-role in this model, as it establishes important connec...
Article
Full-text available
Presents a model of self-awareness that proposes the existence of three sources of self-information. (1) The social milieu includes self-relevant feedback, a social comparison mechanism leading to perspective-taking, and audiences. (2) The physical environment contains self-focusing and reflecting stimuli such as mirrors and video cameras. (3) The...
Article
Full-text available
Using neuroimaging experiments and neuropsychological case studies, Keenan mainly examines the neural basis of mirror self-recognition (MSR) and Theory of Mind (TOM), and proposes that self-awareness is dominantly associated with areas of the right hemisphere. I believe that this conclusion is both inflated and premature. MSR is only superficially...
Article
Full-text available
When we become self-aware we see who we are and what we would like to be. What do we do? Do we change who we are? Or do we escape self-awareness by watching TV—or worst, by drinking alcohol, doing drugs, or committing suicide?
Article
Full-text available
Article
Full-text available
In this commentary I evaluate the claim made by that since self-recognition results from right hemispheric activity, self-awareness too is likely to be produced by the activity of the same hemisphere. This reasoning is based on the assumption that self-recognition represents a valid operationalization of self-awareness; I present two views that cha...
Article
Full-text available
In this commentary I use recent empirical evidence and theoretical analyses concerning the importance of language and the meaning of self-recognition to reevaluate the claim that the right mute hemisphere in commissurotomized patients possesses a full consciousness. Preliminary data indicate that inner speech is deeply linked to self-awareness; als...
Article
Two studies were conducted to test the hypothesis that fame induces chronic self-awareness, which in turn is avoided through strategic self-destruction (Schaller, 1997). In Study 1 analyses of Ernest Hemingway's short stories indicated increased use of first-person voice after he attained celebrity. In Study 2 private and public self-consciousness,...
Article
Full-text available
Little is know about factors that influence the development of public self-consciousness. One potential factor is exposure to audiences: being repeatedly aware of one's object status could create a high disposition to focus on public self-aspects. To explore this hypothesis public self-consciousness was assessed in two groups of subjects: 62 profes...
Article
Full-text available
This article suggests that one possible function of imagery is its role as a mediator of self-awareness and its significance in the acquisition of self- information. Sparse allusions of a relation between imagery and self-awareness have been mentioned before, but no real attempt to account for the nature of the link has been undertaken. The followi...
Article
Full-text available
This article raises the question of how self-talk mediates self-awareness. It is argued that the process of acquiring self-information can be seen as a problem-solving task, and that self-talk can facilitate this process (as it does for any other problem) by promoting a precise formulation and approach to the problem, by adequately focusing attenti...
Article
Recent empirical work in social cognition suggests that in building a self-concept people make inferences about themselves based on overt behavior or private thoughts and feelings. This article addresses the question of how, exactly, people make these inferences about themselves and raises the possibility that they do so through self-talk. It is pr...
Article
Full-text available
This article raises the question of how we acquire self-information through self-talk, i.e., of how self-talk mediates self-awareness. It is first suggested that two social mechanisms leading to self-awareness could be reproduced by self-talk: engaging in dialogues with ourselves, in which we talk to fictive persons, would permit an internalization...
Article
Full-text available
It has been suggested recently that self-awareness is cognitively mediated by inner speech and that this hypothesis could be tested by using the private speech paradigm, This paper describes a study in which the creation of a state of self-awareness was attempted in children to test the viability of a research strategy based on private speech and u...
Article
Full-text available
Little is known with regard to the precise cognitive tools the self uses in acquiring and processing information about itself. In this article, we underline the possibility that inner speech might just represent one such cognitive process. Duval and Wicklund's theory of self-awareness and the self-consciousness, and self-knowledge body of work that...
Article
Full-text available
RÉSUMÉ Ce texte propose une définition de la conscience de soi et explique en quoi cette capacité naît du monde social. Il est postulé que ce dernier permet un mouvement de recul - une «distanciation » - par rapport à soi, et que le cerveau reproduit ce mouvement grâce à certains processus cognitifs qui en ont été imprimés. Parmi ceux-ci, on retrou...
Data
Full-text available
This speculative article comments on Gallup's work on self-recognition and self-awareness in primates. It exposes Gallup's position on the social origin of the self-concept and proposes the existence of “self-representational” processes capable of reproducing internally the social phenomena implicated in the acquisition of self-information. On that...
Article
Sir J. C. Eccles nous propose dans The Self and Its Brain une théorie ternaire et interactionniste fort controversée dont il avait déjà posé les bases auparavant. La présente réflexion vise l'examen du bien-fondé neuropsychologique des principales thèses de cette théorie, à la lumière de données cliniques récentes dont l'auteur ne semble pas avoir...
Article
In this short paper I review past studies examining the neurological substrates of inner speech and self-awareness. The evidence points to a common neurological area: the left inferior frontal region. It is thus highly tempting to conclude that these two operations are deeply linked.

Network

Cited By

Projects

Projects (4)
Project
We are exploring possible correlations between several key self-variables using psychometrically established self-report questionnaires: Reflection/Rumination Questionnaire (Trapnell & Campbell, 1999), Self-Concept Clarity (Campbell et al., 1996), Philadelphia Mindfulness Scale (Cardaciotto et al., 2008), Self-Control Scale (Tangney et al., 2004), Situational Self-Awareness Scale (Govern & Marsch, 2001), Self-Consciousness Scale (Scheier & Carver, 1985), Beck Anxiety Inventory, (Beck et al., 1988), Varieties of Inner Speech Questionnaire (McCarthy-Jones & Fernyhough, 2011), and Mind Wandering Questionnaire (Mrazek et al., 2013).
Archived project
We are looking at the frequency, content, and functions of inner speech in 50 university students using a novel open-format self-report of inner speech which asks participants to list what they typically talk to themselves about, why, and when. So far participants reported most frequently talking to themselves about their emotions (especially negative ones), education, life in general, and physical appearance. They also reported most often engaging in inner speech in order to think, plan, self-motivate, and remember things.
Archived project
In my recent paper "Toward a Glossary of Self-related Terms" I defined (1) basic terms related to the overall process of self-perception (e.g., self-awareness), (2) non self-terms that are importantly associated to some other self-terms (e.g., consciousness and Theory of Mind), (3) processes related to the executive self and involving agency, volition, and self-control (e.g., self-regulation), and (4) self-views, that is, the content and feelings about the self (e.g., self-esteem). Several self-terms still need to be defined—in particular, self-biases (e.g., self-deception, self-verification), reactions to the self (e.g., self-regard, self-blame), and terms related to the self’s interpersonal style (selfish, self-righteous). This project aims at doing exactly that.